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RĪKI

Publikācijas atsauce

ATSAUCĒ IETVERT:
2004. gada 28. oktobra likums "Par Apvienoto Nāciju Organizācijas 1982.gada 10.decembra Jūras tiesību konvenciju un Līgumu par Apvienoto Nāciju Organizācijas 1982.gada 10.decembra Jūras tiesību konvencijas XI daļas piemērošanu". Publicēts oficiālajā laikrakstā "Latvijas Vēstnesis", 17.11.2004., Nr. 183 https://www.vestnesis.lv/ta/id/96610

Paraksts pārbaudīts

NĀKAMAIS

Par Līgumu par Starptautiskās Krimināltiesas privilēģijām un imunitātēm

Vēl šajā numurā

17.11.2004., Nr. 183

PAR DOKUMENTU

Izdevējs: Saeima

Veids: likums

Pieņemts: 28.10.2004.

RĪKI
Oficiālā publikācija pieejama laikraksta "Latvijas Vēstnesis" drukas versijā.
Saeima ir pieņēmusi un Valsts
prezidents izsludina šādu likumu:
Par Apvienoto Nāciju Organizācijas 1982.gada 10.decembra Jūras tiesību konvenciju un Līgumu par Apvienoto Nāciju Organizācijas 1982.gada 10.decembra Jūras tiesību konvencijas XI daļas piemērošanu
1.pants. Apvienoto Nāciju Organizācijas 1982.gada 10.decembra Jūras tiesību konvencija (turpmāk — Konvencija) un Līgums par Apvienoto Nāciju Organizācijas 1982.gada 10.decembra Jūras tiesību konvencijas XI daļas piemērošanu (turpmāk — Līgums) ar šo likumu tiek pieņemti un apstiprināti.
2.pants. Saskaņā ar Konvencijas 287.pantu tās iztulkošanas vai piemērošanas strīdu risināšanai Latvija izvēlas Starptautisko Jūras tiesību tribunālu un Starptautisko tiesu.
3.pants. Konvencijā paredzēto saistību izpildi koordinē Satiksmes ministrija.
4.pants. Konvencija stājas spēkā tās 308.pantā noteiktajā laikā un kārtībā, bet Līgums — tā 6.pantā noteiktajā laikā un kārtībā, un Ārlietu ministrija par to paziņo laikrakstā "Latvijas Vēstnesis".
5.pants. Likums stājas spēkā nākamajā dienā pēc tā izsludināšanas. Līdz ar likumu izsludināma Konvencija un Līgums angļu valodā un to tulkojums latviešu valodā.
Likums Saeimā pieņemts 2004.gada 28.oktobrī.
Valsts prezidente V.Vīķe-Freiberga
Rīgā 2004.gada 17.novembrī
UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA, 1982

 

The States Parties to this Convention,

Prompted by the desire to settle, in a spirit of mutual understanding and co-operation, all issues relating to the law of the sea and aware of the historic significance of this Convention as an important contribution to the maintenance of peace, justice and progress for all peoples of the world,

Noting that developments since the United Nations Conferences on the Law of the Sea held at Geneva in 1958 and 1960 have accentuated the need for a new and generally acceptable Convention on the law of the sea,

Conscious that the problems of ocean space are closely interrelated and need to be considered as a whole,

Recognizing the desirability of establishing through this Convention, with due regard for the sovereignty of all States, a legal order for the seas and oceans which will facilitate international communication, and will promote the peaceful uses of the seas and oceans, the equitable and efficient utilization of their resources, the conservation of their living resources, and the study, protection and preservation of the marine environment,

Bearing in mind that the achievement of these goals will contribute to the realization of a just and equitable international economic order which takes into account the interests and needs of mankind as a whole and, in particular, the special interests and needs of developing countries, whether coastal or land-locked,

Desiring by this Convention to develop the principles embodied in resolution 2749 (XXV) of 17 December 1970 in which the General Assembly of the United Nations solemnly declared inter alia that the area of the sea-bed and ocean floor and the subsoil thereof, beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, as well as its resources, are the common heritage of mankind, the exploration and exploitation of which shall be carried out for the benefit of mankind as a whole, irrespective of the geographical location of States,

Believing that the codification and progressive development of the law of the sea achieved in this Convention will contribute to the strengthening of peace, security, co-operation and friendly relations among all nations in conformity with the principles of justice and equal rights and will promote the economic and social advancement of all peoples of the world, in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations as set forth in the Charter,

Affirming that matters not regulated by this Convention continue to be governed by the rules and principles of general international law,

Have agreed as follows:

Part I. INTRODUCTION

Article 1. Use of terms and scope

1. For the purposes of this Convention:

(1) "Area" means the sea-bed and ocean floor and subsoil thereof beyond the limits of national jurisdiction;

(2) "Authority" means the International Sea-Bed Authority;

(3) "activities in the Area" means all activities of exploration for, and exploitation of, the resources of the Area;

(4) "pollution of the marine environment" means the introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment, including estuaries, which results or is likely to result in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources and marine life, hazards to human health, hindrance to marine activities, including fishing and other legitimate uses of the sea, impairment of quality for use of sea water and reduction of amenities;

(5) (a) "dumping" means:

(i) any deliberate disposal of wastes or other matter from vessels, aircraft, platforms or other man-made structures at sea;

(ii) any deliberate disposal of vessels, aircraft, platforms or other man-made structures at sea

(b) "dumping" does not include:

(i) the disposal of wastes or other matter incidental to, or derived from the normal operations of vessels, aircraft, platforms or other man-made structures at sea and their equipment, other than wastes or other matter transported by or to vessels, aircraft, platforms or other man-made structures at sea, operating for the purpose of disposal of such matter or derived from the treatment of such wastes or other matter on such vessels, aircraft, platforms or structures;

(ii) placement of matter for a purpose other than the mere disposal thereof, provided that such placement is not contrary to the aims of this Convention.

2. (1) "States Parties" means States which have consented to be bound by this Convention and for which this Convention is in force.

(2) This Convention applies mutatis mutandis to the entities referred to in Article 305, paragraph 1(b), (c), (d), (e) and (f), which become Parties to this Convention in accordance with the conditions relevant to each, and to that extent "States Parties" refers to those entities.

Part II. TERRITORIAL SEA AND CONTIGUOUS ZONE

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 2. Legal status of the territorial sea, of the air space over the territorial sea and of its bed and subsoil

1. The sovereignty of a coastal State extends, beyond its land territory and internal waters and, in the case of an archipelagic State, its archipelagic waters, to an adjacent belt of sea, described as the territorial sea.

2. This sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as to its bed and subsoil.

3. The sovereignty over the territorial sea is exercised subject to this Convention and to other rules of international law.

Section 2. LIMITS OF THE TERRITORIAL SEA

Article 3. Breadth of the territorial sea

Every State has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles, measured from baselines determined in accordance with this Convention.

Article 4. Outer limit of the territorial sea

The outer limit of the territorial sea is the line every point of which is at a distance from the nearest point of the baseline equal to the breadth of the territorial sea.

Article 5. Normal baseline

Except where otherwise provided in this Convention, the normal baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal State.

Article 6. Reefs

In the case of islands situated on atolls or of islands having fringing reefs, the baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the seaward low-water line of the reef, as shown by the appropriate symbol on charts officially recognized by the coastal State.

Article 7. Straight baselines

1. In localities where the coastline is deeply indented and cut into, or if there is a fringe of islands along the coast in its immediate vicinity, the method of straight baselines joining appropriate points may be employed in drawing the baseline from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

2. Where because of the presence of a delta and other natural conditions the coastline is highly unstable, the appropriate points may be selected along the furthest seaward extent of the low-water line and, notwithstanding subsequent regression of the low-water line, the straight baselines shall remain effective until changed by the coastal State in accordance with this Convention.

3. The drawing of straight baselines must not depart to any appreciable extent from the general direction of the coast, and the sea areas lying within the lines must be sufficiently closely linked to the land domain to be subject to the regime of internal waters.

4. Straight baselines shall not be drawn to and from low-tide elevations, unless lighthouses or similar installations which are permanently above sea level have been built on them or except in instances where the drawing of baselines to and from such elevations has received general international recognition.

5. Where the method of straight baselines is applicable under paragraph 1, account may be taken, in determining particular baselines, of economic interests peculiar to the region concerned, the reality and the importance of which are clearly evidenced by long usage.

6. The system of straight baselines may not be applied by a State in such a manner as to cut off the territorial sea of another State from the high seas or an exclusive economic zone.

Article 8. Internal waters

1. Except as provided in Part IV, waters on the landward side of the baseline of the territorial sea form part of the internal waters of the State.

2. Where the establishment of a straight baseline in accordance with the method set forth in Article 7 has the effect of enclosing as internal waters areas which had not previously been considered as such, a right of innocent passage as provided in this Convention shall exist in those waters.

Article 9. Mouths of rivers

If a river flows directly into the sea, the baseline shall be a straight line across the mouth of the river between points on the low-water line of its banks.

Article 10. Bays

1. This Article relates only to bays the coasts of which belong to a single State.

2. For the purposes of this Convention, a bay is a well-marked indentation whose penetration is in such proportion to the width of its mouth as to contain land-locked waters and constitute more than a mere curvature of the coast. An indentation shall not, however, be regarded as a bay unless its area is as large as, or larger than, that of the semi-circle whose diameter is a line drawn across the mouth of that indentation.

3. For the purpose of measurement, the area of an indentation is that lying between the low-water mark around the shore of the indentation and a line joining the low-water mark of its natural entrance points. Where, because of the presence of islands, an indentation has more than one mouth, the semicircle shall be drawn on a line as long as the sum total of the lengths of the lines across the different mouths. Islands within an indentation shall be included as if they were part of the water area of the indentation.

4. If the distance between the low-water marks of the natural entrance points of a bay does not exceed 24 nautical miles, a closing line may be drawn between these two low-water marks, and the waters enclosed thereby shall be considered as internal waters.

5. Where the distance between the low-water marks of the natural entrance points of a bay exceeds 24 nautical miles, a straight baseline of 24 nautical miles shall be drawn within the bay in such a manner as to enclose the maximum area of water that is possible with a line of that length.

6. The foregoing provisions do not apply to so-called "historic" bays, or in any case where the system of straight baselines provided for in Article 7 is applied.

Article 11. Ports

For the purpose of delimiting the territorial sea, the outermost permanent harbour works which form an integral part of the harbour system are regarded as forming part of the coast. Off-shore installations and artificial islands shall not be considered as permanent harbour works.

Article 12. Roadsteads

Roadsteads which are normally used for the loading, unloading and anchoring of ships, and which would otherwise be situated wholly or partly outside the outer limit of the territorial sea, are included in the territorial sea.

Article 13. Low-tide elevations

1. A low-tide elevation is a naturally formed area of land which is surrounded by and above water at low tide but submerged at high tide. Where a low-tide elevation is situated wholly or partly at a distance not exceeding the breadth of the territorial sea from the mainland or an island, the low-water line on that elevation may be used as the baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea.

2. Where a low-tide elevation is wholly situated at a distance exceeding the breadth of the territorial sea from the mainland or an island, it has no territorial sea of its own.

Article 14. Combination of methods for determining baselines

The coastal State may determine baselines in turn by any of the methods provided for in the foregoing articles to suit different conditions.

Article 15. Delimitation of the territorial sea between States with opposite or adjacent coasts

Where the coasts of two States are opposite or adjacent to each other, neither of the two States is entitled, failing agreement between them to the contrary, to extend its territorial sea beyond the median line every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points on the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial seas of each of the two States is measured. The above provision does not apply, however, where it is necessary by reason of historic title or other special circumstances to delimit the territorial seas of the two States in a way which is at variance therewith.

Article 16. Charts and lists of geographical co-ordinates

1. The baselines for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea determined in accordance with articles 7, 9 and 10, or the limits derived therefrom, and the lines of delimitation drawn in accordance with articles 12 and 15 shall be shown on charts of a scale or scales adequate for ascertaining their position. Alternatively, a list of geographical co-ordinates of points, specifying the geodetic datum, may be substituted.

2. The coastal State shall give due publicity to such charts or lists of geographical co-ordinates and shall deposit a copy of each such chart or list with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Section 3. INNOCENT PASSAGE IN THE TERRITORIAL SEA

Subsection A. RULES APPLICABLE TO ALL SHIPS

Article 17. Right of innocent passage

Subject to this Convention, ships of all States, whether coastal or land-locked, enjoy the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea.

Article 18. Meaning of passage

1. Passage means navigation through the territorial sea for the purpose of:

(a) traversing that sea without entering internal waters or calling at a roadstead or port facility outside internal waters; or (b) proceeding to or from internal waters or a call at such roadstead or port facility.

2. Passage shall be continuous and expeditious. However, passage includes stopping and anchoring, but only in so far as the same are incidental to ordinary navigation or are rendered necessary by force majeure or distress or for the purpose of rendering assistance to persons, ships or aircraft in danger or distress.

Article 19. Meaning of innocent passage

1. Passage is innocent so long as it is not prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal State. Such passage shall take place in conformity with this Convention and with other rules of international law.

2. Passage of a foreign ship shall be considered to be prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the coastal State if in the territorial sea it engages in any of the following activities:

(a) any threat or use of force against the sovereignty, territorial integrity or political independence of the coastal State, or in any other manner in violation of the principles of international law embodied in the Charter of the United Nations;

(b) any exercise or practice with weapons of any kind;

(c) any act aimed at collecting information to the prejudice of the defence or security of the coastal State;

(d) any act of propaganda aimed at affecting the defence or security of the coastal State;

(e) the launching, landing or taking on board of any aircraft;

(f) the launching, landing or taking on board of any military device;

(g) the loading or unloading of any commodity, currency or person contrary to the customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations of the coastal State;

(h) any act of wilful and serious pollution contrary to this Convention;

(i) any fishing activities;

(j) the carrying out of research or survey activities;

(k) any act aimed at interfering with any systems of communication or any other facilities or installations of the coastal State;

(l) any other activity not having a direct bearing on passage.

Article 20. Submarines and other underwater vehicles

In the territorial sea, submarines and other underwater vehicles are required to navigate on the surface and to show their flag.

Article 21. Laws and regulations of the coastal State relating to innocent passage

1. The coastal State may adopt laws and regulations, in conformity with the provisions of this Convention and other rules of international law, relating to innocent passage through the territorial sea, in respect of all or any of the following:

(a) the safety of navigation and the regulation of maritime traffic;

(b) the protection of navigational aids and facilities and other facilities or installations;

(c) the protection of cables and pipelines;

(d) the conservation of the living resources of the sea;

(e) the prevention of infringement of the fisheries laws and regulations of the coastal State;

(f) the preservation of the environment of the coastal State and the prevention, reduction and control of pollution thereof;

(g) marine scientific research and hydrographic surveys;

(h) the prevention of infringement of the customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations of the coastal State.

2. Such laws and regulations shall not apply to the design, construction, manning or equipment of foreign ships unless they are giving effect to generally accepted international rules or standards.

3. The coastal State shall give due publicity to all such laws and regulations.

4. Foreign ships exercising the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea shall comply with all such laws and regulations and all generally accepted international regulations relating to the prevention of collisions at sea.

Article 22. Sea lanes and traffic separation schemes in the territorial sea

1. The coastal State may, where necessary having regard to the safety of navigation, require foreign ships exercising the right of innocent passage through its territorial sea to use such sea lanes and traffic separation schemes as it may designate or prescribe for the regulation of the passage of ships.

2. In particular, tankers, nuclear-powered ships and ships carrying nuclear or other inherently dangerous or noxious substances or materials may be required to confine their passage to such sea lanes.

3. In the designation of sea lanes and the prescription of traffic separation schemes under this article, the coastal State shall take into account:

(a) the recommendations of the competent international organization;

(b) any channels customarily used for international navigation;

(c) the special characteristics of particular ships and channels; and (d) the density of traffic.

4. The coastal State shall clearly indicate such sea lanes and traffic separation schemes on charts to which due publicity shall be given.

Article 23. Foreign nuclear-powered ships and ships carrying nuclear or other inherently dangerous or noxious substances

Foreign nuclear-powered ships and ships carrying nuclear or other inherently dangerous or noxious substances shall, when exercising the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea, carry documents and observe special precautionary measures established for such ships by international agreements.

Article 24. Duties of the coastal State

1. The coastal State shall not hamper the innocent passage of foreign ships through the territorial sea except in accordance with this Convention. In particular, in the application of this Convention or of any laws or regulations adopted in conformity with this Convention, the coastal State shall not:

(a) impose requirements on foreign ships which have the practical effect of denying or impairing the right of innocent passage; or (b) discriminate in form or in fact against the ships of any State or against ships carrying cargoes to, from or on behalf of any State.

2. The coastal State shall give appropriate publicity to any danger to navigation, of which it has knowledge, within its territorial sea.

Article 25. Rights of protection of the coastal State

1. The coastal State may take the necessary steps in its territorial sea to prevent passage which is not innocent.

2. In the case of ships proceeding to internal waters or a call at a port facility outside internal waters, the coastal State also has the right to take the necessary steps to prevent any breach of the conditions to which admission of those ships to internal waters or such a call is subject.

3. The coastal State may, without discrimination in form or in fact among foreign ships, suspend temporarily in specified areas of its territorial sea the innocent passage of foreign ships if such suspension is essential for the protection of its security, including weapons exercises. Such suspension shall take effect only after having been duly published.

Article 26. Charges which may be levied upon foreign ships

1. No charge may be levied upon foreign ships by reason only of their passage through the territorial sea.

2. Charges may be levied upon a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea as payment only for specific services rendered to the ship.

These charges shall be levied without discrimination.

Subsection B. RULES APPLICABLE TO MERCHANT SHIPS AND GOVERNMENT SHIPS OPERATED FOR COMMERCIAL PURPOSES

Article 27. Criminal jurisdiction on board a foreign ship

1. The criminal jurisdiction of the coastal State should not be exercised on board a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea to arrest any person or to conduct any investigation in connection with any crime committed on board the ship during its passage, save only in the following cases:

(a) if the consequences of the crime extend to the coastal State;

(b) if the crime is of a kind to disturb the peace of the country or the good order of the territorial sea;

(c) if the assistance of the local authorities has been requested by the master of the ship or by a diplomatic agent or consular officer of the flag State; or (d) if such measures are necessary for the suppression of illicit traffic in narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances.

2. The above provisions do not affect the right of the coastal State to take any steps authorized by its laws for the purpose of an arrest or investigation on board a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea after leaving internal waters.

3. In the cases provided for in paragraphs 1 and 2, the coastal State shall, if the master so requests, notify a diplomatic agent or consular officer of the flag State before taking any steps, and shall facilitate contact between such agent or officer and the ship's crew. In cases of emergency this notification may be communicated while the measures are being taken.

4. In considering whether or in what manner an arrest should be made, the local authorities shall have due regard to the interests of navigation.

5. Except as provided in Part XII or with respect to violations of laws and regulations adopted in accordance with Part V, the coastal State may not take any steps on board a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea to arrest any person or to conduct any investigation in connection with any crime committed before the ship entered the territorial sea, if the ship, proceeding from a foreign port, is only passing through the territorial sea without entering internal waters.

Article 28. Civil jurisdiction in relation to foreign ships

1. The coastal State should not stop or divert a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea for the purpose of exercising civil jurisdiction in relation to a person on board the ship.

2. The coastal State may not levy execution against or arrest the ship for the purpose of any civil proceedings, save only in respect of obligations or liabilities assumed or incurred by the ship itself in the course or for the purpose of its voyage through the waters of the coastal State.

3. Paragraph 2 is without prejudice to the right of the coastal State, in accordance with its laws, to levy execution against or to arrest, for the purpose of any civil proceedings, a foreign ship lying in the territorial sea, or passing through the territorial sea after leaving internal waters.

Subsection C. RULES APPLICABLE TO WARSHIPS AND OTHER GOVERNMENT SHIPS OPERATED FOR NON-COMMERCIAL PURPOSES

Article 29. Definition of warships

For the purposes of this Convention, "warship" means a ship belonging to the armed forces of a State bearing the external marks distinguishing such ships of its nationality, under the command of an officer duly commissioned by the government of the State and whose name appears in the appropriate service list or its equivalent, and manned by a crew which is under regular armed forces discipline.

Article 30. Non-compliance by warships with the laws and regulations of the coastal State

If any warship does not comply with the laws and regulations of the coastal State concerning passage through the territorial sea and disregards any request for compliance therewith which is made to it, the coastal State may require it to leave the territorial sea immediately.

Article 31. Responsibility of the flag State for damage caused by a warship or other government ship operated for non-commercial purposes

The flag State shall bear international responsibility for any loss or damage to the coastal State resulting from the non-compliance by a warship or other government ship operated for non-commercial purposes with the laws and regulations of the coastal State concerning passage through the territorial sea or with the provisions of this Convention or other rules of international law.

Article 32. Immunities of warships and other government ships operated for non-commercial purposes

With such exceptions as are contained in subsection A and in articles 30 and 31, nothing in this Convention affects the immunities of warships and other government ships operated for non-commercial purposes.

Section 4. CONTIGUOUS ZONE

Article 33. Contiguous zone

1. In a zone contiguous to its territorial sea, described as the contiguous zone, the coastal State may exercise the control necessary to:

(a) prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations within its territory or territorial sea;

(b) punish infringement of the above laws and regulations committed within its territory or territorial sea.

2. The contiguous zone may riot extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

 

Part III. STRAITS USED FOR INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 34. Legal status of waters forming straits used for international navigation

1. The regime of passage through straits used for international navigation established in this Part shall not in other respects affect the legal status of the waters forming such straits or the exercise by the States bordering the straits of their sovereignty or jurisdiction over such waters and their air space, bed and subsoil.

2. The sovereignty or jurisdiction of the States bordering the straits is exercised subject to this Part and to other rules of international law.

Article 35. Scope of this Part

Nothing in this Part affects:

(a) any areas of internal waters within a strait, except where the establishment of a straight baseline in accordance with the method set forth in Article 7 has the effect of enclosing as internal waters areas which had not previously been considered as such;

(b) the legal status of the waters beyond the territorial seas of States bordering straits as exclusive economic zones or high seas; or (c) the legal regime in straits in which passage is regulated in whole or in part by long-standing international conventions in force specifically relating to such straits.

Article 36. High seas routes or routes through exclusive economic zones through straits used for international navigation

This Part does not apply to a strait used for international navigation if there exists through the strait a route through the high seas or through an exclusive economic zone of similar convenience with respect to navigational and hydrographical characteristics; in such routes, the other relevant Parts of this Convention, including the provisions regarding the freedoms of navigation and overflight, apply.

Section 2. TRANSIT PASSAGE

Article 37. Scope of this section

This section applies to straits which are used for international navigation between one part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone and another part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone.

Article 38. Right of transit passage

1. In straits referred to in Article 37, all ships and aircraft enjoy the right of transit passage, which shall not be impeded; except that, if the strait is formed by an island of a State bordering the strait and its mainland, transit passage shall not apply if there exists seaward of the island a route through the high seas or through an exclusive economic zone of similar convenience with respect to navigational and hydrographical characteristics.

2. Transit passage means the exercise in accordance with this Part of the freedom of navigation and overflight solely for the purpose of continuous and expeditious transit of the strait between one part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone and another part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone. However, the requirement of continuous and expeditious transit does not preclude passage through the strait for the purpose of entering, leaving or returning from a State bordering the strait, subject to the conditions of entry to that State.

3. Any activity which is not an exercise of the right of transit passage through a strait remains subject to the other applicable provisions of this Convention.

Article 39. Duties of ships and aircraft during transit passage

1. Ships and aircraft, while exercising the right of transit passage, shall:

(a) proceed without delay through or over the strait;

(b) refrain from any threat or use of force against the sovereignty, territorial integrity or political independence of States bordering the strait, or in any other manner in violation of the principles of international law embodied in the Charter of the United Nations;

(c) refrain from any activities other than those incident to their normal modes of continuous and expeditious transit unless rendered necessary by force majeure or by distress;

(d) comply with other relevant provisions of this Part.

2. Ships in transit passage shall:

(a) comply with generally accepted international regulations, procedures and practices for safety at sea, including the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea;

(b) comply with generally accepted international regulations, procedures and practices for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution from ships.

3. Aircraft in transit passage shall:

(a) observe the Rules of the Air established by the International Civil Aviation Organization as they apply to civil aircraft; state aircraft will normally comply with such safety measures and will at all times operate with due regard for the safety of navigation;

(b) at all times monitor the radio frequency assigned by the competent internationally designated air traffic control authority or the appropriate international distress radio frequency.

Article 40. Research and survey activities

During transit passage, foreign ships, including marine scientific research and hydrographic survey ships, may not carry out any research or survey activities without the prior authorization of the States bordering straits.

Article 41. Sea lanes and traffic separation schemes in straits used for international navigation

1. In conformity with this Part, States bordering straits may designate sea lanes and prescribe traffic separation schemes for navigation in straits where necessary to promote the safe passage of ships.

2. Such States may, when circumstances require, and after giving due publicity thereto, substitute other sea lanes or traffic separation schemes for any sea lanes or traffic separation schemes previously designated or prescribed by them.

3. Such sea lanes and traffic separation schemes shall conform to generally accepted international regulations.

4. Before designating or substituting sea lanes or prescribing or substituting traffic separation schemes, States bordering straits shall refer proposals to the competent international organization with a view to their adoption. The organization may adopt only such sea lanes and traffic separation schemes as may be agreed with the States bordering the straits, after which the States may designate, prescribe or substitute them.

5. In respect of a strait where sea lanes or traffic separation schemes through the waters of two or more States bordering the strait are being proposed, the States concerned shall co-operate in formulating proposals in consultation with the competent international organization.

6. States bordering straits shall clearly indicate all sea lanes and traffic separation schemes designated or prescribed by them on charts to which due publicity shall be given.

7. Ships in transit passage shall respect applicable sea lanes and traffic separation schemes established in accordance with this article.

Article 42. Laws and regulations of States bordering straits relating to transit passage

1. Subject to the provisions of this section, States bordering straits may adopt laws and regulations relating to transit passage through straits, in respect of all or any of the following:

(a) the safety of navigation and the regulation of maritime traffic, as provided in Article 41;

(b) the prevention, reduction and control of pollution, by giving effect to applicable international regulations regarding the discharge of oil, oily wastes and other noxious substances in the strait;

(c) with respect to fishing vessels, the prevention of fishing, including the stowage of fishing gear;

(d) the loading or unloading of any commodity, currency or person in contravention of the customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations of States bordering straits.

2. Such laws and regulations shall not discriminate in form or in fact among foreign ships or in their application have the practical effect of denying, hampering or impairing the right of transit passage as defined in this section.

3. States bordering straits shall give due publicity to all such laws and regulations.

4. Foreign ships exercising the right of transit passage shall comply with such laws and regulations.

5. The flag State of a ship or the State of registry of an aircraft entitled to sovereign immunity which acts in a manner contrary to such laws and regulations or other provisions of this Part shall bear international responsibility for any loss or damage which results to States bordering straits.

Article 43. Navigational and safety aids and other improvements and the prevention, reduction and control of pollution

User States and States bordering a strait should by agreement co-operate:

(a) in the establishment and maintenance in a strait of necessary navigational and safety aids or other improvements in aid of international navigation; and (b) for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution from ships.

Article 44. Duties of States bordering straits

States bordering straits shall not hamper transit passage and shall give appropriate publicity to any danger to navigation or overflight within or over the strait of which they have knowledge. There shall be no suspension of transit passage.

Section 3. INNOCENT PASSAGE

Article 45. Innocent passage

1. The regime of innocent passage, in accordance with Part II, section 3 shall apply in straits used for international navigation:

(a) excluded from the application of the regime of transit passage under Article 38, paragraph 1; or (b) between a part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone and the territorial sea of a foreign State.

2. There shall be no suspension of innocent passage through such straits.

 

Part IV. ARCHIPELAGIC STATES

Article 46. Use of terms

For the purposes of this Convention:

(a) "archipelagic State" means a State constituted wholly by one or more archipelagos and may include other islands;

(b) "archipelago" means a group of islands, including parts of islands, interconnecting waters and other natural features which are so closely interrelated that such islands, waters and other natural features form an intrinsic geographical, economic and political entity, or which historically have been regarded as such.

Article 47. Archipelagic baselines

1. An archipelagic State may draw straight archipelagic baselines joining the outermost points of the outermost islands and drying reefs of the archipelago provided that within such baselines are included the main islands and an area in which the ratio of the area of the water to the area of the land, including atolls, is between 1 to 1 and 9 to 1.

2. The length of such baselines shall not exceed 100 nautical miles, except that up to 3 per cent of the total number of baselines enclosing any archipelago may exceed that length, up to a maximum length of 125 nautical miles.

3. The drawing of such baselines shall not depart to any appreciable extent from the general configuration of the archipelago.

4. Such baselines shall not be drawn to and from low-tide elevations, unless lighthouses or similar installations which are permanently above sea level have been built on them or where a low-tide elevation is situated wholly or partly at a distance not exceeding the breadth of the territorial sea from the nearest island.

5. The system of such baselines shall not be applied by an archipelagic State in such a manner as to cut off from the high seas or the exclusive economic zone the territorial sea of another State.

6. If a part of the archipelagic waters of an archipelagic State lies between two parts of an immediately adjacent neighbouring State, existing rights and all other legitimate interests which the latter State has traditionally exercised in such waters and all rights stipulated by agreement between those States shall continue and be respected.

7. For the purpose of computing the ratio of water to land under paragraph 1, land areas may include waters lying within the fringing reefs of islands and atolls, including that part of a steep-sided oceanic plateau which is enclosed or nearly enclosed by a chain of limestone islands and drying reefs lying on the perimeter of the plateau.

8. The baselines drawn in accordance with this Article shall be shown on charts of a scale or scales adequate for ascertaining their position.

Alternatively, lists of geographical co-ordinates of points, specifying the geodetic datum, may be substituted.

9. The archipelagic State shall give due publicity to such charts or lists of geographical co-ordinates and shall deposit a copy of each such chart or list with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 48. Measurement of the breadth of the territorial sea, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf

The breadth of the territorial sea, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf shall be measured from archipelagic baselines drawn in accordance with Article 47.

Article 49. Legal status of  archipelagic waters, of the air space over archipelagic waters and of their bed and subsoil

1. The sovereignty of an archipelagic State extends to the waters enclosed by the archipelagic baselines drawn in accordance with Article 47, described as archipelagic waters, regardless of their depth or distance from the coast.

2. This sovereignty extends to the air space over the archipelagic waters, as well as to their bed and subsoil, and the resources contained therein.

3. This sovereignty is exercised subject to this Part.

4. The regime of archipelagic sea lanes passage established in this Part shall not in other respects affect the status of the archipelagic waters, including the sea lanes, or the exercise by the archipelagic State of its sovereignty over such waters and their air space, bed and subsoil, and the resources contained therein.

Article 50. Delimitation of internal waters

Within its archipelagic waters, the archipelagic State may draw closing lines for the delimitation of internal waters, in accordance with articles 9, 10 and 11.

Article 51. Existing agreements, traditional fishing rights and existing submarine cables

1. Without prejudice to Article 49, an archipelagic State shall respect existing agreements with other States and shall recognize traditional fishing rights and other legitimate activities of the immediately adjacent neighbouring States in certain areas falling within archipelagic waters.

The terms and conditions for the exercise of such rights and activities, including the nature, the extent and the areas to which they apply, shall, at the request of any of the States concerned, be regulated by bilateral agreements between them. Such rights shall not be transferred to or shared with third States or their nationals.

2. An archipelagic State shall respect existing submarine cables laid by other States and passing through its waters without making a landfall. An archipelagic State shall permit the maintenance and replacement of such cables upon receiving due notice of their location and the intention to repair or replace them.

Article 52. Right of innocent passage

1. Subject to Article 53 and without prejudice to Article 50, ships of all States enjoy the right of innocent passage through archipelagic waters, in accordance with Part II, section 3.

2. The archipelagic State may, without discrimination in form or in fact among foreign ships, suspend temporarily in specified areas of its archipelagic waters the innocent passage of foreign ships if such suspension is essential for the protection of its security. Such suspension shall take effect only after having been duly published.

Article 53. Right of archipelagic sea lanes passage

1. An archipelagic State may designate sea lanes and air routes thereabove, suitable for the continuous and expeditious passage of foreign ships and aircraft through or over its archipelagic waters and the adjacent territorial sea.

2. All ships and aircraft enjoy the right of archipelagic sea lanes passage in such sea lanes and air routes.

3. Archipelagic sea lanes passage means the exercise in accordance with this Convention of the rights of navigation and overflight in the normal mode solely for the purpose of continuous, expeditious and unobstructed transit between one part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone and another part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone.

4. Such sea lanes and air routes shall traverse the archipelagic waters and the adjacent territorial sea and shall include all normal passage routes used as routes for international navigation or overflight through or over archipelagic waters and, within such routes, so far as ships are concerned, all normal navigational channels, provided that duplication of routes of similar convenience between the same entry and exit points shall not be necessary.

5. Such sea lanes and air routes shall be defined by a series of continuous axis lines from the entry points of passage routes to the exit points.

Ships and aircraft in archipelagic sea lanes passage shall not deviate more than 25 nautical miles to either side of such axis lines during passage, provided that such ships and aircraft shall not navigate closer to the coasts than 10 per cent of the distance between the nearest points on islands bordering the sea lane.

6. An archipelagic State which designates sea lanes under this Article may also prescribe traffic separation schemes for the safe passage of ships through narrow channels in such sea lanes.

7. An archipelagic State may, when circumstances require, after giving due publicity thereto, substitute other sea lanes or traffic separation schemes for any sea lanes or traffic separation schemes previously designated or prescribed by it.

8. Such sea lanes and traffic separation schemes shall conform to generally accepted international regulations.

9. In designating or substituting sea lanes or prescribing or substituting traffic separation schemes, an archipelagic State shall refer proposals to the competent international organization with a view to their adoption. The organization may adopt only such sea lanes and traffic separation schemes as may be agreed with the archipelagic State, after which the archipelagic State may designate, prescribe or substitute them.

10. The archipelagic State shall clearly indicate the axis of the sea lanes and the traffic separation schemes designated or prescribed by it on charts to which due publicity shall be given.

11. Ships in archipelagic sea lanes passage shall respect applicable sea lanes and traffic separation schemes established in accordance with this article.

12. If an archipelagic State does not designate sea lanes or air routes, the right of archipelagic sea lanes passage may be exercised through the routes normally used for internal navigation.

Article 54. Duties of ships and aircraft during their passage, research and survey activities, duties of the archipelagic State and laws and regulations of the archipelagic State relating to archipelagic sea lanes passage

Articles 39, 40, 42 and 44 apply mutatis mutandis to archipelagic sea lanes passage.

 

Part V. EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE

Article 55. Specific legal regime of the exclusive economic zone

The exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, subject to the specific legal regime established in this Part, under which the rights and jurisdiction of the coastal State and the rights and freedoms of other States are governed by the relevant provisions of this Convention.

Article 56. Rights, jurisdiction and duties of the coastal State in the exclusive economic zone

1. In the exclusive economic zone, the coastal State has:

(a) sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to the sea-bed and of the sea-bed and its subsoil, and with regard to other activities for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone, such as the production of energy from the water, currents and winds;

(b) jurisdiction as provided for in the relevant provisions of this Convention with regard to:

(i) the establishment and use of artificial islands, installations and structures;

(ii) marine scientific research;

(iii) the protection and preservation of the marine environment;

(c) other rights and duties provided for in this Convention.

2. In exercising its rights and performing its duties under this Convention in the exclusive economic zone, the coastal State shall have due regard to the rights and duties of other States and shall act in a manner compatible with the provisions of this Convention.

3. The rights set out in this Article with respect to the sea-bed and subsoil shall be exercised in accordance with Part VI.

Article 57. Breadth of the exclusive economic zone

The exclusive economic zone shall not extend beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

Article 58. Rights and duties of other States in the exclusive economic zone

1. In the exclusive economic zone all States, whether coastal or land-locked, enjoy, subject to the relevant provisions of this Convention, the freedoms referred to in Article 87 of navigation and overflight and of the laying of submarine cables and pipelines, and other internationally lawful uses of the sea related to these freedoms, such as those associated with the operation of ships, aircraft and submarine cables and pipelines, and compatible with the other provisions of this Convention.

2. Articles 88 to 115 and other pertinent rules of international law apply to the exclusive economic zone in so far as they are not incompatible with this Part.

3. In exercising their rights and performing their duties under this Convention in the exclusive economic zone, States shall have due regard to the rights and duties of the coastal State and shall comply with the laws and regulations adopted by the coastal State in accordance with the provisions of this Convention and other rules of international law in so far as they are not incompatible with this Part.

Article 59. Basis for the resolution of conflicts regarding the attribution of rights and jurisdiction in the exclusive economic zone

In cases where this Convention does not attribute rights or jurisdiction to the coastal State or to other States within the exclusive economic zone, and a conflict arises between the interests of the coastal State and any other State or States, the conflict should be resolved on the basis of equity and in the light of all the relevant circumstances, taking into account the respective importance of the interests involved to the parties as well as to the international community as a whole.

Article 60. Artificial islands, installations and structures in the exclusive economic zone

1. In the exclusive economic zone, the coastal State shall have the exclusive right to construct and to authorize and regulate the construction, operation and use of:

(a) artificial islands;

(b) installations and structures for the purposes provided for in Article 56 and other economic purposes;

(c) installations and structures which may interfere with the exercise of the rights of the coastal State in the zone.

2. The coastal State shall have exclusive jurisdiction over such artificial islands installations and structures, including jurisdiction with regard to customs fiscal health, safety and immigration laws and regulations.

3. Due notice must be given of the construction of such artificial islands, installations or structures, and permanent means for giving warning of their presence must be maintained. Any installations or structures which are abandoned or disused shall be removed to ensure safety of navigation, taking into account any generally accepted international standards established in this regard by the competent international organization.

Such removal shall also have due regard to fishing, the protection of the marine environment and the rights and duties of other States. Appropriate publicity shall be given to the depth, position and dimensions of any installations or structures not entirely removed.

4. The coastal State may, where necessary, establish reasonable safety zones around such artificial islands, installations and structures in which it may take appropriate measures to ensure the safety both of navigation and of the artificial islands, installations and structures.

5. The breadth of the safety zones shall be determined by the coastal State, taking into account applicable international standards. Such zones shall be designed to ensure that they are reasonably related to the nature and function of the artificial islands, installations or structures, and shall not exceed a distance of 500 metres around them, measured from each point of their outer edge, except as authorized by generally accepted international standards or as recommended by the competent international organization. Due notice shall be given of the extent of safety zones.

6. All ships must respect these safety zones and shall comply with generally accepted international standards regarding navigation in the vicinity of artificial islands, installations, structures and safety zones.

7. Artificial islands, installations and structures and the safety zones around them may not be established where interference may be caused to the use of recognized sea lanes essential to international navigation.

8. Artificial islands, installations and structures do not possess the status of islands. They have no territorial sea of their own, and their presence does not affect the delimitation of the territorial sea, the exclusive economic zone or the continental shelf.

Article 61. Conservation of the living resources

1. The coastal State shall determine the allowable catch of the living resources in its exclusive economic zone.

2. The coastal State, taking into account the best scientific evidence available to it, shall ensure through proper conservation and management measures that the maintenance of the living resources in the exclusive economic zone is not endangered by over-exploitation. As appropriate, the coastal State and competent international organizations, whether subregional, regional or global, shall co-operate to this end.

3. Such measures shall also be designed to maintain or restore populations of harvested species at levels which can produce the maximum sustainable yield, as qualified by relevant environmental and economic factors, including the economic needs of coastal fishing communities and the special requirements of developing States, and taking into account fishing patterns, the interdependence of stocks and any generally recommended international minimum standards, whether subregional, regional or global.

4. In taking such measures the coastal State shall take into consideration the effects on species associated with or dependent upon harvested species with a view to maintaining or restoring populations of such associated or dependent species above levels at which their reproduction may become seriously threatened.

5. Available scientific information, catch and fishing effort statistics, and other data relevant to the conservation of fish stocks shall be contributed and exchanged on a regular basis through competent international organizations, whether subregional, regional or global, where appropriate and with participation by all States concerned, including States whose nationals are allowed to fish in the exclusive economic zone.

Article 62. Utilization of the living resources

1. The coastal State shall promote the objective of optimum utilization of the living resources in the exclusive economic zone without prejudice to Article 61.

2. The coastal State shall determine its capacity to harvest the living resources of the exclusive economic zone. Where the coastal State does not have the capacity to harvest the entire allowable catch, it shall, through agreements or other arrangements and pursuant to the terms, conditions, laws and regulations referred to in paragraph 4, give other States access to the surplus of the allowable catch, having particular regard to the provisions of articles 69 and 70, especially in relation to the developing States mentioned therein.

3. In giving access to other States to its exclusive economic zone under this Article the coastal State shall take into account all relevant factors, including, inter alia, the significance of the living resources of the area to the economy of the coastal State concerned and its other national interests, the provisions of articles 69 and 70, the requirements of developing States in the subregion or region in harvesting part of the surplus and the need to minimize economic dislocation in States whose nationals have habitually fished in the zone or which have made substantial efforts in research and identification of stocks.

4. Nationals of other States fishing in the exclusive economic zone shall comply with the conservation measures and with the other terms and conditions established in the laws and regulations of the coastal State.

These laws and regulations shall be consistent with this Convention and may relate, inter alia, to the following:

(a) licensing of fishermen, fishing vessels and equipment, including payment of fees and other forms of remuneration, which, in the case of developing coastal States, may consist of adequate compensation in the field of financing, equipment and technology relating to the fishing industry;

(b) determining the species which may be caught, and fixing quotas of catch, whether in relation to particular stocks or groups of stocks or catch per vessel over a period of time or to the catch by nationals of any State during a specified period;

(c) regulating seasons and areas of fishing, the types, sizes and amount of gear, and the types, sizes and number of fishing vessels that may be used;

(d) fixing the age and size of fish and other species that may be caught;

(e) specifying information required of fishing vessels, including catch and effort statistics and vessel position reports;

(f) requiring, under the authorization and control of the coastal State, the conduct of specified fisheries research programmes and regulating the conduct of such research, including the sampling of catches, disposition of samples and reporting of associated scientific data;

(g) the placing of observers or trainees on board such vessels by the coastal State;

(h) the landing of all or any part of the catch by such vessels in the ports of the coastal State;

(i) terms and conditions relating to joint ventures or other co-operative arrangements;

(j) requirements for the training of personnel and the transfer of fisheries technology, including enhancement of the coastal State's capability of undertaking fisheries research;

(k) enforcement procedures.

5. Coastal States shall give due notice of conservation and management laws and regulations.

Article 63. Stocks occurring within the exclusive economic zones of two or more coastal States or both within the exclusive economic zone and in an area beyond and adjacent to it

1. Where the same stock or stocks of associated species occur within the exclusive economic zones of two or more coastal States, these States shall seek, either directly or through appropriate subregional or regional organizations, to agree upon the measures necessary to co-ordinate and ensure the conservation and development of such stocks without prejudice to the other provisions of this Part.

2. Where the same stock or stocks of associated species occur both within the exclusive economic zone and in an area beyond and adjacent to the zone, the coastal State and the States fishing for such stocks in the adjacent area shall seek, either directly or through appropriate subregional or regional organizations, to agree upon the measures necessary for the conservation of these stocks in the adjacent area.

Article 64. Highly migratory species

1. The coastal State and other States whose nationals fish in the region for the highly migratory species listed in Annex I shall co-operate directly or through appropriate international organizations with a view to ensuring conservation and promoting the objective of optimum utilization of such species throughout the region, both within and beyond the exclusive economic zone. In regions for which no appropriate international organization exists, the coastal State and other States whose nationals harvest these species in the region shall co-operate to establish such an organization and participate in its work.

2. The provisions of paragraph 1 apply in addition to the other provisions of this Part.

Article 65. Marine mammals

Nothing in this Part restricts the right of a coastal State or the competence of an international organization, as appropriate, to prohibit, limit or regulate the exploitation of marine mammals more strictly than provided for in this Part. States shall co-operate with a view to the conservation of marine mammals and in the case of cetaceans shall in particular work through the appropriate international organizations for their conservation, management and study.

Article 66. Anadromous stocks

1. States in whose rivers anadromous stocks originate shall have the primary interest in and responsibility for such stocks.

2. The State of origin of anadromous stocks shall ensure their conservation by the establishment of appropriate regulatory measures for fishing in all waters landward of the outer limits of its exclusive economic zone and for fishing provided for in paragraph 3(b). The State of origin may, after consultations with the other States referred to in paragraphs 3 and 4 fishing these stocks, establish total allowable catches for stocks originating in its rivers.

3. (a) Fisheries for anadromous stocks shall be conducted only in waters landward of the outer limits of exclusive economic zones, except in cases where this provision would result in economic dislocation for a State other than the State of origin. With respect to such fishing beyond the outer limits of the exclusive economic zone, States concerned shall maintain consultations with a view to achieving agreement on terms and conditions of such fishing giving due regard to the conservation requirements and the needs of the State of origin in respect of these stocks.

(b) The State of origin shall co-operate in minimizing economic dislocation in such other States fishing these stocks, taking into account the normal catch and the mode of operations of such States, and all the areas in which such fishing has occurred.

(c) States referred to in subparagraph (b), participating by agreement with the State of origin in measures to renew anadromous stocks, particularly by expenditures for that purpose, shall be given special consideration by the State of origin in the harvesting of stocks originating in its rivers.

(d) Enforcement of regulations regarding anadromous stocks beyond the exclusive economic zone shall be by agreement between the State of origin and the other States concerned.

4. In cases where anadromous stocks migrate into or through the waters landward of the outer limits of the exclusive economic zone of a State other than the State of origin, such State shall co-operate with the State of origin with regard to the conservation and management of such stocks.

5. The State of origin of anadromous stocks and other States fishing these stocks shall make arrangements for the implementation of the provisions of this article, where appropriate, through regional organizations.

Article 67. Catadromous species

1. A coastal State in whose waters catadromous species spend the greater part of their life cycle shall have responsibility for the management of these species and shall ensure the ingress and egress of migrating fish.

2. Harvesting of catadromous species shall be conducted only in waters landward of the outer limits of exclusive economic zones. When conducted in exclusive economic zones, harvesting shall be subject to this Article and the other provisions of this Convention concerning fishing in these zones.

3. In cases where catadromous fish migrate through the exclusive economic zone of another State, whether as juvenile or maturing fish, the management, including harvesting, of such fish shall be regulated by agreement between the State mentioned in paragraph 1 and the other State concerned. Such agreement shall ensure the rational management of the species and take into account the responsibilities of the State mentioned in paragraph I for the maintenance of these species.

Article 68. Sedentary species

This Part does not apply to sedentary species as defined in Article 77, paragraph 4.

Article 69. Right of land-locked States

1. Land-locked States shall have the right to participate, on an equitable basis, in the exploitation of an appropriate part of the surplus of the living resources of the exclusive economic zones of coastal States of the same subregion or region, taking into account the relevant economic and geographical circumstances of all the States concerned and in conformity with the provisions of this Article and of articles 61 and 62.

2. The terms and modalities of such participation shall be established by the States concerned through bilateral, subregional or regional agreements taking into account, inter alia:

(a) the need to avoid effects detrimental to fishing communities or fishing industries of the coastal State;

(b) the extent to which the land-locked State, in accordance with the provisions of this article, is participating or is entitled to participate under existing bilateral, subregional or regional agreements in the exploitation of living resources of the exclusive economic zones of other coastal States;

(c) the extent to which other land-locked States and geographically disadvantaged States are participating in the exploitation of the living resources of the exclusive economic zone of the coastal State and the consequent need to avoid a particular burden for any single coastal State or a part of it;

(d) the nutritional needs of the populations of the respective States.

3. When the harvesting capacity of a coastal State approaches a point which would enable it to harvest the entire allowable catch of the living resources in its exclusive economic zone, the coastal State and other States concerned shall co-operate in the establishment of equitable arrangements on a bilateral, subregional or regional basis to allow for participation of developing land-locked States of the same subregion or region in the exploitation of the living resources of the exclusive economic zones of coastal States of the subregion or region, as may be appropriate in the circumstances and on terms satisfactory to all parties.

In the implementation of this provision the factors mentioned in paragraph 2 shall also be taken into account.

4. Developed land-locked States shall, under the provisions of this article, be entitled to participate in the exploitation of living resources only in the exclusive economic zones of developed coastal States of the same subregion or region having regard to the extent to which the coastal State, in giving access to other States to the living resources of its exclusive economic zone, has taken into account the need to minimize detrimental effects on fishing communities and economic dislocation in States whose nationals have habitually fished in the zone.

5. The above provisions are without prejudice to arrangements agreed upon in subregions or regions where the coastal States may grant to land-locked States of the same subregion or region equal or preferential rights for the exploitation of the living resources in the exclusive economic zones.

Article 70. Right of geographically disadvantaged States

1. Geographically disadvantaged States shall have the right to participate, on an equitable basis, in the exploitation of an appropriate part of the surplus of the living resources of the exclusive economic zones of coastal States of the same subregion or region, taking into account the relevant economic and geographical circumstances of all the States concerned and in conformity with the provisions of this Article and of articles 61 and 62.

2. For the purposes of this Part, "geographically disadvantaged States" means coastal States, including States bordering enclosed or semi-enclosed seas, whose geographical situation makes them dependent upon the exploitation of the living resources of the exclusive economic zones of other States in the subregion or region for adequate supplies of fish for the nutritional purposes of their populations or parts thereof, and coastal States which can claim no exclusive economic zones of their own.

3. The terms and modalities of such participation shall be established by the States concerned through bilateral, subregional or regional agreements taking into account, inter alia:

(a) the need to avoid effects detrimental to fishing communities or fishing industries of the coastal State;

(b) the extent to which the geographically disadvantaged State, in accordance with the provisions of this article, is participating or is entitled to participate under existing bilateral, subregional or regional agreements in the exploitation of living resources of the exclusive economic zones of other coastal States;

(c) the extent to which other geographically disadvantaged States and landlocked States are participating in the exploitation of the living resources of the exclusive economic zone of the coastal State and the consequent need to avoid a particular burden for any single coastal State or a part of it;

(d) the nutritional needs of the populations of the respective States.

4. When the harvesting capacity of a coastal State approaches a point which would enable it to harvest the entire allowable catch of the living resources in its exclusive economic zone, the coastal State and other States concerned shall co-operate in the establishment of equitable arrangements on a bilateral, subregional or regional basis to allow for participation of developing geographically disadvantaged States of the same subregion or region in the exploitation of the living resources of the exclusive economic zones of coastal States of the subregion or region, as may be appropriate in the circumstances and on terms satisfactory to all parties. In the implementation of this provision the factors mentioned in paragraph 3 shall also be taken into account.

5. Developed geographically disadvantaged States shall, under the provisions of this article, be entitled to participate in the exploitation of living resources only in the exclusive economic zones of developed coastal States of the same subregion or region having regard to the extent to which the coastal State, in giving access to other States to the living resources of its exclusive economic zone, has taken into account the need to minimize detrimental effects on fishing communities and economic dislocation in States whose nationals have habitually fished in the zone.

6. The above provisions are without prejudice to arrangements agreed upon in subregions or regions where the coastal States may grant to geographically disadvantaged States of the same subregion or region equal or preferential rights for the exploitation of the living resources in the exclusive economic zones.

Article 71. Non-applicability of articles 69 and 70

The provisions of articles 69 and 70 do not apply in the case of a coastal State whose economy is overwhelmingly dependent on the exploitation of the living resources of its exclusive economic zone.

Article 72. Restrictions on transfer of rights

1. Rights provided under articles 69 and 70 exploit living resources shall not be directly or indirectly transferred to third States or their nationals by lease or licence, by establishing joint ventures or in any other manner which has the effect of such transfer unless otherwise agreed by the States concerned.

2. The foregoing provision does not preclude the States concerned from obtaining technical or financial assistance from third States or international organizations in order to facilitate the exercise of the rights pursuant to articles 69 and 70, provided that it does not have the effect referred to in paragraph 1.

Article 73. Enforcement of laws and regulations of the coastal State

1. The coastal State may, in the exercise of its sovereign rights to explore, exploit, conserve and manage the living resources in the exclusive economic zone, take such measures, including boarding, inspection, arrest and judicial proceedings, as may be necessary to ensure compliance with the laws and regulations adopted by it in conformity with this Convention.

2. Arrested vessels and their crews shall be promptly released upon the posting of reasonable bond or other security.

3. Coastal State penalties for violations of fisheries laws and regulations in the exclusive economic zone may not include imprisonment, in the absence of agreements to the contrary by the States concerned, or any other form of corporal punishment.

4. In cases of arrest or detention of foreign vessels the coastal State shall promptly notify the flag State, through appropriate channels, of the action taken and of any penalties subsequently imposed.

Article 74. Delimitation of the exclusive economic zone between States with opposite or adjacent coasts

1. The delimitation of the exclusive economic zone between States with opposite or adjacent coasts shall be effected by agreement on the basis of international law, as referred to in Article 38 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice, in order to achieve an equitable solution.

2. If no agreement can be reached within a reasonable period of time, the States concerned shall resort to the procedures provided for in Part XV.

3. Pending agreement as provided for in paragraph 1, the States concerned, in a spirit of understanding and co- operation, shall make every effort to enter into provisional arrangements of a practical nature and, during this transitional period, not to jeopardize or hamper the reaching of the final agreement. Such arrangements shall be without prejudice to the final delimitation.

4. Where there is an agreement in force between the States concerned, questions relating to the delimitation of the exclusive economic zone shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of that agreement.

Article 75. Charts and lists of geographical co-ordinates

1. Subject to this Part, the outer limit lines of the exclusive economic zone and the lines of delimitation drawn in accordance with Article 74 shall be shown on charts of a scale or scales adequate for ascertaining their position. Where appropriate, lists of geographical co-ordinates of points, specifying the geodetic datum, may be substituted for such outer limit lines or lines of delimitation.

2. The coastal State shall give due publicity to such charts or lists of geographical co-ordinates and shall deposit a copy of each such chart or list with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

 

Part VI. CONTINENTAL SHELF

Article 76. Definition of the continental shelf

1. The continental shelf of a coastal State comprises the sea-bed and subsoil of the submarine areas that extend beyond its territorial sea throughout the natural prolongation of its land territory to the outer edge of the continental margin, or to a distance of 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured where the outer edge of the continental margin does not extend up to that distance.

2. The continental shelf of a coastal State shall not extend beyond the limits provided for in paragraphs 4 to 6.

3. The continental margin comprises the submerged prolongation of the land mass of the coastal State, and consists of the sea-bed and subsoil of the shelf the slope and the rise. It does not include the deep ocean floor with its oceanic ridges or the subsoil thereof.

4. (a) For the purposes of this Convention, the coastal State shall establish the outer edge of the continental margin wherever the margin extends beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured, by either:

(i) a line delineated in accordance with paragraph 7 by reference to the outermost fixed points at each of which the thickness of sedimentary rocks is at least 1 per cent of the shortest distance from such point to the foot of the continental slope; or (ii) a line delineated in accordance with paragraph 7 by reference to fixed points not more than 60 nautical miles from the foot of the continental slope.

(b) In the absence of evidence to the contrary, the foot of the continental slope shall be determined as the point of maximum change in the gradient at its base.

5. The fixed points comprising the line of the outer limits of the continental shelf on the sea-bed, drawn in accordance with paragraph 4 (a)(i) and (ii), either shall not exceed 350 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured or shall not exceed 100 nautical miles from the 2,500 metre isobath, which is a line connecting the depth of 2,500 metres.

6. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 5, on submarine ridges, the outer limit of the continental shelf shall not exceed 350 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured. This paragraph does not apply to submarine elevations that are natural components of the continental margin, such as its plateaux, rises, caps, banks and spurs.

7. The coastal State shall delineate the outer limits of its continental shelf, where that shelf extends beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured, by straight lines not exceeding 60 nautical miles in length, connecting fixed points, defined by coordinates of latitude and longitude.

8. Information on the limits of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured shall be submitted by the coastal State to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf set up under Annex II on the basis of equitable geographical representation. The Commission shall make recommendations to coastal States on matters related to the establishment of the outer limits of their continental shelf. The limits of the shelf established by a coastal State on the basis of these recommendations shall be final and binding.

9. The coastal State shall deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations charts and relevant information, including geodetic data, permanently describing the outer limits of its continental shelf. The Secretary-General shall give due publicity thereto.

10. The provisions of this Article are without prejudice to the question of delimitation of the continental shelf between States with opposite or adjacent coasts.

Article 77. Rights of the coastal State over the continental shelf

1. The coastal State exercises over the continental shelf sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring it and exploiting its natural resources.

2. The rights referred to in paragraph 1 are exclusive in the sense that if the coastal State does not explore the continental shelf or exploit its natural resources, no one may undertake these activities without the express consent of the coastal State.

3. The rights of the coastal State over the continental shelf do not depend on occupation, effective or notional, or on any express proclamation.

4. The natural resources referred to in this Part consist of the mineral and other non-living resources of the sea-bed and subsoil together with living organisms belonging to sedentary species, that is to say, organisms which, at the harvestable stage, either are immobile on or under the sea-bed or are unable to move except in constant physical contact with the sea-bed or the subsoil.

Article 78. Legal status of the superjacent waters and air space and the rights and freedoms of other States

1. The rights of the coastal State over the continental shelf do not affect the legal status of the superjacent waters or of the air space above those waters.

2. The exercise of the rights of the coastal State over the continental shelf must not infringe or result in any unjustifiable interference with navigation and other rights and freedoms of other States as provided for in this Convention.

Article 79. Submarine cables and pipelines on the continental shelf

1. All States are entitled to lay submarine cables and pipelines on the continental shelf, in accordance with the provisions of this article.

2. Subject to its right to take reasonable measures for the exploration of the continental shelf, the exploitation of its natural resources and the prevention, reduction and control of pollution from pipelines, the coastal State may not impede the laying or maintenance of such cables or pipelines.

3. The delineation of the course for the laying of such pipelines on the continental shelf is subject to the consent of the coastal State.

4. Nothing in this Part affects the right of the coastal State to establish conditions for cables or pipelines entering its territory or territorial sea, or its jurisdiction over cables and pipelines constructed or used in connection with the exploration of its continental shelf or exploitation of its resources or the operations of artificial islands, installations and structures under its jurisdiction.

5. When laying submarine cables or pipelines, States shall have due regard to cables or pipelines already in position. In particular, possibilities of repairing existing cables or pipelines shall not be prejudiced.

Article 80. Artificial islands, installations and structures on the continental shelf

Article 60 applies mutatis mutandis to artificial islands, installations and structures on the continental shelf.

Article 81. Drilling on the continental shelf

The coastal State shall have the exclusive right to authorize and regulate drilling on the continental shelf for all purposes.

Article 82. Ayments and contributions with respect to the exploitation of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles

1. The coastal State shall make payments or contributions in kind in respect of the exploitation of the non-living resources of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

2. The payments and contributions shall be made annually with respect to all production at a site after the first five years of production at that site. For the sixth year, the rate of payment or contribution shall be 1 per cent of the value or volume of production at the site. The rate shall increase by 1 per cent for each subsequent year until the twelfth year and shall remain at 7 per cent thereafter. Production does not include resources used in connection with exploitation.

3. A developing State which is a net importer of a mineral resource produced from its continental shelf is exempt from making such payments or contributions in respect of that mineral resource.

4. The payments or contributions shall be made through the Authority, which shall distribute them to States Parties to this Convention, on the basis of equitable sharing criteria, taking into account the interests and needs of developing States, particularly the least developed and the land-locked among them.

Article 83. Delimitation of the continental shelf between States with opposite or adjacent coasts

1. The delimitation of the continental shelf between States with opposite or adjacent coasts shall be effected by agreement on the basis of international law, as referred to in Article 38 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice, in order to achieve an equitable solution.

2. If no agreement can be reached within a reasonable period of time, the States concerned shall resort to the procedures provided for in Part XV.

3. Pending agreement as provided for in paragraph 1, the States concerned, in a spirit of understanding and co-operation, shall make every effort to enter into provisional arrangements of a practical nature and, during this transitional period, not to jeopardize or hamper the reaching of the final agreement. Such arrangements shall be without prejudice to the final delimitation.

4. Where there is an agreement in force between the States concerned, questions relating to the delimitation of the continental shelf shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of that agreement.

Article 84. Charts and lists of geographical co-ordinates

1. Subject to this Part, the outer limit lines of the continental shelf and the lines of delimitation drawn in accordance with Article 83 shall be shown on charts of a scale or scales adequate for ascertaining their position. Where appropriate, lists of geographical co-ordinates of points, specifying the geodetic datum, may be substituted for such outer limit lines or lines of delimitation.

2. The coastal State shall give due publicity to such charts or lists of graphical co-ordinates and shall deposit a copy of each such chart or list with the Secretary-General of the United Nations and, in the case of those showing the outer limit lines of the continental shelf, with the Secretary-General of the Authority.

Article 85. Tunnelling

This Part does not prejudice the right of the coastal State to exploit the subsoil by means of tunnelling, irrespective of the depth of water above the subsoil.

 

Part VII. HIGH SEAS

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 86. Application of the provisions of this Part

The provisions of this Part apply to all parts of the sea that are not included in the exclusive economic zone, in the territorial sea or in the internal waters of a State, or in the archipelagic waters of an archipelagic State. This Article does not entail any abridgement of the freedoms enjoyed by all States in the exclusive economic zone in accordance with Article 58.

Article 87. Freedom of the high seas

1. The high seas are open to all States, whether coastal or land-locked.

Freedom of the high seas is exercised under the conditions laid down by this Convention and by other rules of international law. It comprises, inter alia, both for coastal and land-locked States:

(a) freedom of navigation;

(b) freedom of overflight;

(c) freedom to lay submarine cables and pipelines, subject to Part VI;

(d) freedom to construct artificial islands and other installations permitted under international law, subject to Part VI;

(e) freedom of fishing, subject to the conditions laid down in section 2;

(f) freedom of scientific research, subject to Parts VI and XIII.

2. These freedoms shall be exercised by all States with due regard for the interests of other States in their exercise of the freedom of the high seas, and also with due regard for the rights under this Convention with respect to activities in the Area.

Article 88. Reservation of the high seas for peaceful purposes

The high seas shall be reserved for peaceful purposes.

Article 89. Invalidity of claims of sovereignty over the high seas

No State may validly purport to subject any part of the high seas to its sovereignty.

Article 90. Right of navigation

Every State, whether coastal or land-locked, has the right to sail ships flying its flag on the high seas.

Article 91. Nationality of ships

1. Every State shall fix the conditions for the grant of its nationality to ships, for the registration of ships in its territory, and for the right to fly its flag. Ships have the nationality of the State whose flag they are entitled to fly. There must exist a genuine link between the State and the ship.

2. Every State shall issue to ships to which it has granted the right to fly its flag documents to that effect.

Article 92. Status of ships

1. Ships shall sail under the flag of one State only and, save in exceptional cases expressly provided for in international treaties or in this Convention, shall be subject to its exclusive jurisdiction on the high seas. A ship may not change its flag during a voyage or while in a port of call, save in the case of a real transfer of ownership or change of registry.

2. A ship which sails under the flags of two or more States, using them according to convenience, may not claim any of the nationalities in question with respect to any other State, and may be assimilated to a ship without nationality.

Article 93. Ships flying the flag of the United Nations, its specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency

The preceding articles do not prejudice the question of ships employed on the official service of the United Nations, its specialized agencies or the International Atomic Energy Agency, flying the flag of the organization.

Article 94. Duties of the flag State

1. Every State shall effectively exercise its jurisdiction and control in administrative, technical and social matters over ships flying its flag.

2. In particular every State shall:

(a) maintain a register of ships containing the names and particulars of ships flying its flag, except those which are excluded from generally accepted international regulations on account of their small size;

and

(b) assume jurisdiction under its internal law over each ship flying its flag and its master, officers and crew in respect of administrative, technical and social matters concerning the ship.

3. Every State shall take such measures for ships flying its flag as are necessary to ensure safety at sea with regard, inter alia, to:

(a) the construction, equipment and seaworthiness of ships;

(b) the manning of ships, labour conditions and the training of crews, taking into account the applicable international instruments;

(c) the use of signals, the maintenance of communications and the prevention of collisions.

4. Such measures shall include those necessary to ensure:

(a) that each ship, before registration and thereafter at appropriate intervals, is surveyed by a qualified surveyor of ships, and has on board such charts, nautical publications and navigational equipment and instruments as are appropriate for the safe navigation of the ship;

(b) that each ship is in the charge of a master and officers who possess appropriate qualifications, in particular in seamanship, navigation, communications and marine engineering, and that the crew is appropriate in qualification and numbers for the type, size, machinery and equipment of the ship;

(c) that the master, officers and, to the extent appropriate, the crew are fully conversant with and required to observe the applicable international regulations concerning the safety of life at sea, the prevention of collisions, the prevention, reduction and control of marine pollution, and the maintenance of communications by radio.

5. In taking the measures called for in paragraphs 3 and 4 each State is required to conform to generally accepted international regulations, procedures and practices and to take any steps which may be necessary to secure their observance.

6. A State which has clear grounds to believe that proper jurisdiction and control with respect to a ship have not been exercised may report the facts to the flag State. Upon receiving such a report, the flag State shall investigate the matter and, if appropriate, take any action necessary to remedy the situation.

7. Each State shall cause an inquiry to be held by or before a suitably qualified person or persons into every marine casualty or incident of navigation on the high seas involving a ship flying its flag and causing loss of life or serious injury to nationals of another State or serious damage to ships or installations of another State or to the marine environment. The flag State and the other State shall co-operate in the conduct of any inquiry held by that other State into any such marine casualty or incident of navigation.

Article 95. Immunity of warships on the high seas

Warships on the high seas have complete immunity from the jurisdiction of any State other than the flag State.

Article 96. Immunity of ships used only on government non-commercial service

Ships owned or operated by a State and used only on government non-commercial service shall, on the high seas, have complete immunity from the jurisdiction of any State other than the flag State.

Article 97. Penal jurisdiction in matters of collision or any other incident of navigation

1. In the event of a collision or any other incident of navigation concerning a ship on the high seas, involving the penal or disciplinary responsibility of the master or of any other person in the service of the ship, no penal or disciplinary proceedings may be instituted against such person except before the judicial or administrative authorities either of the flag State or of the State of which such person is a national.

2. In disciplinary matters, the State which has issued a master's certificate or a certificate of competence or licence shall alone be competent, after due legal process, to pronounce the withdrawal of such certificates, even if the holder is not a national of the State which issued them.

3. No arrest or detention of the ship, even as a measure of investigation, shall be ordered by any authorities other than those of the flag State.

Article 98. Duty to render assistance

1. Every State shall require the master of a ship flying its flag, in so far as he can do so without serious danger to the ship, the crew or the passengers:

(a) to render assistance to any person found at sea in danger of being lost;

(b) to proceed with all possible speed to the rescue of persons in distress, if informed of their need of assistance, in so far as such action may reasonably be expected of him;

(c) after a collision, to render assistance to the other ship, its crew and its passengers and, where possible, to inform the other ship of the name of his own ship, its port of registry and the nearest port at which it will call.

2. Every coastal State shall promote the establishment, operation and maintenance of an adequate and effective search and rescue service regarding safety on and over the sea and, where circumstances so require, by way of mutual regional arrangements co-operate with neighbouring States for this purpose.

Article 99. Prohibition of the transport of slaves

Every State shall take effective measures to prevent and punish the transport of slaves in ships authorized to ny its flag and to prevent the unlawful use of its flag for that purpose. Any slave taking refuge on board any ship, whatever its flag, shall ipso facto be free.

Article 100. Duty to co-operate in the repression of piracy

All States shall co-operate to the fullest possible extent in the repression of piracy on the high seas or in any other place outside the jurisdiction of any State.

Article 101. Definition of piracy

Piracy consists of any of the following acts:

(a) any illegal acts of violence or detention, or any act of depredation, committed for private ends by the crew or the passengers of a private ship or a private aircraft, and directed:

(i) on the high seas, against another ship or aircraft, or against persons or property on board such ship or aircraft;

(ii) against a ship, aircraft, persons or property in a place outside the jurisdiction of any State;

(b) any act of voluntary participation in the operation of a ship or of an aircraft with knowledge of facts making it a pirate ship or aircraft;

(c) any act of inciting or of intentionally facilitating an act described in subparagraph (a) or (b).

Article 102. Piracy by a warship, government ship or government aircraft whose crew has mutinied

The acts of piracy, as defined in Article 101, committed by a warship, government ship or government aircraft whose crew has mutinied and taken control of the ship or aircraft are assimilated to acts committed by a private ship or aircraft.

Article 103. Definition of a pirate ship or aircraft

A ship or aircraft is considered a pirate ship or aircraft if it is intended by the persons in dominant control to be used for the purpose of committing one of the acts referred to in Article 101. The same applies if the ship or aircraft has been used to commit any such act, so long as it remains under the control of the persons guilty of that act.

Article 104. Retention or loss of the nationality of a pirate ship or aircraft

A ship or aircraft may retain its nationality although it has become a pirate ship or aircraft. The retention or loss of nationality is determined by the law of the State from which such nationality was derived.

Article 105. Seizure of a pirate ship or aircraft

On the high seas, or in any other place outside the jurisdiction of any State, every State may seize a pirate ship or aircraft, or a ship or aircraft taken by piracy and under the control of pirates, and arrest the persons and seize the property on board. The courts of the State which carried out the seizure may decide upon the penalties to be imposed, and may also determine the action to be taken with regard to the ships, aircraft or property, subject to the rights of third parties acting in good faith.

Article 106. Liability for seizure without adequate grounds

Where the seizure of a ship or aircraft on suspicion of piracy has been effected without adequate grounds, the State making the seizure shall be liable to the State the nationality of which is possessed by the ship or aircraft for any loss or damage caused by the seizure.

Article 107. Ships and aircraft which are entitled to seize on account of piracy

A seizure on account of piracy may be carried out only by warships or military aircraft, or other ships or aircraft clearly marked and identifiable as being on government service and authorized to that effect.

Article 108. Illicit traffic in narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances

1. All States shall cooperate in the suppression of illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances engaged in by ships on the high seas contrary to international conventions.

2. Any State which has reasonable grounds for believing that a ship flying its flag is engaged in illicit traffic in narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances may request the cooperation of other States to suppress such traffic.

Article 109. Unauthorized broadcasting from the high seas

1. All States shall cooperate in the suppression of unauthorized broadcasting from the high seas.

2. For the purposes of this Convention, "unauthorized broadcasting" means the transmission of sound radio or television broadcasts from a ship or installation on the high seas intended for reception by the general public contrary to international regulations, but excluding the transmission of distress calls.

3. Any person engaged in unauthorized broadcasting may be prosecuted before the court of:

(a) the flag State of the ship;

(b) the State of registry of the installation;

(c) the State of which the person is a national;

(d) any State where the transmissions can be received; or

(e) any State where authorized radio communication is suffering interference.

4. On the high seas, a State having jurisdiction in accordance with paragraph 3 may, in conformity with Article 110, arrest any person or ship engaged in unauthorized broadcasting and seize the broadcasting apparatus.

Article 110. Right of visit

1. Except where acts of interference derive from powers conferred by treaty, a warship which encounters on the high seas a foreign ship, other than a ship entitled to complete immunity in accordance with articles 95 and 96, is not justified in boarding it unless there is reasonable ground for suspecting that:

(a) the ship is engaged in piracy;

(b) the ship is engaged in the slave trade;

(c) the ship is engaged in unauthorized broadcasting and the flag State of the warship has jurisdiction under Article 109;

(d) the ship is without nationality; or

(e) though flying a foreign flag or refusing to show its flag, the ship is, in reality, of the same nationality as the warship.

2. In the cases provided for in paragraph 1, the warship may proceed to verify the ship's right to fly its flag. To this end, it may send a boat under the command of an officer to the suspected ship. If suspicion remains after the documents have been checked, it may proceed to a further examination on board the ship, which must be carried out with all possible consideration.

3. If the suspicions prove to be unfounded, and provided that the ship boarded has not committed any act justifying them, it shall be compensated for any loss or damage that may have been sustained.

4. These provisions apply mutatis mutandis to military aircraft.

5. These provisions also apply to any other duly authorized ships or aircraft clearly marked and identifiable as being on government service.

Article 111. Right of hot pursuit

1. The hot pursuit of a foreign ship may be undertaken when the competent authorities of the coastal State have good reason to believe that the ship has violated the laws and regulations of that State. Such pursuit must be commenced when the foreign ship or one of its boats is within the internal waters, the archipelagic waters, the territorial sea or the contiguous zone of the pursuing State, and may only be continued outside the territorial sea or the contiguous zone if the pursuit has not been interrupted. It is not necessary that, at the time when the foreign ship within the territorial sea or the contiguous zone receives the order to stop, the ship giving the order should likewise be within the territorial sea or the contiguous zone. If the foreign ship is within a contiguous zone, as defined in Article 33, the pursuit may only be undertaken if there has been a violation of the rights for the protection of which the zone was established.

2. The right of hot pursuit shall apply mutatis mutandis to violations in the exclusive economic zone or on the continental shelf, including safety zones around continental shelf installations, of the laws and regulations of the coastal State applicable in accordance with this Convention to the exclusive economic zone or the continental shelf, including such safety zones.

3. The right of hot pursuit ceases as soon as the ship pursued enters the territorial sea of its own State or of a third State.

4. Hot pursuit is not deemed to have begun unless the pursuing ship has satisfied itself by such practicable means as may be available that the ship pursued or one of its boats or other craft working as a team and using the ship pursued as a mother ship is within the limits of the territorial sea, or, as the case may be, within the contiguous zone or the exclusive economic zone or above the continental shelf. The pursuit may only be commenced after a visual or auditory signal to stop has been given at a distance which enables it to be seen or heard by the foreign ship.

5. The right of hot pursuit may be exercised only by warships or military aircraft, or other ships or aircraft clearly marked and identifiable as being on government service and authorized to that effect.

6. Where hot pursuit is effected by an aircraft:

(a) the provisions of paragraphs 1 to 4 shall apply mutatis mutandis;

(b) the aircraft giving the order to stop must itself actively pursue the ship until a ship or another aircraft of the coastal State, summoned by the aircraft, arrives to take over the pursuit, unless the aircraft is itself able to arrest the ship. It does not suffice to justify an arrest outside the territorial sea that the ship was merely sighted by the aircraft as an offender or suspected offender, if it was not both ordered to stop and pursued by the aircraft itself or other aircraft or ships which continue the pursuit without interruption.

7. The release of a ship arrested within the jurisdiction of a State and escorted to a port of that State for the purposes of an inquiry before the competent authorities may not be claimed solely on the ground that the ship, in the course of its voyage, was escorted across a portion of the exclusive economic zone or the high seas, if the circumstances rendered this necessary.

8. Where a ship has been stopped or arrested outside the territorial sea in circumstances which do not justify the exercise of the right of hot pursuit, it shall be compensated for any loss or damage that may have been thereby sustained.

Article 112. Right to lay submarine cables and pipelines

1. All States are entitled to lay submarine cables and pipelines on the bed of the high seas beyond the continental shelf.

2. Article 79, paragraph 5, applies to such cables and pipelines.

Article 113. Breaking or injury of a submarine cable or pipeline

Every State shall adopt the laws and regulations necessary to provide that the breaking or injury by a ship flying its flag or by a person subject to its jurisdiction of a submarine cable beneath the high seas done wilfully or through culpable negligence, in such a manner as to be liable to interrupt or obstruct telegraphic or telephonic communications, and similarly the breaking or injury of a submarine pipeline or high-voltage power cable, shall be a punishable offence. This provision shall apply also to conduct calculated or likely to result in such breaking or injury. However, it shall not apply to any break or injury caused by persons who acted merely with the legitimate object of saving their lives or their ships, after having taken all necessary precautions to avoid such break or injury.

Article 114. Breaking or injury by owners of a submarine cable or pipeline of another submarine cable or pipeline

Every State shall adopt the laws and regulations necessary to provide that, if persons subject to its jurisdiction who are the owners of a submarine cable or pipeline beneath the high seas, in laying or repairing that cable or pipeline, cause a break in or injury to another cable or pipeline, they shall bear the cost of the repairs.

Article 115. Indemnity for loss incurred in avoiding injury to a submarine cable or pipeline

Every State shall adopt the laws and regulations necessary to ensure that the owners of ships who can prove that they have sacrificed an anchor, a net or any other fishing gear, in order to avoid injuring a submarine cable or pipeline, shall be indemnified by the owner of the cable or pipeline, provided that the owner of the ship has taken all reasonable precautionary measures beforehand.

Section 2. CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE LIVING RESOURCES OF THE HIGH SEAS

Article 116. Right to fish on the high seas

All States have the right for their nationals to engage in fishing on the high seas subject to:

(a) their treaty obligations;

(b) the rights and duties as well as the interests of coastal States provided for, inter alia, in Article 63, paragraph 2, and articles 64 to 67; and

(c) the provisions of this section.

Article 117. Duty of States to adopt with respect to their nationals measures for the conservation of the living resources of the high seas

All States have the duty to take, or to cooperate with other States in taking, such measures for their respective nationals as may be necessary for the conservation of the living resources of the high seas.

Article 118. Cooperation of States in the conservation and management of living resources

States shall cooperate with each other in the conservation and management of living resources in the areas of the high seas. States whose nationals exploit identical living resources, or different living resources in the same area, shall enter into negotiations with a view to taking the measures necessary for the conservation of the living resources concerned. They shall, as appropriate, cooperate to establish subregional or regional fisheries organizations to this end.

Article 119. Conservation of the living resources of the high seas

1. In determining the allowable catch and establishing other conservation measures for the living resources in the high seas, States shall:

(a) take measures which are designed, on the best scientific evidence available to the States concerned, to maintain or restore populations of harvested species at levels which can produce the maximum sustainable yield, as qualified by relevant environmental and economic factors, including the special requirements of developing States, and taking into account fishing patterns, the interdependence of stocks and any generally recommended international minimum standards, whether subregional, regional or global;

(b) take into consideration the effects on species associated with or dependent upon harvested species with a view to maintaining or restoring populations of such associated or dependent species above levels at which their reproduction may become seriously threatened.

2. Available scientific information, catch and fishing effort statistics, and other data relevant to the conservation of fish stocks shall be contributed and exchanged on a regular basis through competent international organizations, whether subregional, regional or global, where appropriate and with participation by all States concerned.

3. States concerned shall ensure that conservation measures and their implementation do not discriminate in form or in fact against the fishermen of any State.

Article 120. Marine mammals

Article 65 also applies to the conservation and management of marine mammals in the high seas.

 

Part VIII. REGIME OF ISLANDS

Article 121. Regime of islands

1. An island is a naturally formed area of land, surrounded by water, which is above water at high tide.

2. Except as provided for in paragraph 3, the territorial sea, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf of an island are determined in accordance with the provisions of this Convention applicable to other land territory.

3. Rocks which cannot sustain human habitation or economic life of their own shall have no exclusive economic zone or continental shelf.

 

Part IX. ENCLOSED OR SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS

Article 122. Definition

For the purposes of this Convention, "enclosed or semi-enclosed sea"means a gulf, basin or sea surrounded by two or more States and connected to another sea or the ocean by a narrow outlet or consisting entirely or primarily of the territorial seas and exclusive economic zones of two or more coastal States.

Article 123. Cooperation of States bordering enclosed or semi-enclosed seas

States bordering an enclosed or semi-enclosed sea should cooperate with each other in the exercise of their rights and in the performance of their duties under this Convention. To this end they shall endeavour, directly or through an appropriate regional organization:

(a) to coordinate the management, conservation, exploration and exploitation of the living resources of the sea;

(b) to coordinate the implementation of their rights and duties with respect to the protection and preservation of the marine environment;

(c) to coordinate their scientific research policies and undertake where appropriate joint programmes of scientific research in the area;

(d) to invite, as appropriate, other interested States or international organizations to cooperate with them in furtherance of the provisions of this article.

 

Part X. RIGHT OF ACCESS OF LAND-LOCKED STATES TO AND FROM THE SEA AND FREEDOM OF TRANSIT

Article 124. Use of terms

1. For the purposes of this Convention:

(a) "land-locked State" means a State which has no sea-coast;

(b) "transit State" means a State, with or without a sea-coast, situated between a land-locked State and the sea, through whose territory traffic in transit passes;

(c) "traffic in transit" means transit of persons, baggage, goods and means of transport across the territory of one or more transit States, when the passage across such territory, with or without trans-shipment, warehousing, breaking bulk or change in the mode of transport, is only a portion of a complete journey which begins or terminates within the territory of the land-locked State;

(d) "means of transport" means:

(i) railway rolling stock, sea, lake and river craft and road vehicles;

(ii) where local conditions so require, porters and pack animals.

2. Land-locked States and transit States may, by agreement between them, include as means of transport pipelines and gas lines and means of transport other than those included in paragraph 1.

Article 125. Right of access to and from the sea and freedom of transit

1. Land-locked States shall have the right of access to and from the sea for the purpose of exercising the rights provided for in this Convention including those relating to the freedom of the high seas and the common heritage of mankind. To this end, land-locked States shall enjoy freedom of transit through the territory of transit States by all means of transport.

2. The terms and modalities for exercising freedom of transit shall be agreed between the land-locked States and transit States concerned through bilateral, subregional or regional agreements.

3. Transit States, in the exercise of their full sovereignty over their territory, shall have the right to take all measures necessary to ensure that the rights and facilities provided for in this Part for land-locked States shall in no way infringe their legitimate interests.

Article 126. Exclusion of application of the most-favoured-nation clause

The provisions of this Convention, as well as special agreements relating to the exercise of the right of access to and from the sea, establishing rights and facilities on account of the special geographical position of land-locked States, are excluded from the application of the most-favoured-nation clause.

Article 127. Customs duties, taxes and other charges

1. Traffic in transit shall not be subject to any customs duties, taxes or other charges except charges levied for specific services rendered in connection with such traffic.

2. Means of transport in transit and other facilities provided for and used by land-locked States shall not be subject to taxes or charges higher than those levied for the use of means of transport of the transit State.

Article 128. Free zones and other customs facilities

For the convenience of traffic in transit, free zones or other customs facilities may be provided at the ports of entry and exit in the transit States, by agreement between those States and the land-locked States.

Article 129. Cooperation in the construction and improvement of means of transport

Where there are no means of transport in transit States to give effect to the freedom of transit or where the existing means, including the port installations and equipment, are inadequate in any respect, the transit States and land-locked States concerned may cooperate in constructing or improving them.

Article 130. Measures to avoid or eliminate delays or other difficulties of a technical nature in traffic in transit

1. Transit States shall take all appropriate measures to avoid delays or other difficulties of a technical nature in traffic in transit.

2. Should such delays or difficulties occur, the competent authorities of the transit States and land-locked States concerned shall cooperate towards their expeditious elimination.

Article 131. Equal treatment in maritime ports

Ships flying the flag of land-locked States shall enjoy treatment equal to that accorded to other foreign ships in maritime ports.

Article 132. Grant of greater transit facilities

This Convention does not entail in any way the withdrawal of transit facilities which are greater than those provided for in this Convention and which are agreed between States Parties to this Convention or granted by a State Party. This Convention also does not preclude such grant of greater facilities in the future.

 

Part XI. THE AREA

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 133. Use of terms

For the purposes of this Part:

(a) "resources" means all solid, liquid or gaseous mineral resources in situ in the Area at or beneath the seabed, including polymetallic nodules;

(b) resources, when recovered from the Area, are referred to as "minerals".

Article 134. Scope of this Part

1. This Part applies to the Area.

2. Activities in the Area shall be governed by the provisions of this Part.

3. The requirements concerning deposit of, and publicity to be given to, the charts or lists of geographical coordinates showing the limits referred to in Article l, paragraph l(1), are set forth in Part VI.

4. Nothing in this Article affects the establishment of the outer limits of the continental shelf in accordance with Part VI or the validity of agreements relating to delimitation between States with opposite or adjacent coasts.

Article 135. Legal status of the superjacent waters and air space

Neither this Part nor any rights granted or exercised pursuant thereto shall affect the legal status of the waters superjacent to the Area or that of the air space above those waters.

 

Part XI. SECTION 2

Section 2. PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE AREA

Article 136. Common heritage of mankind

The Area and its resources are the common heritage of mankind.

Article 137. Legal status of the Area and its resources

1. No State shall claim or exercise sovereignty or sovereign rights over any part of the Area or its resources, nor shall any State or natural or juridical person appropriate any part thereof. No such claim or exercise of sovereignty or sovereign rights nor such appropriation shall be recognized.

2. All rights in the resources of the Area are vested in mankind as a whole, on whose behalf the Authority shall act. These resources are not subject to alienation. The minerals recovered from the Area, however, may only be alienated in accordance with this Part and the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

3. No State or natural or juridical person shall claim, acquire or exercise rights with respect to the minerals recovered from the Area except in accordance with this Part. Otherwise, no such claim, acquisition or exercise of such rights shall be recognized.

Article 138. General conduct of States in relation to the Area

The general conduct of States in relation to the Area shall be in accordance with the provisions of this Part, the principles embodied in the Charter of the United Nations and other rules of international law in the interests of maintaining peace and security and promoting international cooperation and mutual understanding.

Article 139. Responsibility to ensure compliance and liability for damage

1. States Parties shall have the responsibility to ensure that activities in the Area, whether carried out by States Parties, or state enterprises or natural or juridical persons which possess the nationality of States Parties or are effectively controlled by them or their nationals, shall be carried out in conformity with this Part. The same responsibility applies to international organizations for activities in the Area carried out by such organizations.

2. Without prejudice to the rules of international law and Annex III, Article 22, damage caused by the failure of a State Party or international organization to carry out its responsibilities under this Part shall entail liability; States Parties or international organizations acting together shall bear joint and several liability. A State Party shall not however be liable for damage caused by any failure to comply with this Part by a person whom it has sponsored under Article 153, paragraph 2(b), if the State Party has taken all necessary and appropriate measures to secure effective compliance under Article 153, paragraph 4, and Annex III, Article 4, paragraph 4.

3. States Parties that are members of international organizations shall take appropriate measures to ensure the implementation of this Article with respect to such organizations.

Article 140. Benefit of mankind

1. Activities in the Area shall, as specifically provided for in this Part, be carried out for the benefit of mankind as a whole, irrespective of the geographical location of States, whether coastal or land-locked, and taking into particular consideration the interests and needs of developing States and of peoples who have not attained full independence or other self-governing status recognized by the United Nations in accordance with General Assembly resolution 1514 (XV) and other relevant General Assembly resolutions.

2. The Authority shall provide for the equitable sharing of financial and other economic benefits derived from activities in the Area through any appropriate mechanism, on a non-discriminatory basis, in accordance with Article 160, paragraph 2(f)(i).

Article 141. Use of the Area exclusively for peaceful purposes

The Area shall be open to use exclusively for peaceful purposes by all States, whether coastal or land-locked, without discrimination and without prejudice to the other provisions of this Part.

Article 142. Rights and legitimate interests of coastal States

1. Activities in the Area, with respect to resource deposits in the Area which lie across limits of national jurisdiction, shall be conducted with due regard to the rights and legitimate interests of any coastal State across whose jurisdiction such deposits lie.

2. Consultations, including a system of prior notification, shall be maintained with the State concerned, with a view to avoiding infringement of such rights and interests. In cases where activities in the Area may result in the exploitation of resources lying within national jurisdiction, the prior consent of the coastal State concerned shall be required.

3. Neither this Part nor any rights granted or exercised pursuant thereto shall affect the rights of coastal States to take such measures consistent with the relevant provisions of Part XII as may be necessary to prevent, mitigate or eliminate grave and imminent danger to their coastline, or related interests from pollution or threat thereof or from other hazardous occurrences resulting from or caused by any activities in the Area.

Article 143. Marine scientific research

1. Marine scientific research in the Area shall be carried out exclusively for peaceful purposes and for the benefit of mankind as a whole, in accordance with Part XIII.

2. The Authority may carry out marine scientific research concerning the Area and its resources, and may enter into contracts for that purpose. The Authority shall promote and encourage the conduct of marine scientific research in the Area, and shall coordinate and disseminate the results of such research and analysis when available.

3. States Parties may carry out marine scientific research in the Area. States Parties shall promote international cooperation in marine scientific research in the Area by:

(a) participating in international programmes and encouraging cooperation in marine scientific research by personnel of different countries and of the Authority;

(b) ensuring that programmes are developed through the Authority or other international organizations as appropriate for the benefit of developing States and technologically less developed States with a view to:

(i) strengthening their research capabilities;

(ii) training their personnel and the personnel of the Authority in the techniques and applications of research;

(iii) fostering the employment of their qualified personnel in research in the Area;

(c) effectively disseminating the results of research and analysis when available, through the Authority or other international channels when appropriate.

Article 144. Transfer of technology

1. The Authority shall take measures in accordance with this Convention:

(a) to acquire technology and scientific knowledge relating to activities in the Area; and

(b) to promote and encourage the transfer to developing States of such technology and scientific knowledge so that all States Parties benefit therefrom.

2. To this end the Authority and States Parties shall cooperate in promoting the transfer of technology and scientific knowledge relating to activities in the Area so that the Enterprise and all States Parties may benefit therefrom. In particular they shall initiate and promote:

(a) programmes for the transfer of technology to the Enterprise and to developing States with regard to activities in the Area, including, inter alia, facilitating the access of the Enterprise and of developing States to the relevant technology, under fair and reasonable terms and conditions;

(b) measures directed towards the advancement of the technology of the Enterprise and the domestic technology of developing States, particularly by providing opportunities to personnel from the Enterprise and from developing States for training in marine science and technology and for their full participation in activities in the Area.

Article 145. Protection of the marine environment

Necessary measures shall be taken in accordance with this Convention with respect to activities in the Area to ensure effective protection for the marine environment from harmful effects which may arise from such activities. To this end the Authority shall adopt appropriate rules, regulations and procedures for inter alia:

(a) the prevention, reduction and control of pollution and other hazards to the marine environment, including the coastline, and of interference with the ecological balance of the marine environment, particular attention being paid to the need for protection from harmful effects of such activities as drilling, dredging, excavation, disposal of waste, construction and operation or maintenance of installations, pipelines and other devices related to such activities;

(b) the protection and conservation of the natural resources of the Area and the prevention of damage to the flora and fauna of the marine environment.

Article 146. Protection of human life

With respect to activities in the Area, necessary measures shall be taken to ensure effective protection of human life. To this end the Authority shall adopt appropriate rules, regulations and procedures to supplement existing international law as embodied in relevant treaties.

Article 147. Accommodation of activities in the Area and in the marine environment

1. Activities in the Area shall be carried out with reasonable regard for other activities in the marine environment.

2. Installations used for carrying out activities in the Area shall be subject to the following conditions:

(a) such installations shall be erected, emplaced and removed solely in accordance with this Part and subject to the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority. Due notice must be given of the erection, emplacement and removal of such installations, and permanent means for giving warning of their presence must be maintained;

(b) such installations may not be established where interference may be caused to the use of recognized sea lanes essential to international navigation or in areas of intense fishing activity;

(c) safety zones shall be established around such installations with appropriate markings to ensure the safety of both navigation and the installations. The configuration and location of such safety zones shall not be such as to form a belt impeding the lawful access of shipping to particular maritime zones or navigation along international sea lanes;

(d) such installations shall be used exclusively for peaceful purposes;

(e) such installations do not possess the status of islands. They have no territorial sea of their own, and their presence does not affect the delimitation of the territorial sea, the exclusive economic zone or the continental shelf.

3. Other activities in the marine environment shall be conducted with reasonable regard for activities in the Area.

Article 148. Participation of developing States in activities in the Area

The effective participation of developing States in activities in the Area shall be promoted as specifically provided for in this Part, having due regard to their special interests and needs, and in particular to the special need of the land-locked and geographically disadvantaged among them to overcome obstacles arising from their disadvantaged location, including remoteness from the Area and difficulty of access to and from it.

Article 149. Archaeological and historical objects

All objects of an archaeological and historical nature found in the Area shall be preserved or disposed of for the benefit of mankind as a whole, particular regard being paid to the preferential rights of the State or country of origin, or the State of cultural origin, or the State of historical and archaeological origin.

 

Part XI. SECTION 3.

Section 3. DEVELOPMENT OF RESOURCES OF THE AREA

Article 150. Policies relating to activities in the Area

Activities in the Area shall, as specifically provided for in this Part, be carried out in such a manner as to foster healthy development of the world economy and balanced growth of international trade, and to promote international cooperation for the over-all development of all countries, especially developing States, and with a view to ensuring:

(a) the development of the resources of the Area;

(b) orderly, safe and rational management of the resources of the Area, including the efficient conduct of activities in the Area and, in accordance with sound principles of conservation, the avoidance of unnecessary waste;

(c) the expansion of opportunities for participation in such activities consistent in particular with articles 144 and 148;

(d) participation in revenues by the Authority and the transfer of technology to the Enterprise and developing States as provided for in this Convention;

(e) increased availability of the minerals derived from the Area as needed in conjunction with minerals derived from other sources, to ensure supplies to consumers of such minerals;

(f) the promotion of just and stable prices remunerative to producers and fair to consumers for minerals derived both from the Area and from other sources, and the promotion of long-term equilibrium between supply and demand;

(g) the enhancement of opportunities for all States Parties, irrespective of their social and economic systems or geographical location, to participate in the development of the resources of the Area and the prevention of monopolization of activities in the Area;

(h) the protection of developing countries from adverse effects on their economies or on their export earnings resulting from a reduction in the price of an affected mineral, or in the volume of exports of that mineral, to the extent that such reduction is caused by activities in the Area, as provided in Article 151;

(i) the development of the common heritage for the benefit of mankind as a whole; and

(j) conditions of access to markets for the imports of minerals produced from the resources of the Area and for imports of commodities produced from such minerals shall not be more favourable than the most favourable applied to imports from other sources.

Article 151. Production policies

1. (a) Without prejudice to the objectives set forth in Article 150 and for the purpose of implementing subparagraph (h) of that article, the Authority, acting through existing forums or such new arrangements or agreements as may be appropriate, in which all interested parties, including both producers and consumers, participate, shall take measures necessary to promote the growth, efficiency and stability of markets for those commodities produced from the minerals derived from the Area, at prices remunerative to producers and fair to consumers. All States Parties shall cooperate to this end.

(b) The Authority shall have the right to participate in any commodity conference dealing with those commodities and in which all interested parties including both producers and consumers participate. The Authority shall have the right to become a party to any arrangement or agreement resulting from such conferences. Participation of the Authority in any organs established under those arrangements or agreements shall be in respect of production in the Area and in accordance with the relevant rules of those organs.

(c) The Authority shall carry out its obligations under the arrangements or agreements referred to in this paragraph in a manner which assures a uniform and non-discriminatory implementation in respect of all production in the Area of the minerals concerned. In doing so, the Authority shall act in a manner consistent with the terms of existing contracts and approved plans of work of the Enterprise.

2. (a) During the interim period specified in paragraph 3, commercial production shall not be undertaken pursuant to an approved plan of work until the operator has applied for and has been issued a production authorization by the Authority. Such production authorizations may not be applied for or issued more than five years prior to the planned commencement of commercial production under the plan of work unless, having regard to the nature and timing of project development, the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority prescribe another period.

(b) In the application for the production authorization, the operator shall specify the annual quantity of nickel expected to be recovered under the approved plan of work. The application shall include a schedule of expenditures to be made by the operator after he has received the authorization which are reasonably calculated to allow him to begin commercial production on the date planned.

(c) For the purposes of subparagraphs (a) and (b), the Authority shall establish appropriate performance requirements in accordance with Annex III, Article 17.

(d) The Authority shall issue a production authorization for the level of production applied for unless the sum of that level and the levels already authorized exceeds the nickel production ceiling, as calculated pursuant to paragraph 4 in the year of issuance of the authorization, during any year of planned production falling within the interim period.

(e) When issued, the production authorization and approved application shall become a part of the approved plan of work.

(f) If the operator's application for a production authorization is denied pursuant to subparagraph (d), the operator may apply again to the Authority at any time.

3. The interim period shall begin five years prior to 1 January of the year in which the earliest commercial production is planned to commence under an approved plan of work. If the earliest commercial production is delayed beyond the year originally planned, the beginning of the interim period and the production ceiling originally calculated shall be adjusted accordingly. The interim period shall last 25 years or until the end of the Review Conference referred to in Article 155 or until the day when such new arrangements or agreements as are referred to in paragraph 1 enter into force, whichever is earliest. The Authority shall resume the power provided in this Article for the remainder of the interim period if the said arrangements or agreements should lapse or become ineffective for any reason whatsoever.

4. (a) The production ceiling for any year of the interim period shall be the sum of:

(i) the difference between the trend line values for nickel consumption, as calculated pursuant to subparagraph (b), for the year immediately prior to the year of the earliest commercial production and the year immediately prior to the commencement of the interim period; and

(ii) sixty per cent of the difference between the trend line values for nickel consumption, as calculated pursuant to subparagraph (b), for the year for which the production authorization is being applied for and the year immediately prior to the year of the earliest commercial production.

(b) For the purposes of subparagraph (a):

(i) trend line values used for computing the nickel production ceiling shall be those annual nickel consumption values on a trend line computed during the year in which a production authorization is issued. The trend line shall be derived from a linear regression of the logarithms of actual nickel consumption for the most recent 15-year period for which such data are available, time being the independent variable. This trend line shall be referred to as the original trend line;

(ii) if the annual rate of increase of the original trend line is less than 3 per cent, then the trend line used to determine the quantities referred to in subparagraph (a) shall instead be one passing through the original trend line at the value for the first year of the relevant 15-year period, and increasing at 3 per cent annually; provided however that the production ceiling established for any year of the interim period may not in any case exceed the difference between the original trend line value for that year and the original trend line value for the year immediately prior to the commencement of the interim period.

5. The Authority shall reserve to the Enterprise for its initial production a quantity of 38,000 metric tonnes of nickel from the available production ceiling calculated pursuant to paragraph 4.

6. (a) An operator may in any year produce less than or up to 8 per cent more than the level of annual production of minerals from polymetallic nodules specified in his production authorization, provided that the over-all amount of production shall not exceed that specified in the authorization. Any excess over 8 per cent and up to 20 per cent in any year, or any excess in the first and subsequent years following two consecutive years in which excesses occur, shall be negotiated with the Authority, which may require the operator to obtain a supplementary production authorization to cover additional production.

(b) Applications for such supplementary production authorizations shall be considered by the Authority only after all pending applications by operators who have not yet received production authorizations have been acted upon and due account has been taken of other likely applicants. The Authority shall be guided by the principle of not exceeding the total production allowed under the production ceiling in any year of the interim period. It shall not authorize the production under any plan of work of a quantity in excess of 46,500 metric tonnes of nickel per year.

7. The levels of production of other metals such as copper, cobalt and manganese extracted from the polymetallic nodules that are recovered pursuant to a production authorization should not be higher than those which would have been produced had the operator produced the maximum level of nickel from those nodules pursuant to this article. The Authority shall establish rules, regulations and procedures pursuant to Annex III, Article 17, to implement this paragraph.

8. Rights and obligations relating to unfair economic practices under relevant multilateral trade agreements shall apply to the exploration for and exploitation of minerals from the Area. In the settlement of disputes arising under this provision, States Parties which are Parties to such multilateral trade agreements shall have recourse to the dispute settlement procedures of such agreements.

9. The Authority shall have the power to limit the level of production of minerals from the Area, other than minerals from polymetallic nodules, under such conditions and applying such methods as may be appropriate by adopting regulations in accordance with Article 161, paragraph 8.

10. Upon the recommendation of the Council on the basis of advice from the Economic Planning Commission, the Assembly shall establish a system of compensation or take other measures of economic adjustment assistance including cooperation with specialized agencies and other international organizations to assist developing countries which suffer serious adverse effects on their export earnings or economies resulting from a reduction in the price of an affected mineral or in the volume of exports of that mineral, to the extent that such reduction is caused by activities in the Area. The Authority on request shall initiate studies on the problems of those States which are likely to be most seriously affected with a view to minimizing their difficulties and assisting them in their economic adjustment.

Article 152. Exercise of powers and functions by the Authority

1. The Authority shall avoid discrimination in the exercise of its powers and functions, including the granting of opportunities for activities in the Area.

2. Nevertheless, special consideration for developing States, including particular consideration for the land-locked and geographically disadvantaged among them, specifically provided for in this Part shall be permitted.

Article 153. System of exploration and exploitation

1. Activities in the Area shall be organized, carried out and controlled by the Authority on behalf of mankind as a whole in accordance with this Article as well as other relevant provisions of this Part and the relevant Annexes, and the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

2. Activities in the Area shall be carried out as prescribed in paragraph 3:

(a) by the Enterprise, and

(b) in association with the Authority by States Parties, or state enterprises or natural or juridical persons which possess the nationality of States Parties or are effectively controlled by them or their nationals, when sponsored by such States, or any group of the foregoing which meets the requirements provided in this Part and in Annex III.

3. Activities in the Area shall be carried out in accordance with a formal written plan of work drawn up in accordance with Annex III and approved by the Council after review by the Legal and Technical Commission. In the case of activities in the Area carried out as authorized by the Authority by the entities specified in paragraph 2(b), the plan of work shall, in accordance with Annex III, Article 3, be in the form of a contract. Such contracts may provide for joint arrangements in accordance with Annex III, Article 11.

4. The Authority shall exercise such control over activities in the Area as is necessary for the purpose of securing compliance with the relevant provisions of this Part and the Annexes relating thereto, and the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, and the plans of work approved in accordance with paragraph 3. States Parties shall assist the Authority by taking all measures necessary to ensure such compliance in accordance with Article 139.

5. The Authority shall have the right to take at any time any measures provided for under this Part to ensure compliance with its provisions and the exercise of the functions of control and regulation assigned to it thereunder or under any contract. The Authority shall have the right to inspect all installations in the Area used in connection with activities in the Area.

6. A contract under paragraph 3 shall provide for security of tenure. Accordingly, the contract shall not be revised, suspended or terminated except in accordance with Annex III, articles 18 and 19.

Article 154. Periodic review

Every five years from the entry into force of this Convention, the Assembly shall undertake a general and systematic review of the manner in which the international regime of the Area established in this Convention has operated in practice. In the light of this review the Assembly may take, or recommend that other organs take, measures in accordance with the provisions and procedures of this Part and the Annexes relating thereto which will lead to the improvement of the operation of the regime.

Article 155. The Review Conference

1. Fifteen years from 1 January of the year in which the earliest commercial production commences under an approved plan of work, the Assembly shall convene a conference for the review of those provisions of this Part and the relevant Annexes which govern the system of exploration and exploitation of the resources of the Area. The Review Conference shall consider in detail, in the light of the experience acquired during that period:

(a) whether the provisions of this Part which govern the system of exploration and exploitation of the resources of the Area have achieved their aims in all respects, including whether they have benefited mankind as a whole;

(b) whether, during the 15-year period, reserved areas have been exploited in an effective and balanced manner in comparison with non-reserved areas;

(c) whether the development and use of the Area and its resources have been undertaken in such a manner as to foster healthy development of the world economy and balanced growth of international trade;

(d) whether monopolization of activities in the Area has been prevented;

(e) whether the policies set forth in articles 150 and 151 have been fulfilled; and

(f) whether the system has resulted in the equitable sharing of benefits derived from activities in the Area, taking into particular consideration the interests and needs of the developing States.

2. The Review Conference shall ensure the maintenance of the principle of the common heritage of mankind, the international regime designed to ensure equitable exploitation of the resources of the Area for the benefit of all countries, especially the developing States, and an Authority to organize, conduct and control activities in the Area. It shall also ensure the maintenance of the principles laid down in this Part with regard to the exclusion of claims or exercise of sovereignty over any part of the Area, the rights of States and their general conduct in relation to the Area, and their participation in activities in the Area in conformity with this Convention, the prevention of monopolization of activities in the Area, the use of the Area exclusively for peaceful purposes, economic aspects of activities in the Area, marine scientific research, transfer of technology, protection of the marine environment, protection of human life, rights of coastal States, the legal status of the waters superjacent to the Area and that of the air space above those waters and accommodation between activities in the Area and other activities in the marine environment.

3. The decision-making procedure applicable at the Review Conference shall be the same as that applicable at the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea. The Conference shall make every effort to reach agreement on any amendments by way of consensus and there should be no voting on such matters until all efforts at achieving consensus have been exhausted.

4. If, five years after its commencement, the Review Conference has not reached agreement on the system of exploration and exploitation of the resources of the Area, it may decide during the ensuing 12 months, by a three-fourths majority of the States Parties, to adopt and submit to the States Parties for ratification or accession such amendments changing or modifying the system as it determines necessary and appropriate. Such amendments shall enter into force for all States Parties 12 months after the deposit of instruments of ratification or accession by three fourths of the States Parties.

5. Amendments adopted by the Review Conference pursuant to this Article shall not affect rights acquired under existing contracts.

 

Part XI. SECTION 4.

Section 4. THE AUTHORITY

Subsection A. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 156. Establishment of the Authority

1. There is hereby established the International Seabed Authority, which shall function in accordance with this Part.

2. All States Parties are ipso facto members of the Authority.

3. Observers at the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea who have signed the Final Act and who are not referred to in Article 305, paragraph 1(c), (d), (e) or (f), shall have the right to participate in the Authority as observers, in accordance with its rules, regulations and procedures.

4. The seat of the Authority shall be in Jamaica.

5. The Authority may establish such regional centres or offices as it deems necessary for the exercise of its functions.

Article 157. Nature and fundamental principles of the Authority

1. The Authority is the organization through which States Parties shall, in accordance with this Part, organize and control activities in the Area, particularly with a view to administering the resources of the Area.

2. The powers and functions of the Authority shall be those expressly conferred upon it by this Convention. The Authority shall have such incidental powers, consistent with this Convention, as are implicit in and necessary for the exercise of those powers and functions with respect to activities in the Area.

3. The Authority is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its members.

4. All members of the Authority shall fulfil in good faith the obligations assumed by them in accordance with this Part in order to ensure to all of them the rights and benefits resulting from membership.

Article 158. Organs of the Authority

1. There are hereby established, as the principal organs of the Authority, an Assembly, a Council and a Secretariat.

2. There is hereby established the Enterprise, the organ through which the Authority shall carry out the functions referred to in Article 170, paragraph 1.

3. Such subsidiary organs as may be found necessary may be established in accordance with this Part.

4. Each principal organ of the Authority and the Enterprise shall be responsible for exercising those powers and functions which are conferred upon it. In exercising such powers and functions each organ shall avoid taking any action which may derogate from or impede the exercise of specific powers and functions conferred upon another organ.

Subsection B. THE ASSEMBLY

Article 159. Composition, procedure and voting

1. The Assembly shall consist of all the members of the Authority. Each member shall have one representative in the Assembly, who may be accompanied by alternates and advisers.

2. The Assembly shall meet in regular annual sessions and in such special sessions as may be decided by the Assembly, or convened by the Secretary-General at the request of the Council or of a majority of the members of the Authority.

3. Sessions shall take place at the seat of the Authority unless otherwise decided by the Assembly.

4. The Assembly shall adopt its rules of procedure. At the beginning of each regular session, it shall elect its President and such other officers as may be required. They shall hold office until a new President and other officers are elected at the next regular session.

5. A majority of the members of the Assembly shall constitute a quorum.

6. Each member of the Assembly shall have one vote.

7. Decisions on questions of procedure, including decisions to convene special sessions of the Assembly, shall be taken by a majority of the members present and voting.

8. Decisions on questions of substance shall be taken by a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting, provided that such majority includes a majority of the members participating in the session. When the issue arises as to whether a question is one of substance or not, that question shall be treated as one of substance unless otherwise decided by the Assembly by the majority required for decisions on questions of substance.

9. When a question of substance comes up for voting for the first time, the President may, and shall, if requested by at least one fifth of the members of the Assembly, defer the issue of taking a vote on that question for a period not exceeding five calendar days. This rule may be applied only once to any question, and shall not be applied so as to defer the question beyond the end of the session.

10. Upon a written request addressed to the President and sponsored by at least one fourth of the members of the Authority for an advisory opinion on the conformity with this Convention of a proposal before the Assembly on any matter, the Assembly shall request the Seabed Disputes Chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea to give an advisory opinion thereon and shall defer voting on that proposal pending receipt of the advisory opinion by the Chamber. If the advisory opinion is not received before the final week of the session in which it is requested, the Assembly shall decide when it will meet to vote upon the deferred proposal.

Article 160. Powers and functions

1. The Assembly, as the sole organ of the Authority consisting of all the members, shall be considered the supreme organ of the Authority to which the other principal organs shall be accountable as specifically provided for in this Convention. The Assembly shall have the power to establish general policies in conformity with the relevant provisions of this Convention on any question or matter within the competence of the Authority.

2. In addition, the powers and functions of the Assembly shall be:

(a) to elect the members of the Council in accordance with Article 161;

(b) to elect the Secretary-General from among the candidates proposed by the Council;

(c) to elect, upon the recommendation of the Council, the members of the Governing Board of the Enterprise and the Director-General of the Enterprise;

(d) to establish such subsidiary organs as it finds necessary for the exercise of its functions in accordance with this Part. In the composition of these subsidiary organs due account shall be taken of the principle of equitable geographical distribution and of special interests and the need for members qualified and competent in the relevant technical questions dealt with by such organs;

(e) to assess the contributions of members to the administrative budget of the Authority in accordance with an agreed scale of assessment based upon the scale used for the regular budget of the United Nations until the Authority shall have sufficient income from other sources to meet its administrative expenses;

(f) (i) to consider and approve, upon the recommendation of the Council, the rules, regulations and procedures on the equitable sharing of financial and other economic benefits derived from activities in the Area and the payments and contributions made pursuant to Article 82, taking into particular consideration the interests and needs of developing States and peoples who have not attained full independence or other self-governing status. If the Assembly does not approve the recommendations of the Council, the Assembly shall return them to the Council for reconsideration in the light of the views expressed by the Assembly;

(ii) to consider and approve the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, and any amendments thereto, provisionally adopted by the Council pursuant to Article 162, paragraph 2 (o)(ii). These rules, regulations and procedures shall relate to prospecting, exploration and exploitation in the Area, the financial management and internal administration of the Authority, and, upon the recommendation of the Governing Board of the Enterprise, to the transfer of funds from the Enterprise to the Authority;

(g) to decide upon the equitable sharing of financial and other economic benefits derived from activities in the Area, consistent with this Convention and the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority;

(h) to consider and approve the proposed annual budget of the Authority submitted by the Council;

(i) to examine periodic reports from the Council and from the Enterprise and special reports requested from the Council or any other organ of the Authority;

(j) to initiate studies and make recommendations for the purpose of promoting international cooperation concerning activities in the Area and encouraging the progressive development of international law relating thereto and its codification;

(k) to consider problems of a general nature in connection with activities in the Area arising in particular for developing States, as well as those problems for States in connection with activities in the Area that are due to their geographical location, particularly for land-locked and geographically disadvantaged States;

(l) to establish, upon the recommendation of the Council, on the basis of advice from the Economic Planning Commission, a system of compensation or other measures of economic adjustment assistance as provided in Article 151, paragraph 10;

(m) to suspend the exercise of rights and privileges of membership pursuant to Article 185;

(n) to discuss any question or matter within the competence of the Authority and to decide as to which organ of the Authority shall deal with any such question or matter not specifically entrusted to a particular organ, consistent with the distribution of powers and functions among the organs of the Authority.

Subsection C. THE COUNCIL

Article 161. Composition, procedure and voting

1. The Council shall consist of 36 members of the Authority elected by the Assembly in the following order:

(a) four members from among those States Parties which, during the last five years for which statistics are available, have either consumed more than 2 per cent of total world consumption or have had net imports of more than 2 per cent of total world imports of the commodities produced from the categories of minerals to be derived from the Area, and in any case one State from the Eastern European (Socialist) region, as well as the largest consumer;

(b) four members from among the eight States Parties which have the largest investments in preparation for and in the conduct of activities in the Area, either directly or through their nationals, including at least one State from the Eastern European (Socialist) region;

(c) four members from among States Parties which on the basis of production in areas under their jurisdiction are major net exporters of the categories of minerals to be derived from the Area, including at least two developing States whose exports of such minerals have a substantial bearing upon their economies;

(d) six members from among developing States Parties, representing special interests. The special interests to be represented shall include those of States with large populations, States which are land-locked or geographically disadvantaged, States which are major importers of the categories of minerals to be derived from the Area, States which are potential producers of such minerals, and least developed States;

(e) eighteen members elected according to the principle of ensuring an equitable geographical distribution of seats in the Council as a whole, provided that each geographical region shall have at least one member elected under this subparagraph. For this purpose, the geographical regions shall be Africa, Asia, Eastern European (Socialist), Latin America and Western European and Others.

2. In electing the members of the Council in accordance with paragraph 1, the Assembly shall ensure that:

(a) land-locked and geographically disadvantaged States are represented to a degree which is reasonably proportionate to their representation in the Assembly;

(b) coastal States, especially developing States, which do not qualify under paragraph 1(a), (b), (c) or (d) are represented to a degree which is reasonably proportionate to their representation in the Assembly;

(c) each group of States Parties to be represented on the Council is represented by those members, if any, which are nominated by that group.

3. Elections shall take place at regular sessions of the Assembly. Each member of the Council shall be elected for four years. At the first election, however, the term of one half of the members of each group referred to in paragraph l shall be two years.

4. Members of the Council shall be eligible for re-election, but due regard should be paid to the desirability of rotation of membership.

5. The Council shall function at the seat of the Authority, and shall meet as often as the business of the Authority may require, but not less than three times a year.

6. A majority of the members of the Council shall constitute a quorum.

7. Each member of the Council shall have one vote.

8. (a) Decisions on questions of procedure shall be taken by a majority of the members present and voting.

(b) Decisions on questions of substance arising under the following provisions shall be taken by a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting, provided that such majority includes a majority of the members of the Council: Article 162, paragraph 2, subparagraphs (f); (g); (h); (i); (n); (p); (v); Article 191.

(c) Decisions on questions of substance arising under the following provisions shall be taken by a three-fourths majority of the members present and voting, provided that such majority includes a majority of the members of the Council: Article 162, paragraph 1; Article 162, paragraph 2, subparagraphs (a); (b); (c); (d); (e); (l); (q); (r); (s); (t); (u) in cases of non-compliance by a contractor or a sponsor; (w) provided that orders issued thereunder may be binding for not more than 30 days unless confirmed by a decision taken in accordance with subparagraph (d); Article 162, paragraph 2, subparagraphs (x); (y); (z); Article 163, paragraph 2; Article 174, paragraph 3; Annex IV, Article 11.

(d) Decisions on questions of substance arising under the following provisions shall be taken by consensus: Article 162, paragraph 2(m) and (o); adoption of amendments to Part XI.

(e) For the purposes of subparagraphs (d), (f) and (g), "consensus" means the absence of any formal objection. Within 14 days of the submission of a proposal to the Council, the President of the Council shall determine whether there would be a formal objection to the adoption of the proposal. If the President determines that there would be such an objection, the President shall establish and convene, within three days following such determination, a conciliation committee consisting of not more than nine members of the Council, with the President as chairman, for the purpose of reconciling the differences and producing a proposal which can be adopted by consensus. The committee shall work expeditiously and report to the Council within 14 days following its establishment. If the committee is unable to recommend a proposal which can be adopted by consensus, it shall set out in its report the grounds on which the proposal is being opposed.

(f) Decisions on questions not listed above which the Council is authorized to take by the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority or otherwise shall be taken pursuant to the subparagraphs of this paragraph specified in the rules, regulations and procedures or, if not specified therein, then pursuant to the subparagraph determined by the Council if possible in advance, by consensus.

(g) When the issue arises as to whether a question is within subparagraph (a), (b), (c) or (d), the question shall be treated as being within the subparagraph requiring the higher or highest majority or consensus as the case may be, unless otherwise decided by the Council by the said majority or by consensus.

9. The Council shall establish a procedure whereby a member of the Authority not represented on the Council may send a representative to attend a meeting of the Council when a request is made by such member, or a matter particularly affecting it is under consideration. Such a representative shall be entitled to participate in the deliberations but not to vote.

Article 162. Powers and functions

1. The Council is the executive organ of the Authority. The Council shall have the power to establish, in conformity with this Convention and the general policies established by the Assembly, the specific policies to be pursued by the Authority on any question or matter within the competence of the Authority.

2. In addition, the Council shall:

(a) supervise and coordinate the implementation of the provisions of this Part on all questions and matters within the competence of the Authority and invite the attention of the Assembly to cases of non-compliance;

(b) propose to the Assembly a list of candidates for the election of the Secretary-General;

(c) recommend to the Assembly candidates for the election of the members of the Governing Board of the Enterprise and the Director-General of the Enterprise;

(d) establish, as appropriate, and with due regard to economy and efficiency, such subsidiary organs as it finds necessary for the exercise of its functions in accordance with this Part. In the composition of subsidiary organs, emphasis shall be placed on the need for members qualified and competent in relevant technical matters dealt with by those organs provided that due account shall be taken of the principle of equitable geographical distribution and of special interests;

(e) adopt its rules of procedure including the method of selecting its president;

(f) enter into agreements with the United Nations or other international organizations on behalf of the Authority and within its competence, subject to approval by the Assembly;

(g) consider the reports of the Enterprise and transmit them to the Assembly with its recommendations;

(h) present to the Assembly annual reports and such special reports as the Assembly may request;

(i) issue directives to the Enterprise in accordance with Article 170;

(j) approve plans of work in accordance with Annex III, Article 6. The Council shall act upon each plan of work within 60 days of its submission by the Legal and Technical Commission at a session of the Council in accordance with the following procedures:

(i) if the Commission recommends the approval of a plan of work, it shall be deemed to have been approved by the Council if no member of the Council submits in writing to the President within 14 days a specific objection alleging non-compliance with the requirements of Annex III, Article 6. If there is an objection, the conciliation procedure set forth in Article 161, paragraph 8(e), shall apply. If, at the end of the conciliation procedure, the objection is still maintained, the plan of work shall be deemed to have been approved by the Council unless the Council disapproves it by consensus among its members excluding any State or States making the application or sponsoring the applicant;

(ii) if the Commission recommends the disapproval of a plan of work or does not make a recommendation, the Council may approve the plan of work by a three-fourths majority of the members present and voting, provided that such majority includes a majority of the members participating in the session;

(k) approve plans of work submitted by the Enterprise in accordance with Annex IV, Article 12, applying, mutatis mutandis, the procedures set forth in subparagraph (j);

(l) exercise control over activities in the Area in accordance with Article 153, paragraph 4, and the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority;

(m) take, upon the recommendation of the Economic Planning Commission, necessary and appropriate measures in accordance with Article 150, subparagraph (h), to provide protection from the adverse economic effects specified therein;

(n) make recommendations to the Assembly, on the basis of advice from the Economic Planning Commission, for a system of compensation or other measures of economic adjustment assistance as provided in Article 151, paragraph 10;

(o) (i) recommend to the Assembly rules, regulations and procedures on the equitable sharing of financial and other economic benefits derived from activities in the Area and the payments and contributions made pursuant to Article 82, taking into particular consideration the interests and needs of the developing States and peoples who have not attained full independence or other self-governing status;

(ii) adopt and apply provisionally, pending approval by the Assembly, the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, and any amendments thereto, taking into account the recommendations of the Legal and Technical Commission or other subordinate organ concerned. These rules, regulations and procedures shall relate to prospecting, exploration and exploitation in the Area and the financial management and internal administration of the Authority. Priority shall be given to the adoption of rules, regulations and procedures for the exploration for and exploitation of polymetallic nodules. Rules, regulations and procedures for the exploration for and exploitation of any resource other than polymetallic nodules shall be adopted within three years from the date of a request to the Authority by any of its members to adopt such rules, regulations and procedures in respect of such resource. All rules, regulations and procedures shall remain in effect on a provisional basis until approved by the Assembly or until amended by the Council in the light of any views expressed by the Assembly;

(p) review the collection of all payments to be made by or to the Authority in connection with operations pursuant to this Part;

(q) make the selection from among applicants for production authorizations pursuant to Annex III, Article 7, where such selection is required by that provision;

(r) submit the proposed annual budget of the Authority to the Assembly for its approval;

(s) make recommendations to the Assembly concerning policies on any question or matter within the competence of the Authority;

(t) make recommendations to the Assembly concerning suspension of the exercise of the rights and privileges of membership pursuant to Article 185;

(u) institute proceedings on behalf of the Authority before the Seabed Disputes Chamber in cases of non-compliance;

(v) notify the Assembly upon a decision by the Seabed Disputes Chamber in proceedings instituted under subparagraph (u), and make any recommendations which it may find appropriate with respect to measures to be taken;

(w) issue emergency orders, which may include orders for the suspension or adjustment of operations, to prevent serious harm to the marine environment arising out of activities in the Area;

(x) disapprove areas for exploitation by contractors or the Enterprise in cases where substantial evidence indicates the risk of serious harm to the marine environment;

(y) establish a subsidiary organ for the elaboration of draft financial rules, regulations and procedures relating to:

(i) financial management in accordance with articles 171 to 175; and

(ii) financial arrangements in accordance with Annex III, Article 13 and Article 17, paragraph 1(c);

(z) establish appropriate mechanisms for directing and supervising a staff of inspectors who shall inspect activities in the Area to determine whether this Part, the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, and the terms and conditions of any contract with the Authority are being complied with.

Article 163. Organs of the Council

1. There are hereby established the following organs of the Council:

(a) an Economic Planning Commission;

(b) a Legal and Technical Commission.

2. Each Commission shall be composed of 15 members, elected by the Council from among the candidates nominated by the States Parties. However, if necessary, the Council may decide to increase the size of either Commission having due regard to economy and efficiency.

3. Members of a Commission shall have appropriate qualifications in the area of competence of that Commission. States Parties shall nominate candidates of the highest standards of competence and integrity with qualifications in relevant fields so as to ensure the effective exercise of the functions of the Commissions.

4. In the election of members of the Commissions, due account shall be taken of the need for equitable geographical distribution and the representation of special interests.

5. No State Party may nominate more than one candidate for the same Commission. No person shall be elected to serve on more than one Commission.

6. Members of the Commissions shall hold office for a term of five years. They shall be eligible for re-election for a further term.

7. In the event of the death, incapacity or resignation of a member of a Commission prior to the expiration of the term of office, the Council shall elect for the remainder of the term, a member from the same geographical region or area of interest.

8. Members of Commissions shall have no financial interest in any activity relating to exploration and exploitation in the Area. Subject to their responsibilities to the Commissions upon which they serve, they shall not disclose, even after the termination of their functions, any industrial secret, proprietary data which are transferred to the Authority in accordance with Annex III, Article l4, or any other confidential information coming to their knowledge by reason of their duties for the Authority.

9. Each Commission shall exercise its functions in accordance with such guidelines and directives as the Council may adopt.

10. Each Commission shall formulate and submit to the Council for approval such rules and regulations as may be necessary for the efficient conduct of the Commission's functions.

11. The decision-making procedures of the Commissions shall be established by the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority. Recommendations to the Council shall, where necessary, be accompanied by a summary on the divergencies of opinion in the Commission.

12. Each Commission shall normally function at the seat of the Authority and shall meet as often as is required for the efficient exercise of its functions.

13. In the exercise of its functions, each Commission may, where appropriate, consult another commission, any competent organ of the United Nations or of its specialized agencies or any international organizations with competence in the subject-matter of such consultation.

Article 164. The Economic Planning Commission

1. Members of the Economic Planning Commission shall have appropriate qualifications such as those relevant to mining, management of mineral resource activities, international trade or international economics. The Council shall endeavour to ensure that the membership of the Commission reflects all appropriate qualifications. The Commission shall include at least two members from developing States whose exports of the categories of minerals to be derived from the Area have a substantial bearing upon their economies.

2. The Commission shall:

(a) propose, upon the request of the Council, measures to implement decisions relating to activities in the Area taken in accordance with this Convention;

(b) review the trends of and the factors affecting supply, demand and prices of minerals which may be derived from the Area, bearing in mind the interests of both importing and exporting countries, and in particular of the developing States among them;

(c) examine any situation likely to lead to the adverse effects referred to in Article 150, subparagraph (h), brought to its attention by the State Party or States Parties concerned, and make appropriate recommendations to the Council;

(d) propose to the Council for submission to the Assembly, as provided in Article 151, paragraph 10, a system of compensation or other measures of economic adjustment assistance for developing States which suffer adverse effects caused by activities in the Area. The Commission shall make the recommendations to the Council that are necessary for the application of the system or other measures adopted by the Assembly in specific cases.

Article 165. The Legal and Technical Commission

1. Members of the Legal and Technical Commission shall have appropriate qualifications such as those relevant to exploration for and exploitation and processing of mineral resources, oceanology, protection of the marine environment, or economic or legal matters relating to ocean mining and related fields of expertise. The Council shall endeavour to ensure that the membership of the Commission reflects all appropriate qualifications.

2. The Commission shall:

(a) make recommendations with regard to the exercise of the Authority's functions upon the request of the Council;

(b) review formal written plans of work for activities in the Area in accordance with Article 153, paragraph 3, and submit appropriate recommendations to the Council. The Commission shall base its recommendations solely on the grounds stated in Annex III and shall report fully thereon to the Council;

(c) supervise, upon the request of the Council, activities in the Area, where appropriate, in consultation and collaboration with any entity carrying out such activities or State or States concerned and report to the Council;

(d) prepare assessments of the environmental implications of activities in the Area;

(e) make recommendations to the Council on the protection of the marine environment, taking into account the views of recognized experts in that field;

(f) formulate and submit to the Council the rules, regulations and procedures referred to in Article 162, paragraph 2(o), taking into account all relevant factors including assessments of the environmental implications of activities in the Area;

(g) keep such rules, regulations and procedures under review and recommend to the Council from time to time such amendments thereto as it may deem necessary or desirable;

(h) make recommendations to the Council regarding the establishment of a monitoring programme to observe, measure, evaluate and analyse, by recognized scientific methods, on a regular basis, the risks or effects of pollution of the marine environment resulting from activities in the Area, ensure that existing regulations are adequate and are complied with and coordinate the implementation of the monitoring programme approved by the Council;

(i) recommend to the Council that proceedings be instituted on behalf of the Authority before the Seabed Disputes Chamber, in accordance with this Part and the relevant Annexes taking into account particularly Article 187;

(j) make recommendations to the Council with respect to measures to be taken, upon a decision by the Seabed Disputes Chamber in proceedings instituted in accordance with subparagraph (i);

(k) make recommendations to the Council to issue emergency orders, which may include orders for the suspension or adjustment of operations, to prevent serious harm to the marine environment arising out of activities in the Area. Such recommendations shall be taken up by the Council on a priority basis;

(l) make recommendations to the Council to disapprove areas for exploitation by contractors or the Enterprise in cases where substantial evidence indicates the risk of serious harm to the marine environment;

(m) make recommendations to the Council regarding the direction and supervision of a staff of inspectors who shall inspect activities in the Area to determine whether the provisions of this Part, the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, and the terms and conditions of any contract with the Authority are being complied with;

(n) calculate the production ceiling and issue production authorizations on behalf of the Authority pursuant to Article 151, paragraphs 2 to 7, following any necessary selection among applicants for production authorizations by the Council in accordance with Annex III, Article 7.

3. The members of the Commission shall, upon request by any State Party or other party concerned, be accompanied by a representative of such State or other party concerned when carrying out their function of supervision and inspection.

Subsection D. THE SECRETARIAT

Article 166. The Secretariat

1. The Secretariat of the Authority shall comprise a Secretary-General and such staff as the Authority may require.

2. The Secretary-General shall be elected for four years by the Assembly from among the candidates proposed by the Council and may be re-elected.

3. The Secretary-General shall be the chief administrative officer of the Authority, and shall act in that capacity in all meetings of the Assembly, of the Council and of any subsidiary organ, and shall perform such other administrative functions as are entrusted to the Secretary-General by these organs.

4. The Secretary-General shall make an annual report to the Assembly on the work of the Authority.

Article 167. The staff of the Authority

1. The staff of the Authority shall consist of such qualified scientific and technical and other personnel as may be required to fulfil the administrative functions of the Authority.

2. The paramount consideration in the recruitment and employment of the staff and in the determination of their conditions of service shall be the necessity of securing the highest standards of efficiency, competence and integrity. Subject to this consideration, due regard shall be paid to the importance of recruiting the staff on as wide a geographical basis as possible.

3. The staff shall be appointed by the Secretary-General. The terms and conditions on which they shall be appointed, remunerated and dismissed shall be in accordance with the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

Article 168. International character of the Secretariat

1. In the performance of their duties the Secretary-General and the staff shall not seek or receive instructions from any government or from any other source external to the Authority. They shall refrain from any action which might reflect on their position as international officials responsible only to the Authority. Each State Party undertakes to respect the exclusively international character of the responsibilities of the Secretary-General and the staff and not to seek to influence them in the discharge of their responsibilities. Any violation of responsibilities by a staff member shall be submitted to the appropriate administrative tribunal as provided in the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

2. The Secretary-General and the staff shall have no financial interest in any activity relating to exploration and exploitation in the Area. Subject to their responsibilities to the Authority, they shall not disclose, even after the termination of their functions, any industrial secret, proprietary data which are transferred to the Authority in accordance with Annex III, Article 14, or any other confidential information coming to their knowledge by reason of their employment with the Authority.

3. Violations of the obligations of a staff member of the Authority set forth in paragraph 2 shall, on the request of a State Party affected by such violation, or a natural or juridical person, sponsored by a State Party as provided in Article 153, paragraph 2(b), and affected by such violation, be submitted by the Authority against the staff member concerned to a tribunal designated by the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority. The Party affected shall have the right to take part in the proceedings. If the tribunal so recommends, the Secretary-General shall dismiss the staff member concerned.

4. The rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority shall contain such provisions as are necessary to implement this article.

Article 169. Consultation and cooperation with international and non-governmental organizations

1. The Secretary-General shall, on matters within the competence of the Authority, make suitable arrangements, with the approval of the Council, for consultation and cooperation with international and non-governmental organizations recognized by the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations.

2. Any organization with which the Secretary-General has entered into an arrangement under paragraph 1 may designate representatives to attend meetings of the organs of the Authority as observers in accordance with the rules of procedure of these organs. Procedures shall be established for obtaining the views of such organizations in appropriate cases.

3. The Secretary-General may distribute to States Parties written reports submitted by the non-governmental organizations referred to in paragraph l on subjects in which they have special competence and which are related to the work of the Authority.

Subsection E. THE ENTERPRISE

Article 170. The Enterprise

1. The Enterprise shall be the organ of the Authority which shall carry out activities in the Area directly, pursuant to Article 153, paragraph 2(a), as well as the transporting, processing and marketing of minerals recovered from the Area.

2. The Enterprise shall, within the framework of the international legal personality of the Authority, have such legal capacity as is provided for in the Statute set forth in Annex IV. The Enterprise shall act in accordance with this Convention and the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, as well as the general policies established by the Assembly, and shall be subject to the directives and control of the Council.

3. The Enterprise shall have its principal place of business at the seat of the Authority.

4. The Enterprise shall, in accordance with Article 173, paragraph 2, and Annex IV, Article 11, be provided with such funds as it may require to carry out its functions, and shall receive technology as provided in Article 144 and other relevant provisions of this Convention.

Subsection F. FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS OF THE AUTHORITY

Article 171. Funds of the Authority

The funds of the Authority shall include:

(a) assessed contributions made by members of the Authority in accordance with Article 160, paragraph 2(e);

(b) funds received by the Authority pursuant to Annex III, Article 13, in connection with activities in the Area;

(c) funds transferred from the Enterprise in accordance with Annex IV, Article 10;

(d) funds borrowed pursuant to Article 174;

(e) voluntary contributions made by members or other entities; and

(f) payments to a compensation fund, in accordance with Article 151, paragraph 10, whose sources are to be recommended by the Economic Planning Commission.

Article 172. Annual budget of the Authority

The Secretary-General shall draft the proposed annual budget of the Authority and submit it to the Council. The Council shall consider the proposed annual budget and submit it to the Assembly, together with any recommendations thereon. The Assembly shall consider and approve the proposed annual budget in accordance with Article 160, paragraph 2(h).

Article 173. Expenses of the Authority

1. The contributions referred to in Article 171, subparagraph (a), shall be paid into a special account to meet the administrative expenses of the Authority until the Authority has sufficient funds from other sources to meet those expenses.

2. The administrative expenses of the Authority shall be a first call upon the funds of the Authority. Except for the assessed contributions referred to in Article 171, subparagraph (a), the funds which remain after payment of administrative expenses may, inter alia:

(a) be shared in accordance with Article 140 and Article 160, paragraph 2(g);

(b) be used to provide the Enterprise with funds in accordance with Article 170, paragraph 4;

(c) be used to compensate developing States in accordance with Article 151, paragraph 10, and Article 160, paragraph 2(l).

Article 174. Borrowing power of the Authority

1. The Authority shall have the power to borrow funds.

2. The Assembly shall prescribe the limits on the borrowing power of the Authority in the financial regulations adopted pursuant to Article 160, paragraph 2(f).

3. The Council shall exercise the borrowing power of the Authority.

4. States Parties shall not be liable for the debts of the Authority.

Article175. Annual audit

The records, books and accounts of the Authority, including its annual financial statements, shall be audited annually by an independent auditor appointed by the Assembly.

Subsection G. LEGAL STATUS, PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES

Article 176. Legal status

The Authority shall have international legal personality and such legal capacity as may be necessary for the exercise of its functions and the fulfilment of its purposes.

Article 177. Privileges and immunities

To enable the Authority to exercise its functions, it shall enjoy in the territory of each State Party the privileges and immunities set forth in this subsection. The privileges and immunities relating to the Enterprise shall be those set forth in Annex IV, Article 13.

Article 178. Immunity from legal process

The Authority, its property and assets, shall enjoy immunity from legal process except to the extent that the Authority expressly waives this immunity in a particular case.

Article 179. Immunity from search and any form of seizure

The property and assets of the Authority, wherever located and by whomsoever held, shall be immune from search, requisition, confiscation, expropriation or any other form of seizure by executive or legislative action.

Article 180. Exemption from restrictions, regulations, controls and moratoria

The property and assets of the Authority shall be exempt from restrictions, regulations, controls and moratoria of any nature.

Article 181. Archives and official communications of the Authority

1. The archives of the Authority, wherever located, shall be inviolable.

2. Proprietary data, industrial secrets or similar information and personnel records shall not be placed in archives which are open to public inspection.

3. With regard to its official communications, the Authority shall be accorded by each State Party treatment no less favourable than that accorded by that State to other international organizations.

Article 182. Privileges and immunities of certain persons connected with the Authority

Representatives of States Parties attending meetings of the Assembly, the Council or organs of the Assembly or the Council, and the Secretary-General and staff of the Authority, shall enjoy in the territory of each State Party:

(a) immunity from legal process with respect to acts performed by them in the exercise of their functions, except to the extent that the State which they represent or the Authority, as appropriate, expressly waives this immunity in a particular case;

(b) if they are not nationals of that State Party, the same exemptions from immigration restrictions, alien registration requirements and national service obligations, the same facilities as regards exchange restrictions and the same treatment in respect of travelling facilities as are accorded by that State to the representatives, officials and employees of comparable rank of other States Parties.

Article 183. Exemption from taxes and customs duties

1. Within the scope of its official activities, the Authority, its assets and property, its income, and its operations and transactions, authorized by this Convention, shall be exempt from all direct taxation and goods imported or exported for its official use shall be exempt from all customs duties. The Authority shall not claim exemption from taxes which are no more than charges for services rendered.

2. When purchases of goods or services of substantial value necessary for the official activities of the Authority are made by or on behalf of the Authority, and when the price of such goods or services includes taxes or duties, appropriate measures shall, to the extent practicable, be taken by States Parties to grant exemption from such taxes or duties or provide for their reimbursement. Goods imported or purchased under an exemption provided for in this Article shall not be sold or otherwise disposed of in the territory of the State Party which granted the exemption, except under conditions agreed with that State Party.

3. No tax shall be levied by States Parties on or in respect of salaries and emoluments paid or any other form of payment made by the Authority to the Secretary-General and staff of the Authority, as well as experts performing missions for the Authority, who are not their nationals.

Subsection H. SUSPENSION OF THE EXERCISE OF RIGHTS AND PRIVILEGES OF MEMBERS

Article 184. Suspension of the exercise of voting rights

A State Party which is in arrears in the payment of its financial contributions to the Authority shall have no vote if the amount of its arrears equals or exceeds the amount of the contributions due from it for the preceding two full years. The Assembly may, nevertheless, permit such a member to vote if it is satisfied that the failure to pay is due to conditions beyond the control of the member.

Article 185. Suspension of exercise of rights and privileges of membership

1. A State Party which has grossly and persistently violated the provisions of this Part may be suspended from the exercise of the rights and privileges of membership by the Assembly upon the recommendation of the Council.

2. No action may be taken under paragraph 1 until the Seabed Disputes Chamber has found that a State Party has grossly and persistently violated the provisions of this Part.

Part XI. SECTION 5

Section 5. SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES AND ADVISORY OPINIONS

Article 186. Seabed Disputes Chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea

The establishment of the Seabed Disputes Chamber and the manner in which it shall exercise its jurisdiction shall be governed by the provisions of this section, of Part XV and of Annex VI.

Article 187. Jurisdiction of the Seabed Disputes Chamber

The Seabed Disputes Chamber shall have jurisdiction under this Part and the Annexes relating thereto in disputes with respect to activities in the Area falling within the following categories:

(a) disputes between States Parties concerning the interpretation or application of this Part and the Annexes relating thereto;

(b) disputes between a State Party and the Authority concerning:

(i) acts or omissions of the Authority or of a State Party alleged to be in violation of this Part or the Annexes relating thereto or of rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority adopted in accordance therewith; or

(ii) acts of the Authority alleged to be in excess of jurisdiction or a misuse of power;

(c) disputes between parties to a contract, being States Parties, the Authority or the Enterprise, state enterprises and natural or juridical persons referred to in Article 153, paragraph 2(b), concerning:

(i) the interpretation or application of a relevant contract or a plan of work; or

(ii) acts or omissions of a party to the contract relating to activities in the Area and directed to the other party or directly affecting its legitimate interests;

(d) disputes between the Authority and a prospective contractor who has been sponsored by a State as provided in Article 153, paragraph 2(b), and has duly fulfilled the conditions referred to in Annex III, Article 4, paragraph 6, and Article 13, paragraph 2, concerning the refusal of a contract or a legal issue arising in the negotiation of the contract;

(e) disputes between the Authority and a State Party, a state enterprise or a natural or juridical person sponsored by a State Party as provided for in Article 153, paragraph 2(b), where it is alleged that the Authority has incurred liability as provided in Annex III, Article 22;

(f) any other disputes for which the jurisdiction of the Chamber is specifically provided in this Convention.

Article 188. Submission of disputes to a special chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea or an ad hoc chamber of the Seabed Disputes Chamber or to binding commercial arbitration

1. Disputes between States Parties referred to in Article 187, subparagraph (a), may be submitted:

(a) at the request of the parties to the dispute, to a special chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea to be formed in accordance with Annex VI, articles 15 and 17; or

(b) at the request of any party to the dispute, to an ad hoc chamber of the Seabed Disputes Chamber to be formed in accordance with Annex VI, Article 36.

2. (a) Disputes concerning the interpretation or application of a contract referred to in Article 187, subparagraph (c)(i), shall be submitted, at the request of any party to the dispute, to binding commercial arbitration, unless the parties otherwise agree. A commercial arbitral tribunal to which the dispute is submitted shall have no jurisdiction to decide any question of interpretation of this Convention. When the dispute also involves a question of the interpretation of Part XI and the Annexes relating thereto, with respect to activities in the Area, that question shall be referred to the Seabed Disputes Chamber for a ruling.

(b) If, at the commencement of or in the course of such arbitration, the arbitral tribunal determines, either at the request of any party to the dispute or proprio motu, that its decision depends upon a ruling of the Seabed Disputes Chamber, the arbitral tribunal shall refer such question to the Seabed Disputes Chamber for such ruling. The arbitral tribunal shall then proceed to render its award in conformity with the ruling of the Seabed Disputes Chamber.

(c) In the absence of a provision in the contract on the arbitration procedure to be applied in the dispute, the arbitration shall be conducted in accordance with the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules or such other arbitration rules as may be prescribed in the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, unless the parties to the dispute otherwise agree.

Article 189. Limitation on jurisdiction with regard to decisions of the Authority

The Seabed Disputes Chamber shall have no jurisdiction with regard to the exercise by the Authority of its discretionary powers in accordance with this Part; in no case shall it substitute its discretion for that of the Authority. Without prejudice to Article 191, in exercising its jurisdiction pursuant to Article 187, the Seabed Disputes Chamber shall not pronounce itself on the question of whether any rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority are in conformity with this Convention, nor declare invalid any such rules, regulations and procedures. Its jurisdiction in this regard shall be confined to deciding claims that the application of any rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority in individual cases would be in conflict with the contractual obligations of the parties to the dispute or their obligations under this Convention, claims concerning excess of jurisdiction or misuse of power, and to claims for damages to be paid or other remedy to be given to the party concerned for the failure of the other party to comply with its contractual obligations or its obligations under this Convention.

Article 190. Participation and appearance of sponsoring States Parties in proceedings

1. If a natural or juridical person is a party to a dispute referred to in Article 187, the sponsoring State shall be given notice thereof and shall have the right to participate in the proceedings by submitting written or oral statements.

2. If an action is brought against a State Party by a natural or juridical person sponsored by another State Party in a dispute referred to in Article 187, subparagraph (c), the respondent State may request the State sponsoring that person to appear in the proceedings on behalf of that person. Failing such appearance, the respondent State may arrange to be represented by a juridical person of its nationality.

Article 191. Advisory opinions

The Seabed Disputes Chamber shall give advisory opinions at the request of the Assembly or the Council on legal questions arising within the scope of their activities. Such opinions shall be given as a matter of urgency.

Part XII

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 192. General obligation

States have the obligation to protect and preserve the marine environment.

Article 193. Sovereign right of States to exploit their natural resources

States have the sovereign right to exploit their natural resources pursuant to their environmental policies and in accordance with their duty to protect and preserve the marine environment.

Article 194. Measures to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment

1. States shall take, individually or jointly as appropriate, all measures consistent with this Convention that are necessary to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from any source, using for this purpose the best practicable means at their disposal and in accordance with their capabilities, and they shall endeavour to harmonize their policies in this connection.

2. States shall take all measures necessary to ensure that activities under their jurisdiction or control are so conducted as not to cause damage by pollution to other States and their environment, and that pollution arising from incidents or activities under their jurisdiction or control does not spread beyond the areas where they exercise sovereign rights in accordance with this Convention.

3. The measures taken pursuant to this Part shall deal with all sources of pollution of the marine environment. These measures shall include, inter alia, those designed to minimize to the fullest possible extent:

(a) the release of toxic, harmful or noxious substances, especially those which are persistent, from land-based sources, from or through the atmosphere or by dumping;

(b) pollution from vessels, in particular measures for preventing accidents and dealing with emergencies, ensuring the safety of operations at sea, preventing intentional and unintentional discharges, and regulating the design, construction, equipment, operation and manning of vessels;

(c) pollution from installations and devices used in exploration or exploitation of the natural resources of the seabed and subsoil, in particular measures for preventing accidents and dealing with emergencies, ensuring the safety of operations at sea, and regulating the design, construction, equipment, operation and manning of such installations or devices;

(d) pollution from other installations and devices operating in the marine environment, in particular measures for preventing accidents and dealing with emergencies, ensuring the safety of operations at sea, and regulating the design, construction, equipment, operation and manning of such installations or devices.

4. In taking measures to prevent, reduce or control pollution of the marine environment, States shall refrain from unjustifiable interference with activities carried out by other States in the exercise of their rights and in pursuance of their duties in conformity with this Convention.

5. The measures taken in accordance with this Part shall include those necessary to protect and preserve rare or fragile ecosystems as well as the habitat of depleted, threatened or endangered species and other forms of marine life.

Article 195. Duty not to transfer damage or hazards or transform one type of pollution into another

In taking measures to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment, States shall act so as not to transfer, directly or indirectly, damage or hazards from one area to another or transform one type of pollution into another.

Article 196. Use of technologies or introduction of alien or new species

1. States shall take all measures necessary to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment resulting from the use of technologies under their jurisdiction or control, or the intentional or accidental introduction of species, alien or new, to a particular part of the marine environment, which may cause significant and harmful changes thereto.

2. This Article does not affect the application of this Convention regarding the prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment.

Section 2. GLOBAL AND REGIONAL COOPERATION

Article 197. Cooperation on a global or regional basis

States shall cooperate on a global basis and, as appropriate, on a regional basis, directly or through competent international organizations, in formulating and elaborating international rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures consistent with this Convention, for the protection and preservation of the marine environment, taking into account characteristic regional features.

Article 198. Notification of imminent or actual damage

When a State becomes aware of cases in which the marine environment is in imminent danger of being damaged or has been damaged by pollution, it shall immediately notify other States it deems likely to be affected by such damage, as well as the competent international organizations.

Article 199. Contingency plans against pollution

In the cases referred to in Article 198, States in the area affected, in accordance with their capabilities, and the competent international organizations shall cooperate, to the extent possible, in eliminating the effects of pollution and preventing or minimizing the damage. To this end, States shall jointly develop and promote contingency plans for responding to pollution incidents in the marine environment.

Article 200. Studies, research programmes and exchange of information and data

States shall cooperate, directly or through competent international organizations, for the purpose of promoting studies, undertaking programmes of scientific research and encouraging the exchange of information and data acquired about pollution of the marine environment. They shall endeavour to participate actively in regional and global programmes to acquire knowledge for the assessment of the nature and extent of pollution, exposure to it, and its pathways, risks and remedies.

Article 201. Scientific criteria for regulations

In the light of the information and data acquired pursuant to Article 200, States shall cooperate, directly or through competent international organizations, in establishing appropriate scientific criteria for the formulation and elaboration of rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment.

Section 3. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE

Article 202. Scientific and technical assistance to developing States

States shall, directly or through competent international organizations:

(a) promote programmes of scientific, educational, technical and other assistance to developing States for the protection and preservation of the marine environment and the prevention, reduction and control of marine pollution. Such assistance shall include, inter alia:

(i) training of their scientific and technical personnel;

(ii) facilitating their participation in relevant international programmes;

(iii) supplying them with necessary equipment and facilities;

(iv) enhancing their capacity to manufacture such equipment;

(v) advice on and developing facilities for research, monitoring, educational and other programmes;

(b) provide appropriate assistance, especially to developing States, for the minimization of the effects of major incidents which may cause serious pollution of the marine environment;

(c) provide appropriate assistance, especially to developing States, concerning the preparation of environmental assessments.

Article 203. Preferential treatment for developing States

Developing States shall, for the purposes of prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment or minimization of its effects, be granted preference by international organizations in:

(a) the allocation of appropriate funds and technical assistance; and

(b) the utilization of their specialized services.

Section 4. MONITORING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

Article 204. Monitoring of the risks or effects of pollution

1. States shall, consistent with the rights of other States, endeavour, as far as practicable, directly or through the competent international organizations, to observe, measure, evaluate and analyse, by recognized scientific methods, the risks or effects of pollution of the marine environment.

2. In particular, States shall keep under surveillance the effects of any activities which they permit or in which they engage in order to determine whether these activities are likely to pollute the marine environment.

Article 205. Publication of reports

States shall publish reports of the results obtained pursuant to Article 204 or provide such reports at appropriate intervals to the competent international organizations, which should make them available to all States.

Article 206. Assessment of potential effects of activities

When States have reasonable grounds for believing that planned activities under their jurisdiction or control may cause substantial pollution of or significant and harmful changes to the marine environment, they shall, as far as practicable, assess the potential effects of such activities on the marine environment and shall communicate reports of the results of such assessments in the manner provided in Article 205.

Section 5. INTERNATIONAL RULES AND NATIONAL LEGISLATION TO PREVENT, REDUCE AND CONTROL POLLUTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

Article 207. Pollution from and-based sources

1. States shall adopt laws and regulations to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from land-based sources, including rivers, estuaries, pipelines and outfall structures, taking into account internationally agreed rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures.

2. States shall take other measures as may be necessary to prevent, reduce and control such pollution.

3. States shall endeavour to harmonize their policies in this connection at the appropriate regional level.

4. States, acting especially through competent international organizations or diplomatic conference, shall endeavour to establish global and regional rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from land-based sources, taking into account characteristic regional features, the economic capacity of developing States and their need for economic development. Such rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures shall be re-examined from time to time as necessary.

5. Laws, regulations, measures, rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures referred to in paragraphs 1, 2 and 4 shall include those designed to minimize, to the fullest extent possible, the release of toxic, harmful or noxious substances, especially those which are persistent, into the marine environment.

Article 208. Pollution from seabed activities subject to national jurisdiction

1. Coastal States shall adopt laws and regulations to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment arising from or in connection with seabed activities subject to their jurisdiction and from artificial islands, installations and structures under their jurisdiction, pursuant to articles 60 and 80.

2. States shall take other measures as may be necessary to prevent, reduce and control such pollution.

3. Such laws, regulations and measures shall be no less effective than international rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures.

4. States shall endeavour to harmonize their policies in this connection at the appropriate regional level.

5. States, acting especially through competent international organizations or diplomatic conference, shall establish global and regional rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment referred to in paragraph l. Such rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures shall be re-examined from time to time as necessary.

Article 209. Pollution from activities in the Area

1. International rules, regulations and procedures shall be established in accordance with Part XI to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from activities in the Area. Such rules, regulations and procedures shall be re-examined from time to time as necessary.

2. Subject to the relevant provisions of this section, States shall adopt laws and regulations to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from activities in the Area undertaken by vessels, installations, structures and other devices flying their flag or of their registry or operating under their authority, as the case may be. The requirements of such laws and regulations shall be no less effective than the international rules, regulations and procedures referred to in paragraph 1.

Article 210. Pollution by dumping

1. States shall adopt laws and regulations to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment by dumping.

2. States shall take other measures as may be necessary to prevent, reduce and control such pollution.

3. Such laws, regulations and measures shall ensure that dumping is not carried out without the permission of the competent authorities of States.

4. States, acting especially through competent international organizations or diplomatic conference, shall endeavour to establish global and regional rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures to prevent, reduce and control such pollution. Such rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures shall be re-examined from time to time as necessary.

5. Dumping within the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone or onto the continental shelf shall not be carried out without the express prior approval of the coastal State, which has the right to permit, regulate and control such dumping after due consideration of the matter with other States which by reason of their geographical situation may be adversely affected thereby.

6. National laws, regulations and measures shall be no less effective in preventing, reducing and controlling such pollution than the global rules and standards.

Article 211. Pollution from vessels

1. States, acting through the competent international organization or general diplomatic conference, shall establish international rules and standards to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from vessels and promote the adoption, in the same manner, wherever appropriate, of routeing systems designed to minimize the threat of accidents which might cause pollution of the marine environment, including the coastline, and pollution damage to the related interests of coastal States. Such rules and standards shall, in the same manner, be re-examined from time to time as necessary.

2. States shall adopt laws and regulations for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment from vessels flying their flag or of their registry. Such laws and regulations shall at least have the same effect as that of generally accepted international rules and standards established through the competent international organization or general diplomatic conference.

3. States which establish particular requirements for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment as a condition for the entry of foreign vessels into their ports or internal waters or for a call at their off-shore terminals shall give due publicity to such requirements and shall communicate them to the competent international organization. Whenever such requirements are established in identical form by two or more coastal States in an endeavour to harmonize policy, the communication shall indicate which States are participating in such cooperative arrangements. Every State shall require the master of a vessel flying its flag or of its registry, when navigating within the territorial sea of a State participating in such cooperative arrangements, to furnish, upon the request of that State, information as to whether it is proceeding to a State of the same region participating in such cooperative arrangements and, if so, to indicate whether it complies with the port entry requirements of that State. This Article is without prejudice to the continued exercise by a vessel of its right of innocent passage or to the application of Article 25, paragraph 2.

4. Coastal States may, in the exercise of their sovereignty within their territorial sea, adopt laws and regulations for the prevention, reduction and control of marine pollution from foreign vessels, including vessels exercising the right of innocent passage. Such laws and regulations shall, in accordance with Part II, section 3, not hamper innocent passage of foreign vessels.

5. Coastal States, for the purpose of enforcement as provided for in section 6, may in respect of their exclusive economic zones adopt laws and regulations for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution from vessels conforming to and giving effect to generally accepted international rules and standards established through the competent international organization or general diplomatic conference.

6. (a) Where the international rules and standards referred to in paragraph 1 are inadequate to meet special circumstances and coastal States have reasonable grounds for believing that a particular, clearly defined area of their respective exclusive economic zones is an area where the adoption of special mandatory measures for the prevention of pollution from vessels is required for recognized technical reasons in relation to its oceanographical and ecological conditions, as well as its utilization or the protection of its resources and the particular character of its traffic, the coastal States, after appropriate consultations through the competent international organization with any other States concerned, may, for that area, direct a communication to that organization, submitting scientific and technical evidence in support and information on necessary reception facilities. Within 12 months after receiving such a communication, the organization shall determine whether the conditions in that area correspond to the requirements set out above. If the organization so determines, the coastal States may, for that area, adopt laws and regulations for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution from vessels implementing such international rules and standards or navigational practices as are made applicable, through the organization, for special areas. These laws and regulations shall not become applicable to foreign vessels until 15 months after the submission of the communication to the organization.

(b) The coastal States shall publish the limits of any such particular, clearly defined area.

(c) If the coastal States intend to adopt additional laws and regulations for the same area for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution from vessels, they shall, when submitting the aforesaid communication, at the same time notify the organization thereof. Such additional laws and regulations may relate to discharges or navigational practices but shall not require foreign vessels to observe design, construction, manning or equipment standards other than generally accepted international rules and standards; they shall become applicable to foreign vessels 15 months after the submission of the communication to the organization, provided that the organization agrees within 12 months after the submission of the communication.

7. The international rules and standards referred to in this Article should include inter alia those relating to prompt notification to coastal States, whose coastline or related interests may be affected by incidents, including maritime casualties, which involve discharges or probability of discharges.

Article 212. Pollution from or through the atmosphere

1. States shall adopt laws and regulations to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from or through the atmosphere, applicable to the air space under their sovereignty and to vessels flying their flag or vessels or aircraft of their registry, taking into account internationally agreed rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures and the safety of air navigation.

2. States shall take other measures as may be necessary to prevent, reduce and control such pollution.

3. States, acting especially through competent international organizations or diplomatic conference, shall endeavour to establish global and regional rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures to prevent, reduce and control such pollution.

Section 6. ENFORCEMENT

Article 213. Enforcement with respect to pollution from land-based sources

States shall enforce their laws and regulations adopted in accordance with Article 207 and shall adopt laws and regulations and take other measures necessary to implement applicable international rules and standards established through competent international organizations or diplomatic conference to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from land-based sources.

Article 214. Enforcement with respect to pollution from seabed activities

States shall enforce their laws and regulations adopted in accordance with Article 208 and shall adopt laws and regulations and take other measures necessary to implement applicable international rules and standards established through competent international organizations or diplomatic conference to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment arising from or in connection with seabed activities subject to their jurisdiction and from artificial islands, installations and structures under their jurisdiction, pursuant to articles 60 and 80.

Article 215. Enforcement with respect to pollution from activities in the Area

Enforcement of international rules, regulations and procedures established in accordance with Part XI to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from activities in the Area shall be governed by that Part.

Article 216. Enforcement with respect to pollution by dumping

1. Laws and regulations adopted in accordance with this Convention and applicable international rules and standards established through competent international organizations or diplomatic conference for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment by dumping shall be enforced:

(a) by the coastal State with regard to dumping within its territorial sea or its exclusive economic zone or onto its continental shelf;

(b) by the flag State with regard to vessels flying its flag or vessels or aircraft of its registry;

(c) by any State with regard to acts of loading of wastes or other matter occurring within its territory or at its off-shore terminals.

2. No State shall be obliged by virtue of this Article to institute proceedings when another State has already instituted proceedings in accordance with this article.

Article 217. Enforcement by flag States

1. States shall ensure compliance by vessels flying their flag or of their registry with applicable international rules and standards, established through the competent international organization or general diplomatic conference, and with their laws and regulations adopted in accordance with this Convention for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment from vessels and shall accordingly adopt laws and regulations and take other measures necessary for their implementation. Flag States shall provide for the effective enforcement of such rules, standards, laws and regulations, irrespective of where a violation occurs.

2. States shall, in particular, take appropriate measures in order to ensure that vessels flying their flag or of their registry are prohibited from sailing, until they can proceed to sea in compliance with the requirements of the international rules and standards referred to in paragraph 1, including requirements in respect of design, construction, equipment and manning of vessels.

3. States shall ensure that vessels flying their flag or of their registry carry on board certificates required by and issued pursuant to international rules and standards referred to in paragraph 1. States shall ensure that vessels flying their flag are periodically inspected in order to verify that such certificates are in conformity with the actual condition of the vessels. These certificates shall be accepted by other States as evidence of the condition of the vessels and shall be regarded as having the same force as certificates issued by them, unless there are clear grounds for believing that the condition of the vessel does not correspond substantially with the particulars of the certificates.

4. If a vessel commits a violation of rules and standards established through the competent international organization or general diplomatic conference, the flag State, without prejudice to articles 218, 220 and 228, shall provide for immediate investigation and where appropriate institute proceedings in respect of the alleged violation irrespective of where the violation occurred or where the pollution caused by such violation has occurred or has been spotted.

5. Flag States conducting an investigation of the violation may request the assistance of any other State whose cooperation could be useful in clarifying the circumstances of the case. States shall endeavour to meet appropriate requests of flag States.

6. States shall, at the written request of any State, investigate any violation alleged to have been committed by vessels flying their flag. If satisfied that sufficient evidence is available to enable proceedings to be brought in respect of the alleged violation, flag States shall without delay institute such proceedings in accordance with their laws.

7. Flag States shall promptly inform the requesting State and the competent international organization of the action taken and its outcome. Such information shall be available to all States.

8. Penalties provided for by the laws and regulations of States for vessels flying their flag shall be adequate in severity to discourage violations wherever they occur.

Article 218. Enforcement by port States

1. When a vessel is voluntarily within a port or at an off-shore terminal of a State, that State may undertake investigations and, where the evidence so warrants, institute proceedings in respect of any discharge from that vessel outside the internal waters, territorial sea or exclusive economic zone of that State in violation of applicable international rules and standards established through the competent international organization or general diplomatic conference.

2. No proceedings pursuant to paragraph 1 shall be instituted in respect of a discharge violation in the internal waters, territorial sea or exclusive economic zone of another State unless requested by that State, the flag State, or a State damaged or threatened by the discharge violation, or unless the violation has caused or is likely to cause pollution in the internal waters, territorial sea or exclusive economic zone of the State instituting the proceedings.

3. When a vessel is voluntarily within a port or at an off-shore terminal of a State, that State shall, as far as practicable, comply with requests from any State for investigation of a discharge violation referred to in paragraph 1, believed to have occurred in, caused, or threatened damage to the internal waters, territorial sea or exclusive economic zone of the requesting State. It shall likewise, as far as practicable, comply with requests from the flag State for investigation of such a violation, irrespective of where the violation occurred.

4. The records of the investigation carried out by a port State pursuant to this Article shall be transmitted upon request to the flag State or to the coastal State. Any proceedings instituted by the port State on the basis of such an investigation may, subject to section 7, be suspended at the request of the coastal State when the violation has occurred within its internal waters, territorial sea or exclusive economic zone. The evidence and records of the case, together with any bond or other financial security posted with the authorities of the port State, shall in that event be transmitted to the coastal State. Such transmittal shall preclude the continuation of proceedings in the port State.

Article 219. Measures relating to seaworthiness of vessels to avoid pollution

Subject to section 7, States which, upon request or on their own initiative, have ascertained that a vessel within one of their ports or at one of their off-shore terminals is in violation of applicable international rules and standards relating to seaworthiness of vessels and thereby threatens damage to the marine environment shall, as far as practicable, take administrative measures to prevent the vessel from sailing. Such States may permit the vessel to proceed only to the nearest appropriate repair yard and, upon removal of the causes of the violation, shall permit the vessel to continue immediately.

Article 220. Enforcement by coastal States

1. When a vessel is voluntarily within a port or at an off-shore terminal of a State, that State may, subject to section 7, institute proceedings in respect of any violation of its laws and regulations adopted in accordance with this Convention or applicable international rules and standards for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution from vessels when the violation has occurred within the territorial sea or the exclusive economic zone of that State.

2. Where there are clear grounds for believing that a vessel navigating in the territorial sea of a State has, during its passage therein, violated laws and regulations of that State adopted in accordance with this Convention or applicable international rules and standards for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution from vessels, that State, without prejudice to the application of the relevant provisions of Part II, section 3, may undertake physical inspection of the vessel relating to the violation and may, where the evidence so warrants, institute proceedings, including detention of the vessel, in accordance with its laws, subject to the provisions of section 7.

3. Where there are clear grounds for believing that a vessel navigating in the exclusive economic zone or the territorial sea of a State has, in the exclusive economic zone, committed a violation of applicable international rules and standards for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution from vessels or laws and regulations of that State conforming and giving effect to such rules and standards, that State may require the vessel to give information regarding its identity and port of registry, its last and its next port of call and other relevant information required to establish whether a violation has occurred.

4. States shall adopt laws and regulations and take other measures so that vessels flying their flag comply with requests for information pursuant to paragraph 3.

5. Where there are clear grounds for believing that a vessel navigating in the exclusive economic zone or the territorial sea of a State has, in the exclusive economic zone, committed a violation referred to in paragraph 3 resulting in a substantial discharge causing or threatening significant pollution of the marine environment, that State may undertake physical inspection of the vessel for matters relating to the violation if the vessel has refused to give information or if the information supplied by the vessel is manifestly at variance with the evident factual situation and if the circumstances of the case justify such inspection.

6. Where there is clear objective evidence that a vessel navigating in the exclusive economic zone or the territorial sea of a State has, in the exclusive economic zone, committed a violation referred to in paragraph 3 resulting in a discharge causing major damage or threat of major damage to the coastline or related interests of the coastal State, or to any resources of its territorial sea or exclusive economic zone, that State may, subject to section 7, provided that the evidence so warrants, institute proceedings, including detention of the vessel, in accordance with its laws.

7. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 6, whenever appropriate procedures have been established, either through the competent international organization or as otherwise agreed, whereby compliance with requirements for bonding or other appropriate financial security has been assured, the coastal State if bound by such procedures shall allow the vessel to proceed.

8. The provisions of paragraphs 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 also apply in respect of national laws and regulations adopted pursuant to Article 211, paragraph 6.

Article 221. Measures to avoid pollution arising from maritime casualties

1. Nothing in this Part shall prejudice the right of States, pursuant to international law, both customary and conventional, to take and enforce measures beyond the territorial sea proportionate to the actual or threatened damage to protect their coastline or related interests, including fishing, from pollution or threat of pollution following upon a maritime casualty or acts relating to such a casualty, which may reasonably be expected to result in major harmful consequences.

2. For the purposes of this article, "maritime casualty" means a collision of vessels, stranding or other incident of navigation, or other occurrence on board a vessel or external to it resulting in material damage or imminent threat of material damage to a vessel or cargo.

Article 222. Enforcement with respect to pollution from or through the atmosphere

States shall enforce, within the air space under their sovereignty or with regard to vessels flying their flag or vessels or aircraft of their registry, their laws and regulations adopted in accordance with Article 212, paragraph 1, and with other provisions of this Convention and shall adopt laws and regulations and take other measures necessary to implement applicable international rules and standards established through competent international organizations or diplomatic conference to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from or through the atmosphere, in conformity with all relevant international rules and standards concerning the safety of air navigation.

Section 7. SAFEGUARDS

Article 223. Measures to facilitate proceedings

In proceedings instituted pursuant to this Part, States shall take measures to facilitate the hearing of witnesses and the admission of evidence submitted by authorities of another State, or by the competent international organization, and shall facilitate the attendance at such proceedings of official representatives of the competent international organization, the flag State and any State affected by pollution arising out of any violation. The official representatives attending such proceedings shall have such rights and duties as may be provided under national laws and regulations or international law.

Article 224. Exercise of powers of enforcement

The powers of enforcement against foreign vessels under this Part may only be exercised by officials or by warships, military aircraft, or other ships or aircraft clearly marked and identifiable as being on government service and authorized to that effect.

Article 225. Duty to avoid adverse consequences in the exercise of the powers of enforcement

In the exercise under this Convention of their powers of enforcement against foreign vessels, States shall not endanger the safety of navigation or otherwise create any hazard to a vessel, or bring it to an unsafe port or anchorage, or expose the marine environment to an unreasonable risk.

Article 226. Investigation of foreign vessels

1. (a) States shall not delay a foreign vessel longer than is essential for purposes of the investigations provided for in articles 216, 218 and 220. Any physical inspection of a foreign vessel shall be limited to an examination of such certificates, records or other documents as the vessel is required to carry by generally accepted international rules and standards or of any similar documents which it is carrying; further physical inspection of the vessel may be undertaken only after such an examination and only when:

(i) there are clear grounds for believing that the condition of the vessel or its equipment does not correspond substantially with the particulars of those documents;

(ii) the contents of such documents are not sufficient to confirm or verify a suspected violation; or

(iii) the vessel is not carrying valid certificates and records.

(b) If the investigation indicates a violation of applicable laws and regulations or international rules and standards for the protection and preservation of the marine environment, release shall be made promptly subject to reasonable procedures such as bonding or other appropriate financial security.

(c) Without prejudice to applicable international rules and standards relating to the seaworthiness of vessels, the release of a vessel may, whenever it would present an unreasonable threat of damage to the marine environment, be refused or made conditional upon proceeding to the nearest appropriate repair yard. Where release has been refused or made conditional, the flag State of the vessel must be promptly notified, and may seek release of the vessel in accordance with Part XV.

2. States shall cooperate to develop procedures for the avoidance of unnecessary physical inspection of vessels at sea.

Article 227. Non-discrimination with respect to foreign vessels

In exercising their rights and performing their duties under this Part, States shall not discriminate in form or in fact against vessels of any other State.

Article 228. Suspension and restrictions on institution of proceedings

1. Proceedings to impose penalties in respect of any violation of applicable laws and regulations or international rules and standards relating to the prevention, reduction and control of pollution from vessels committed by a foreign vessel beyond the territorial sea of the State instituting proceedings shall be suspended upon the taking of proceedings to impose penalties in respect of corresponding charges by the flag State within six months of the date on which proceedings were first instituted, unless those proceedings relate to a case of major damage to the coastal State or the flag State in question has repeatedly disregarded its obligation to enforce effectively the applicable international rules and standards in respect of violations committed by its vessels. The flag State shall in due course make available to the State previously instituting proceedings a full dossier of the case and the records of the proceedings, whenever the flag State has requested the suspension of proceedings in accordance with this article. When proceedings instituted by the flag State have been brought to a conclusion, the suspended proceedings shall be terminated. Upon payment of costs incurred in respect of such proceedings, any bond posted or other financial security provided in connection with the suspended proceedings shall be released by the coastal State.

2. Proceedings to impose penalties on foreign vessels shall not be instituted after the expiry of three years from the date on which the violation was committed, and shall not be taken by any State in the event of proceedings having been instituted by another State subject to the provisions set out in paragraph 1.

3. The provisions of this Article are without prejudice to the right of the flag State to take any measures, including proceedings to impose penalties, according to its laws irrespective of prior proceedings by another State.

Article 229. Institution of civil proceedings

Nothing in this Convention affects the institution of civil proceedings in respect of any claim for loss or damage resulting from pollution of the marine environment.

Article 230. Monetary penalties and the observance of recognized rights of the accused

1. Monetary penalties only may be imposed with respect to violations of national laws and regulations or applicable international rules and standards for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment, committed by foreign vessels beyond the territorial sea.

2. Monetary penalties only may be imposed with respect to violations of national laws and regulations or applicable international rules and standards for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment, committed by foreign vessels in the territorial sea, except in the case of a wilful and serious act of pollution in the territorial sea.

3. In the conduct of proceedings in respect of such violations committed by a foreign vessel which may result in the imposition of penalties, recognized rights of the accused shall be observed.

Article 231. Notification to the flag State and other States concerned

States shall promptly notify the flag State and any other State concerned of any measures taken pursuant to section 6 against foreign vessels, and shall submit to the flag State all official reports concerning such measures. However, with respect to violations committed in the territorial sea, the foregoing obligations of the coastal State apply only to such measures as are taken in proceedings. The diplomatic agents or consular officers and where possible the maritime authority of the flag State, shall be immediately informed of any such measures taken pursuant to section 6 against foreign vessels.

Article 232. Liability of States arising from enforcement measures

States shall be liable for damage or loss attributable to them arising from measures taken pursuant to section 6 when such measures are unlawful or exceed those reasonably required in the light of available information. States shall provide for recourse in their courts for actions in respect of such damage or loss.

Article 233. Safeguards with respect to straits used for international navigation

Nothing in sections 5, 6 and 7 affects the legal regime of straits used for international navigation. However, if a foreign ship other than those referred to in section 10 has committed a violation of the laws and regulations referred to in Article 42, paragraph 1(a) and (b), causing or threatening major damage to the marine environment of the straits, the States bordering the straits may take appropriate enforcement measures and if so shall respect mutatis mutandis the provisions of this section.

Section 8. ICE-COVERED AREAS

Article 234. Ice-covered areas

Coastal States have the right to adopt and enforce non-discriminatory laws and regulations for the prevention, reduction and control of marine pollution from vessels in ice-covered areas within the limits of the exclusive economic zone, where particularly severe climatic conditions and the presence of ice covering such areas for most of the year create obstructions or exceptional hazards to navigation, and pollution of the marine environment could cause major harm to or irreversible disturbance of the ecological balance. Such laws and regulations shall have due regard to navigation and the protection and preservation of the marine environment based on the best available scientific evidence.

Section 9. RESPONSIBILITY AND LIABILITY

Article 235. Responsibility and liability

1. States are responsible for the fulfilment of their international obligations concerning the protection and preservation of the marine environment. They shall be liable in accordance with international law.

2. States shall ensure that recourse is available in accordance with their legal systems for prompt and adequate compensation or other relief in respect of damage caused by pollution of the marine environment by natural or juridical persons under their jurisdiction.

3. With the objective of assuring prompt and adequate compensation in respect of all damage caused by pollution of the marine environment, States shall cooperate in the implementation of existing international law and the further development of international law relating to responsibility and liability for the assessment of and compensation for damage and the settlement of related disputes, as well as, where appropriate, development of criteria and procedures for payment of adequate compensation, such as compulsory insurance or compensation funds.

Section 10. SOVEREIGN IMMUNITY

Article 236. Sovereign immunity

The provisions of this Convention regarding the protection and preservation of the marine environment do not apply to any warship, naval auxiliary, other vessels or aircraft owned or operated by a State and used, for the time being, only on government non-commercial service. However, each State shall ensure, by the adoption of appropriate measures not impairing operations or operational capabilities of such vessels or aircraft owned or operated by it, that such vessels or aircraft act in a manner consistent, so far as is reasonable and practicable, with this Convention.

Section 11. OBLIGATIONS UNDER OTHER CONVENTIONS ON THE PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

Article 237. Obligations under other conventions on the protection and preservation of the marine environment

1. The provisions of this Part are without prejudice to the specific obligations assumed by States under special conventions and agreements concluded previously which relate to the protection and preservation of the marine environment and to agreements which may be concluded in furtherance of the general principles set forth in this Convention.

2. Specific obligations assumed by States under special conventions, with respect to the protection and preservation of the marine environment, should be carried out in a manner consistent with the general principles and objectives of this Convention.

Part XIII. MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 238. Right to conduct marine scientific research

All States, irrespective of their geographical location, and competent international organizations have the right to conduct marine scientific research subject to the rights and duties of other States as provided for in this Convention.

Article 239. Promotion of marine scientific research

States and competent international organizations shall promote and facilitate the development and conduct of marine scientific research in accordance with this Convention.

Article 240. General principles for the conduct of marine scientific research

In the conduct of marine scientific research the following principles shall apply:

(a) marine scientific research shall be conducted exclusively for peaceful purposes;

(b) marine scientific research shall be conducted with appropriate scientific methods and means compatible with this Convention;

(c) marine scientific research shall not unjustifiably interfere with other legitimate uses of the sea compatible with this Convention and shall be duly respected in the course of such uses;

(d) marine scientific research shall be conducted in compliance with all relevant regulations adopted in conformity with this Convention including those for the protection and preservation of the marine environment.

Article 241. Non-recognition of marine scientific research activities as the legal basis for claims

Marine scientific research activities shall not constitute the legal basis for any claim to any part of the marine environment or its resources.

Section 2. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Article 242. Promotion of international cooperation

1. States and competent international organizations shall, in accordance with the principle of respect for sovereignty and jurisdiction and on the basis of mutual benefit, promote international cooperation in marine scientific research for peaceful purposes.

2. In this context, without prejudice to the rights and duties of States under this Convention, a State, in the application of this Part, shall provide, as appropriate, other States with a reasonable opportunity to obtain from it, or with its cooperation, information necessary to prevent and control damage to the health and safety of persons and to the marine environment.

Article 243. Creation of favourable conditions

States and competent international organizations shall cooperate, through the conclusion of bilateral and multilateral agreements, to create favourable conditions for the conduct of marine scientific research in the marine environment and to integrate the efforts of scientists in studying the essence of phenomena and processes occurring in the marine environment and the interrelations between them.

Article 244. Publication and dissemination of information and knowledge

1. States and competent international organizations shall, in accordance with this Convention, make available by publication and dissemination through appropriate channels information on proposed major programmes and their objectives as well as knowledge resulting from marine scientific research.

2. For this purpose, States, both individually and in cooperation with other States and with competent international organizations, shall actively promote the flow of scientific data and information and the transfer of knowledge resulting from marine scientific research, especially to developing States, as well as the strengthening of the autonomous marine scientific research capabilities of developing States through, inter alia, programmes to provide adequate education and training of their technical and scientific personnel.

Section 3. CONDUCT AND PROMOTION OF MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

Article 245. Marine scientific research in the territorial sea

Coastal States, in the exercise of their sovereignty, have the exclusive right to regulate, authorize and conduct marine scientific research in their territorial sea. Marine scientific research therein shall be conducted only with the express consent of and under the conditions set forth by the coastal State.

Article 246. Marine scientific research in the exclusive economic zone and on the continental shelf

1. Coastal States, in the exercise of their jurisdiction, have the right to regulate, authorize and conduct marine scientific research in their exclusive economic zone and on their continental shelf in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Convention.

2. Marine scientific research in the exclusive economic zone and on the continental shelf shall be conducted with the consent of the coastal State.

3. Coastal States shall, in normal circumstances, grant their consent for marine scientific research projects by other States or competent international organizations in their exclusive economic zone or on their continental shelf to be carried out in accordance with this Convention exclusively for peaceful purposes and in order to increase scientific knowledge of the marine environment for the benefit of all mankind. To this end, coastal States shall establish rules and procedures ensuring that such consent will not be delayed or denied unreasonably.

4. For the purposes of applying paragraph 3, normal circumstances may exist in spite of the absence of diplomatic relations between the coastal State and the researching State.

5. Coastal States may however in their discretion withhold their consent to the conduct of a marine scientific research project of another State or competent international organization in the exclusive economic zone or on the continental shelf of the coastal State if that project:

(a) is of direct significance for the exploration and exploitation of natural resources, whether living or non-living;

(b) involves drilling into the continental shelf, the use of explosives or the introduction of harmful substances into the marine environment;

(c) involves the construction, operation or use of artificial islands, installations and structures referred to in articles 60 and 80;

(d) contains information communicated pursuant to Article 248 regarding the nature and objectives of the project which is inaccurate or if the researching State or competent international organization has outstanding obligations to the coastal State from a prior research project.

6. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 5, coastal States may not exercise their discretion to withhold consent under subparagraph (a) of that paragraph in respect of marine scientific research projects to be undertaken in accordance with the provisions of this Part on the continental shelf, beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured, outside those specific areas which coastal States may at any time publicly designate as areas in which exploitation or detailed exploratory operations focused on those areas are occurring or will occur within a reasonable period of time. Coastal States shall give reasonable notice of the designation of such areas, as well as any modifications thereto, but shall not be obliged to give details of the operations therein.

7. The provisions of paragraph 6 are without prejudice to the rights of coastal States over the continental shelf as established in Article 77.

8. Marine scientific research activities referred to in this Article shall not unjustifiably interfere with activities undertaken by coastal States in the exercise of their sovereign rights and jurisdiction provided for in this Convention.

Article 247. Marine scientific research projects undertaken by or under the auspices of international organizations

A coastal State which is a member of or has a bilateral agreement with an international organization, and in whose exclusive economic zone or on whose continental shelf that organization wants to carry out a marine scientific research project, directly or under its auspices, shall be deemed to have authorized the project to be carried out in conformity with the agreed specifications if that State approved the detailed project when the decision was made by the organization for the undertaking of the project, or is willing to participate in it, and has not expressed any objection within four months of notification of the project by the organization to the coastal State.

Article 248. Duty to provide information to the coastal State

States and competent international organizations which intend to undertake marine scientific research in the exclusive economic zone or on the continental shelf of a coastal State shall, not less than six months in advance of the expected starting date of the marine scientific research project, provide that State with a full description of:

(a) the nature and objectives of the project;

(b) the method and means to be used, including name, tonnage, type and class of vessels and a description of scientific equipment;

(c) the precise geographical areas in which the project is to be conducted;

(d) the expected date of first appearance and final departure of the research vessels, or deployment of the equipment and its removal, as appropriate;

(e) the name of the sponsoring institution, its director, and the person in charge of the project; and

(f) the extent to which it is considered that the coastal State should be able to participate or to be represented in the project.

Article 249. Duty to comply with certain conditions

1. States and competent international organizations when undertaking marine scientific research in the exclusive economic zone or on the continental shelf of a coastal State shall comply with the following conditions:

(a) ensure the right of the coastal State, if it so desires, to participate or be represented in the marine scientific research project, especially on board research vessels and other craft or scientific research installations, when practicable, without payment of any remuneration to the scientists of the coastal State and without obligation to contribute towards the costs of the project;

(b) provide the coastal State, at its request, with preliminary reports, as soon as practicable, and with the final results and conclusions after the completion of the research;

(c) undertake to provide access for the coastal State, at its request, to all data and samples derived from the marine scientific research project and likewise to furnish it with data which may be copied and samples which may be divided without detriment to their scientific value;

(d) if requested, provide the coastal State with an assessment of such data, samples and research results or provide assistance in their assessment or interpretation;

(e) ensure, subject to paragraph 2, that the research results are made internationally available through appropriate national or international channels, as soon as practicable;

(f) inform the coastal State immediately of any major change in the research programme;

(g) unless otherwise agreed, remove the scientific research installations or equipment once the research is completed.

2. This Article is without prejudice to the conditions established by the laws and regulations of the coastal State for the exercise of its discretion to grant or withhold consent pursuant to Article 246, paragraph 5, including requiring prior agreement for making internationally available the research results of a project of direct significance for the exploration and exploitation of natural resources.

Article 250. Communications concerning marine scientific research projects

Communications concerning the marine scientific research projects shall be made through appropriate official channels, unless otherwise agreed.

Article 251. General criteria and guidelines

States shall seek to promote through competent international organizations the establishment of general criteria and guidelines to assist States in ascertaining the nature and implications of marine scientific research.

Article 252. Implied consent

States or competent international organizations may proceed with a marine scientific research project six months after the date upon which the information required pursuant to Article 248 was provided to the coastal State unless within four months of the receipt of the communication containing such information the coastal State has informed the State or organization conducting the research that:

(a) it has withheld its consent under the provisions of Article 246; or

(b) the information given by that State or competent international organization regarding the nature or objectives of the project does not conform to the manifestly evident facts; or

(c) it requires supplementary information relevant to conditions and the information provided for under articles 248 and 249; or

(d) outstanding obligations exist with respect to a previous marine scientific research project carried out by that State or organization, with regard to conditions established in Article 249.

Article 253. Suspension or cessation of marine scientific research activities

1. A coastal State shall have the right to require the suspension of any marine scientific research activities in progress within its exclusive economic zone or on its continental shelf if:

(a) the research activities are not being conducted in accordance with the information communicated as provided under Article 248 upon which the consent of the coastal State was based; or

(b) the State or competent international organization conducting the research activities fails to comply with the provisions of Article 249 concerning the rights of the coastal State with respect to the marine scientific research project.

2. A coastal State shall have the right to require the cessation of any marine scientific research activities in case of any non-compliance with the provisions of Article 248 which amounts to a major change in the research project or the research activities.

3. A coastal State may also require cessation of marine scientific research activities if any of the situations contemplated in paragraph 1 are not rectified within a reasonable period of time.

4. Following notification by the coastal State of its decision to order suspension or cessation, States or competent international organizations authorized to conduct marine scientific research activities shall terminate the research activities that are the subject of such a notification.

5. An order of suspension under paragraph 1 shall be lifted by the coastal State and the marine scientific research activities allowed to continue once the researching State or competent international organization has complied with the conditions required under articles 248 and 249.

Article 254. Rights of neighbouring land-locked and geographically disadvantaged States

1. States and competent international organizations which have submitted to a coastal State a project to undertake marine scientific research referred to in Article 246, paragraph 3, shall give notice to the neighbouring land-locked and geographically disadvantaged States of the proposed research project, and shall notify the coastal State thereof.

2. After the consent has been given for the proposed marine scientific research project by the coastal State concerned, in accordance with Article 246 and other relevant provisions of this Convention, States and competent international organizations undertaking such a project shall provide to the neighbouring land-locked and geographically disadvantaged States, at their request and when appropriate, relevant information as specified in Article 248 and Article 249, paragraph 1(f).

3. The neighbouring land-locked and geographically disadvantaged States referred to above shall, at their request, be given the opportunity to participate, whenever feasible, in the proposed marine scientific research project through qualified experts appointed by them and not objected to by the coastal State, in accordance with the conditions agreed for the project, in conformity with the provisions of this Convention, between the coastal State concerned and the State or competent international organizations conducting the marine scientific research.

4. States and competent international organizations referred to in paragraph 1 shall provide to the above-mentioned land-locked and geographically disadvantaged States, at their request, the information and assistance specified in Article 249, paragraph 1(d), subject to the provisions of Article 249, paragraph 2.

Article 255. Measures to facilitate marine scientific research and assist research vessels

States shall endeavour to adopt reasonable rules, regulations and procedures to promote and facilitate marine scientific research conducted in accordance with this Convention beyond their territorial sea and, as appropriate, to facilitate, subject to the provisions of their laws and regulations, access to their harbours and promote assistance for marine scientific research vessels which comply with the relevant provisions of this Part.

Article 256. Marine scientific research in the Area

All States, irrespective of their geographical location, and competent international organizations have the right, in conformity with the provisions of Part XI, to conduct marine scientific research in the Area.

Article 257. Marine scientific research in the water column beyond the exclusive economic zone

All States, irrespective of their geographical location, and competent international organizations have the right, in conformity with this Convention, to conduct marine scientific research in the water column beyond the limits of the exclusive economic zone.

Section 4. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTALLATIONS OR EQUIPMENT IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

Article 258. Deployment and use

The deployment and use of any type of scientific research installations or equipment in any area of the marine environment shall be subject to the same conditions as are prescribed in this Convention for the conduct of marine scientific research in any such area.

Article 259. Legal status

The installations or equipment referred to in this section do not possess the status of islands. They have no territorial sea of their own, and their presence does not affect the delimitation of the territorial sea, the exclusive economic zone or the continental shelf.

Article 260. Safety zones

Safety zones of a reasonable breadth not exceeding a distance of 500 metres may be created around scientific research installations in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Convention. All States shall ensure that such safety zones are respected by their vessels.

Article 261. Non-interference with shipping routes

The deployment and use of any type of scientific research installations or equipment shall not constitute an obstacle to established international shipping routes.

Article 262. Identification markings and warning signals

Installations or equipment referred to in this section shall bear identification markings indicating the State of registry or the international organization to which they belong and shall have adequate internationally agreed warning signals to ensure safety at sea and the safety of air navigation, taking into account rules and standards established by competent international organizations.

Section 5. RESPONSIBILITY AND LIABILITY

Article 263. Responsibility and liability

1. States and competent international organizations shall be responsible for ensuring that marine scientific research, whether undertaken by them or on their behalf, is conducted in accordance with this Convention.

2. States and competent international organizations shall be responsible and liable for the measures they take in contravention of this Convention in respect of marine scientific research conducted by other States, their natural or juridical persons or by competent international organizations, and shall provide compensation for damage resulting from such measures.

3. States and competent international organizations shall be responsible and liable pursuant to Article 235 for damage caused by pollution of the marine environment arising out of marine scientific research undertaken by them or on their behalf.

Section 6. SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES AND INTERIM MEASURES

Article 264. Settlement of disputes

Disputes concerning the interpretation or application of the provisions of this Convention with regard to marine scientific research shall be settled in accordance with Part XV, sections 2 and 3.

Article 265. Interim measures

Pending settlement of a dispute in accordance with Part XV, sections 2 and 3, the State or competent international organization authorized to conduct a marine scientific research project shall not allow research activities to commence or continue without the express consent of the coastal State concerned.

Part XIV. DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSFER OF MARINE TECHNOLOGY

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 266. Promotion of the development and transfer of marine technology

1. States, directly or through competent international organizations, shall cooperate in accordance with their capabilities to promote actively the development and transfer of marine science and marine technology on fair and reasonable terms and conditions.

2. States shall promote the development of the marine scientific and technological capacity of States which may need and request technical assistance in this field, particularly developing States, including land-locked and geographically disadvantaged States, with regard to the exploration, exploitation, conservation and management of marine resources, the protection and preservation of the marine environment, marine scientific research and other activities in the marine environment compatible with this Convention, with a view to accelerating the social and economic development of the developing States.

3. States shall endeavour to foster favourable economic and legal conditions for the transfer of marine technology for the benefit of all parties concerned on an equitable basis.

Article 267. Protection of legitimate interests

States, in promoting cooperation pursuant to Article 266, shall have due regard for all legitimate interests including, inter alia, the rights and duties of holders, suppliers and recipients of marine technology.

Article 268. Basic objectives

States, directly or through competent international organizations, shall promote:

(a) the acquisition, evaluation and dissemination of marine technological knowledge and facilitate access to such information and data;

(b) the development of appropriate marine technology;

(c) the development of the necessary technological infrastructure to facilitate the transfer of marine technology;

(d) the development of human resources through training and education of nationals of developing States and countries and especially the nationals of the least developed among them;

(e) international cooperation at all levels, particularly at the regional, subregional and bilateral levels.

Article 269. Measures to achieve the basic objectives

In order to achieve the objectives referred to in Article 268, States, directly or through competent international organizations, shall endeavour, inter alia, to:

(a) establish programmes of technical cooperation for the effective transfer of all kinds of marine technology to States which may need and request technical assistance in this field, particularly the developing land-locked and geographically disadvantaged States, as well as other developing States which have not been able either to establish or develop their own technological capacity in marine science and in the exploration and exploitation of marine resources or to develop the infrastructure of such technology;

(b) promote favourable conditions for the conclusion of agreements, contracts and other similar arrangements, under equitable and reasonable conditions;

(c) hold conferences, seminars and symposia on scientific and technological subjects, in particular on policies and methods for the transfer of marine technology;

(d) promote the exchange of scientists and of technological and other experts;

(e) undertake projects and promote joint ventures and other forms of bilateral and multilateral cooperation.

Section 2. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Article 270. Ways and means of international cooperation

International cooperation for the development and transfer of marine technology shall be carried out, where feasible and appropriate, through existing bilateral, regional or multilateral programmes, and also through expanded and new programmes in order to facilitate marine scientific research, the transfer of marine technology, particularly in new fields, and appropriate international funding for ocean research and development.

Article 271. Guidelines, criteria and standards

States, directly or through competent international organizations, shall promote the establishment of generally accepted guidelines, criteria and standards for the transfer of marine technology on a bilateral basis or within the framework of international organizations and other fora, taking into account, in particular, the interests and needs of developing States.

Article 272. Coordination of international programmes

In the field of transfer of marine technology, States shall endeavour to ensure that competent international organizations coordinate their activities, including any regional or global programmes, taking into account the interests and needs of developing States, particularly land-locked and geographically disadvantaged States.

Article 273. Cooperation with international organizations and the Authority

States shall cooperate actively with competent international organizations and the Authority to encourage and facilitate the transfer to developing States, their nationals and the Enterprise of skills and marine technology with regard to activities in the Area.

Article 274. Objectives of the Authority

Subject to all legitimate interests including, inter alia, the rights and duties of holders, suppliers and recipients of technology, the Authority, with regard to activities in the Area, shall ensure that:

(a) on the basis of the principle of equitable geographical distribution, nationals of developing States, whether coastal, land-locked or geographically disadvantaged, shall be taken on for the purposes of training as members of the managerial, research and technical staff constituted for its undertakings;

(b) the technical documentation on the relevant equipment, machinery, devices and processes is made available to all States, in particular developing States which may need and request technical assistance in this field;

(c) adequate provision is made by the Authority to facilitate the acquisition of technical assistance in the field of marine technology by States which may need and request it, in particular developing States, and the acquisition by their nationals of the necessary skills and know-how, including professional training;

(d) States which may need and request technical assistance in this field, in particular developing States, are assisted in the acquisition of necessary equipment, processes, plant and other technical know-how through any financial arrangements provided for in this Convention.

Section 3. NATIONAL AND REGIONAL MARINE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL CENTRES

Article 275. Establishment of national centres

1. States, directly or through competent international organizations and the Authority, shall promote the establishment, particularly in developing coastal States, of national marine scientific and technological research centres and the strengthening of existing national centres, in order to stimulate and advance the conduct of marine scientific research by developing coastal States and to enhance their national capabilities to utilize and preserve their marine resources for their economic benefit.

2. States, through competent international organizations and the Authority, shall give adequate support to facilitate the establishment and strengthening of such national centres so as to provide for advanced training facilities and necessary equipment, skills and know-how as well as technical experts to such States which may need and request such assistance.

Article 276. Establishment of regional centres

1. States, in coordination with the competent international organizations, the Authority and national marine scientific and technological research institutions, shall promote the establishment of regional marine scientific and technological research centres, particularly in developing States, in order to stimulate and advance the conduct of marine scientific research by developing States and foster the transfer of marine technology.

2. All States of a region shall cooperate with the regional centres therein to ensure the more effective achievement of their objectives.

Article 277. Functions of regional centres

The functions of such regional centres shall include, inter alia:

(a) training and educational programmes at all levels on various aspects of marine scientific and technological research, particularly marine biology, including conservation and management of living resources, oceanography, hydrography, engineering, geological exploration of the seabed, mining and desalination technologies;

(b) management studies;

(c) study programmes related to the protection and preservation of the marine environment and the prevention, reduction and control of pollution;

(d) organization of regional conferences, seminars and symposia;

(e) acquisition and processing of marine scientific and technological data and information;

(f) prompt dissemination of results of marine scientific and technological research in readily available publications;

(g) publicizing national policies with regard to the transfer of marine technology and systematic comparative study of those policies;

(h) compilation and systematization of information on the marketing of technology and on contracts and other arrangements concerning patents;

(i) technical cooperation with other States of the region.

Section 4. COOPERATION AMONG INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

Article 278. Cooperation among international organizations

The competent international organizations referred to in this Part and in Part XIII shall take all appropriate measures to ensure, either directly or in close cooperation among themselves, the effective discharge of their functions and responsibilities under this Part.

Part XV. SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES

Section 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 279. Obligation to settle disputes by peaceful means

States Parties shall settle any dispute between them concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention by peaceful means in accordance with Article 2, paragraph 3, of the Charter of the United Nations and, to this end, shall seek a solution by the means indicated in Article 33, paragraph 1, of the Charter.

Article 280. Settlement of disputes by any peaceful means chosen by the parties

Nothing in this Part impairs the right of any States Parties to agree at any time to settle a dispute between them concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention by any peaceful means of their own choice.

Article 281. Procedure where no settlement has been reached by the parties

1. If the States Parties which are parties to a dispute concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention have agreed to seek settlement of the dispute by a peaceful means of their own choice, the procedures provided for in this Part apply only where no settlement has been reached by recourse to such means and the agreement between the parties does not exclude any further procedure.

2. If the parties have also agreed on a time-limit, paragraph 1 applies only upon the expiration of that time-limit.

Article 282. Obligations under general, regional or bilateral agreements

If the States Parties which are parties to a dispute concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention have agreed, through a general, regional or bilateral agreement or otherwise, that such dispute shall, at the request of any party to the dispute, be submitted to a procedure that entails a binding decision, that procedure shall apply in lieu of the procedures provided for in this Part, unless the parties to the dispute otherwise agree.

Article 283. Obligation to exchange views

1. When a dispute arises between States Parties concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention, the parties to the dispute shall proceed expeditiously to an exchange of views regarding its settlement by negotiation or other peaceful means.

2. The parties shall also proceed expeditiously to an exchange of views where a procedure for the settlement of such a dispute has been terminated without a settlement or where a settlement has been reached and the circumstances require consultation regarding the manner of implementing the settlement.

Article 284. Conciliation

1. A State Party which is a party to a dispute concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention may invite the other party or parties to submit the dispute to conciliation in accordance with the procedure under Annex V, section 1, or another conciliation procedure.

2. If the invitation is accepted and if the parties agree upon the conciliation procedure to be applied, any party may submit the dispute to that procedure.

3. If the invitation is not accepted or the parties do not agree upon the procedure, the conciliation proceedings shall be deemed to be terminated.

4. Unless the parties otherwise agree, when a dispute has been submitted to conciliation, the proceedings may be terminated only in accordance with the agreed conciliation procedure.

Article 285. Application of this section to disputes submitted pursuant to Part XI

This section applies to any dispute which pursuant to Part XI, section 5, is to be settled in accordance with procedures provided for in this Part. If an entity other than a State Party is a party to such a dispute, this section applies mutatis mutandis.

Section 2. COMPULSORY PROCEDURES ENTAILING BINDING DECISIONS

Article 286. Application of procedures under this section

Subject to section 3, any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention shall, where no settlement has been reached by recourse to section 1, be submitted at the request of any party to the dispute to the court or tribunal having jurisdiction under this section.

Article 287. Choice of procedure

1. When signing, ratifying or acceding to this Convention or at any time thereafter, a State shall be free to choose, by means of a written declaration, one or more of the following means for the settlement of disputes concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention:

(a) the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea established in accordance with Annex VI;

(b) the International Court of Justice;

(c) an arbitral tribunal constituted in accordance with Annex VII;

(d) a special arbitral tribunal constituted in accordance with Annex VIII for one or more of the categories of disputes specified therein.

2. A declaration made under paragraph 1 shall not affect or be affected by the obligation of a State Party to accept the jurisdiction of the Seabed Disputes Chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea to the extent and in the manner provided for in Part XI, section 5.

3. A State Party, which is a party to a dispute not covered by a declaration in force, shall be deemed to have accepted arbitration in accordance with Annex VII.

4. If the parties to a dispute have accepted the same procedure for the settlement of the dispute, it may be submitted only to that procedure, unless the parties otherwise agree.

5. If the parties to a dispute have not accepted the same procedure for the settlement of the dispute, it may be submitted only to arbitration in accordance with Annex VII, unless the parties otherwise agree.

6. A declaration made under paragraph 1 shall remain in force until three months after notice of revocation has been deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

7. A new declaration, a notice of revocation or the expiry of a declaration does not in any way affect proceedings pending before a court or tribunal having jurisdiction under this article, unless the parties otherwise agree.

8. Declarations and notices referred to in this Article shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall transmit copies thereof to the States Parties.

Article 288. Jurisdiction

1. A court or tribunal referred to in Article 287 shall have jurisdiction over any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention which is submitted to it in accordance with this Part.

2. A court or tribunal referred to in Article 287 shall also have jurisdiction over any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of an international agreement related to the purposes of this Convention, which is submitted to it in accordance with the agreement.

3. The Seabed Disputes Chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea established in accordance with Annex VI, and any other chamber or arbitral tribunal referred to in Part XI, section 5, shall have jurisdiction in any matter which is submitted to it in accordance therewith.

4. In the event of a dispute as to whether a court or tribunal has jurisdiction, the matter shall be settled by decision of that court or tribunal.

Article 289. Experts

In any dispute involving scientific or technical matters, a court or tribunal exercising jurisdiction under this section may, at the request of a party or proprio motu, select in consultation with the parties no fewer than two scientific or technical experts chosen preferably from the relevant list prepared in accordance with Annex VIII, Article 2, to sit with the court or tribunal but without the right to vote.

Article 290. Provisional measures

1. If a dispute has been duly submitted to a court or tribunal which considers that prima facie it has jurisdiction under this Part or Part XI, section 5, the court or tribunal may prescribe any provisional measures which it considers appropriate under the circumstances to preserve the respective rights of the parties to the dispute or to prevent serious harm to the marine environment, pending the final decision.

2. Provisional measures may be modified or revoked as soon as the circumstances justifying them have changed or ceased to exist.

3. Provisional measures may be prescribed, modified or revoked under this Article only at the request of a party to the dispute and after the parties have been given an opportunity to be heard.

4. The court or tribunal shall forthwith give notice to the parties to the dispute, and to such other States Parties as it considers appropriate, of the prescription, modification or revocation of provisional measures.

5. Pending the constitution of an arbitral tribunal to which a dispute is being submitted under this section, any court or tribunal agreed upon by the parties or, failing such agreement within two weeks from the date of the request for provisional measures, the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea or, with respect to activities in the Area, the Seabed Disputes Chamber, may prescribe, modify or revoke provisional measures in accordance with this Article if it considers that prima facie the tribunal which is to be constituted would have jurisdiction and that the urgency of the situation so requires. Once constituted, the tribunal to which the dispute has been submitted may modify, revoke or affirm those provisional measures, acting in conformity with paragraphs 1 to 4.

6. The parties to the dispute shall comply promptly with any provisional measures prescribed under this article.

Article 291. Access

1. All the dispute settlement procedures specified in this Part shall be open to States Parties.

2. The dispute settlement procedures specified in this Part shall be open to entities other than States Parties only as specifically provided for in this Convention.

Article 292. Prompt release of vessels and crews

1. Where the authorities of a State Party have detained a vessel flying the flag of another State Party and it is alleged that the detaining State has not complied with the provisions of this Convention for the prompt release of the vessel or its crew upon the posting of a reasonable bond or other financial security, the question of release from detention may be submitted to any court or tribunal agreed upon by the parties or, failing such agreement within 10 days from the time of detention, to a court or tribunal accepted by the detaining State under Article 287 or to the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, unless the parties otherwise agree.

2. The application for release may be made only by or on behalf of the flag State of the vessel.

3. The court or tribunal shall deal without delay with the application for release and shall deal only with the question of release, without prejudice to the merits of any case before the appropriate domestic forum against the vessel, its owner or its crew. The authorities of the detaining State remain competent to release the vessel or its crew at any time.

4. Upon the posting of the bond or other financial security determined by the court or tribunal, the authorities of the detaining State shall comply promptly with the decision of the court or tribunal concerning the release of the vessel or its crew.

Article 293. Applicable law

1. A court or tribunal having jurisdiction under this section shall apply this Convention and other rules of international law not incompatible with this Convention.

2. Paragraph l does not prejudice the power of the court or tribunal having jurisdiction under this section to decide a case ex aequo et bono, if the parties so agree.

Article 294. Preliminary proceedings

1. A court or tribunal provided for in Article 287 to which an application is made in respect of a dispute referred to in Article 297 shall determine at the request of a party, or may determine proprio motu, whether the claim constitutes an abuse of legal process or whether prima facie it is well founded. If the court or tribunal determines that the claim constitutes an abuse of legal process or is prima facie unfounded, it shall take no further action in the case.

2. Upon receipt of the application, the court or tribunal shall immediately notify the other party or parties of the application, and shall fix a reasonable time-limit within which they may request it to make a determination in accordance with paragraph 1.

3. Nothing in this Article affects the right of any party to a dispute to make preliminary objections in accordance with the applicable rules of procedure.

Article 295. Exhaustion of local remedies

Any dispute between States Parties concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention may be submitted to the procedures provided for in this section only after local remedies have been exhausted where this is required by international law.

Article 296. Finality and binding force of decisions

1. Any decision rendered by a court or tribunal having jurisdiction under this section shall be final and shall be complied with by all the parties to the dispute.

2. Any such decision shall have no binding force except between the parties and in respect of that particular dispute.

Section 3. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS TO APPLICABILITY OF SECTION 2

Article 297. Limitations on applicability of section 2

1. Disputes concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention with regard to the exercise by a coastal State of its sovereign rights or jurisdiction provided for in this Convention shall be subject to the procedures provided for in section 2 in the following cases:

(a) when it is alleged that a coastal State has acted in contravention of the provisions of this Convention in regard to the freedoms and rights of navigation, overflight or the laying of submarine cables and pipelines, or in regard to other internationally lawful uses of the sea specified in Article 58;

(b) when it is alleged that a State in exercising the aforementioned freedoms, rights or uses has acted in contravention of this Convention or of laws or regulations adopted by the coastal State in conformity with this Convention and other rules of international law not incompatible with this Convention; or

(c) when it is alleged that a coastal State has acted in contravention of specified international rules and standards for the protection and preservation of the marine environment which are applicable to the coastal State and which have been established by this Convention or through a competent international organization or diplomatic conference in accordance with this Convention.

2. (a) Disputes concerning the interpretation or application of the provisions of this Convention with regard to marine scientific research shall be settled in accordance with section 2, except that the coastal State shall not be obliged to accept the submission to such settlement of any dispute arising out of:

(i) the exercise by the coastal State of a right or discretion in accordance with Article 246; or

(ii) a decision by the coastal State to order suspension or cessation of a research project in accordance with Article 253.

(b) A dispute arising from an allegation by the researching State that with respect to a specific project the coastal State is not exercising its rights under articles 246 and 253 in a manner compatible with this Convention shall be submitted, at the request of either party, to conciliation under Annex V, section 2, provided that the conciliation commission shall not call in question the exercise by the coastal State of its discretion to designate specific areas as referred to in Article 246, paragraph 6, or of its discretion to withhold consent in accordance with Article 246, paragraph 5.

3. (a) Disputes concerning the interpretation or application of the provisions of this Convention with regard to fisheries shall be settled in accordance with section 2, except that the coastal State shall not be obliged to accept the submission to such settlement of any dispute relating to its sovereign rights with respect to the living resources in the exclusive economic zone or their exercise, including its discretionary powers for determining the allowable catch, its harvesting capacity, the allocation of surpluses to other States and the terms and conditions established in its conservation and management laws and regulations.

(b) Where no settlement has been reached by recourse to section 1 of this Part, a dispute shall be submitted to conciliation under Annex V, section 2, at the request of any party to the dispute, when it is alleged that:

(i) a coastal State has manifestly failed to comply with its obligations to ensure through proper conservation and management measures that the maintenance of the living resources in the exclusive economic zone is not seriously endangered;

(ii) a coastal State has arbitrarily refused to determine, at the request of another State, the allowable catch and its capacity to harvest living resources with respect to stocks which that other State is interested in fishing; or

(iii) a coastal State has arbitrarily refused to allocate to any State, under articles 62, 69 and 70 and under the terms and conditions established by the coastal State consistent with this Convention, the whole or part of the surplus it has declared to exist.

(c) In no case shall the conciliation commission substitute its discretion for that of the coastal State.

(d) The report of the conciliation commission shall be communicated to the appropriate international organizations.

(e) In negotiating agreements pursuant to articles 69 and 70, States Parties, unless they otherwise agree, shall include a clause on measures which they shall take in order to minimize the possibility of a disagreement concerning the interpretation or application of the agreement, and on how they should proceed if a disagreement nevertheless arises.

Article 298. Optional exceptions to applicability of section 2

1. When signing, ratifying or acceding to this Convention or at any time thereafter, a State may, without prejudice to the obligations arising under section 1, declare in writing that it does not accept any one or more of the procedures provided for in section 2 with respect to one or more of the following categories of disputes:

(a) (i) disputes concerning the interpretation or application of articles 15, 74 and 83 relating to sea boundary delimitations, or those involving historic bays or titles, provided that a State having made such a declaration shall, when such a dispute arises subsequent to the entry into force of this Convention and where no agreement within a reasonable period of time is reached in negotiations between the parties, at the request of any party to the dispute, accept submission of the matter to conciliation under Annex V, section 2; and provided further that any dispute that necessarily involves the concurrent consideration of any unsettled dispute concerning sovereignty or other rights over continental or insular land territory shall be excluded from such submission;

(ii) after the conciliation commission has presented its report, which shall state the reasons on which it is based, the parties shall negotiate an agreement on the basis of that report; if these negotiations do not result in an agreement, the parties shall, by mutual consent, submit the question to one of the procedures provided for in section 2, unless the parties otherwise agree;

(iii) this subparagraph does not apply to any sea boundary dispute finally settled by an arrangement between the parties, or to any such dispute which is to be settled in accordance with a bilateral or multilateral agreement binding upon those parties;

(b) disputes concerning military activities, including military activities by government vessels and aircraft engaged in non-commercial service, and disputes concerning law enforcement activities in regard to the exercise of sovereign rights or jurisdiction excluded from the jurisdiction of a court or tribunal under Article 297, paragraph 2 or 3;

(c) disputes in respect of which the Security Council of the United Nations is exercising the functions assigned to it by the Charter of the United Nations, unless the Security Council decides to remove the matter from its agenda or calls upon the parties to settle it by the means provided for in this Convention.

2. A State Party which has made a declaration under paragraph 1 may at any time withdraw it, or agree to submit a dispute excluded by such declaration to any procedure specified in this Convention.

3. A State Party which has made a declaration under paragraph 1 shall not be entitled to submit any dispute falling within the excepted category of disputes to any procedure in this Convention as against another State Party, without the consent of that party.

4. If one of the States Parties has made a declaration under paragraph 1(a), any other State Party may submit any dispute falling within an excepted category against the declarant party to the procedure specified in such declaration.

5. A new declaration, or the withdrawal of a declaration, does not in any way affect proceedings pending before a court or tribunal in accordance with this article, unless the parties otherwise agree.

6. Declarations and notices of withdrawal of declarations under this Article shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall transmit copies thereof to the States Parties.

Article 299. Right of the parties to agree upon a procedure

1. A dispute excluded under Article 297 or excepted by a declaration made under Article 298 from the dispute settlement procedures provided for in section 2 may be submitted to such procedures only by agreement of the parties to the dispute.

2. Nothing in this section impairs the right of the parties to the dispute to agree to some other procedure for the settlement of such dispute or to reach an amicable settlement.

Part XVI. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 300. Good faith and abuse of rights

States Parties shall fulfil in good faith the obligations assumed under this Convention and shall exercise the rights, jurisdiction and freedoms recognized in this Convention in a manner which would not constitute an abuse of right.

Article 301. Peaceful uses of the seas

In exercising their rights and performing their duties under this Convention, States Parties shall refrain from any threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or in any other manner inconsistent with the principles of international law embodied in the Charter of the United Nations.

Article 302. Disclosure of information

Without prejudice to the right of a State Party to resort to the procedures for the settlement of disputes provided for in this Convention, nothing in this Convention shall be deemed to require a State Party, in the fulfilment of its obligations under this Convention, to supply information the disclosure of which is contrary to the essential interests of its security.

Article 303. Archaeological and historical objects found at sea

1. States have the duty to protect objects of an archaeological and historical nature found at sea and shall cooperate for this purpose.

2. In order to control traffic in such objects, the coastal State may, in applying Article 33, presume that their removal from the seabed in the zone referred to in that Article without its approval would result in an infringement within its territory or territorial sea of the laws and regulations referred to in that article.

3. Nothing in this Article affects the rights of identifiable owners, the law of salvage or other rules of admiralty, or laws and practices with respect to cultural exchanges.

4. This Article is without prejudice to other international agreements and rules of international law regarding the protection of objects of an archaeological and historical nature.

Article 304. Responsibility and liability for damage

The provisions of this Convention regarding responsibility and liability for damage are without prejudice to the application of existing rules and the development of further rules regarding responsibility and liability under international law.

Part XVII. FINAL PROVISIONS

Article 305. Signature

1. This Convention shall be open for signature by:

(a) all States;

(b) Namibia, represented by the United Nations Council for Namibia;

(c) all self-governing associated States which have chosen that status in an act of self-determination supervised and approved by the United Nations in accordance with General Assembly resolution 1514 (XV) and which have competence over the matters governed by this Convention, including the competence to enter into treaties in respect of those matters;

(d) all self-governing associated States which, in accordance with their respective instruments of association, have competence over the matters governed by this Convention, including the competence to enter into treaties in respect of those matters;

(e) all territories which enjoy full internal self-government, recognized as such by the United Nations, but have not attained full independence in accordance with General Assembly resolution 1514 (XV) and which have competence over the matters governed by this Convention, including the competence to enter into treaties in respect of those matters;

(f) international organizations, in accordance with Annex IX.

2. This Convention shall remain open for signature until 9 December 1984 at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Jamaica and also, from 1 July 1983 until 9 December 1984, at United Nations Headquarters in New York.

Article 306. Ratification and formal confirmation

This Convention is subject to ratification by States and the other entities referred to in Article 305, paragraph l(b), (c), (d) and (e), and to formal confirmation, in accordance with Annex IX, by the entities referred to in Article 305, paragraph l(f). The instruments of ratification and of formal confirmation shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 307. Accession

This Convention shall remain open for accession by States and the other entities referred to in Article 305. Accession by the entities referred to in Article 305, paragraph l(f), shall be in accordance with Annex IX. The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 308. Entry into force

1. This Convention shall enter into force 12 months after the date of deposit of the sixtieth instrument of ratification or accession.

2. For each State ratifying or acceding to this Convention after the deposit of the sixtieth instrument of ratification or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the deposit of its instrument of ratification or accession, subject to paragraph 1.

3. The Assembly of the Authority shall meet on the date of entry into force of this Convention and shall elect the Council of the Authority. The first Council shall be constituted in a manner consistent with the purpose of Article 161 if the provisions of that Article cannot be strictly applied.

4. The rules, regulations and procedures drafted by the Preparatory Commission shall apply provisionally pending their formal adoption by the Authority in accordance with Part XI.

5. The Authority and its organs shall act in accordance with resolution II of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea relating to preparatory investment and with decisions of the Preparatory Commission taken pursuant to that resolution.

Article 309. Reservations and exceptions

No reservations or exceptions may be made to this Convention unless expressly permitted by other articles of this Convention.

Article 310. Declarations and statements

Article 309 does not preclude a State, when signing, ratifying or acceding to this Convention, from making declarations or statements, however phrased or named, with a view, inter alia, to the harmonization of its laws and regulations with the provisions of this Convention, provided that such declarations or statements do not purport to exclude or to modify the legal effect of the provisions of this Convention in their application to that State.

Article 311. Relation to other conventions and international agreements

1. This Convention shall prevail, as between States Parties, over the Geneva Conventions on the Law of the Sea of 29 April 1958.

2. This Convention shall not alter the rights and obligations of States Parties which arise from other agreements compatible with this Convention and which do not affect the enjoyment by other States Parties of their rights or the performance of their obligations under this Convention.

3. Two or more States Parties may conclude agreements modifying or suspending the operation of provisions of this Convention, applicable solely to the relations between them, provided that such agreements do not relate to a provision derogation from which is incompatible with the effective execution of the object and purpose of this Convention, and provided further that such agreements shall not affect the application of the basic principles embodied herein, and that the provisions of such agreements do not affect the enjoyment by other States Parties of their rights or the performance of their obligations under this Convention.

4. States Parties intending to conclude an agreement referred to in paragraph 3 shall notify the other States Parties through the depositary of this Convention of their intention to conclude the agreement and of the modification or suspension for which it provides.

5. This Article does not affect international agreements expressly permitted or preserved by other articles of this Convention.

6. States Parties agree that there shall be no amendments to the basic principle relating to the common heritage of mankind set forth in Article 136 and that they shall not be party to any agreement in derogation thereof.

Article 312. Amendment

1. After the expiry of a period of 10 years from the date of entry into force of this Convention, a State Party may, by written communication addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, propose specific amendments to this Convention, other than those relating to activities in the Area, and request the convening of a conference to consider such proposed amendments. The Secretary-General shall circulate such communication to all States Parties. If, within 12 months from the date of the circulation of the communication, not less than one half of the States Parties reply favourably to the request, the Secretary-General shall convene the conference.

2. The decision-making procedure applicable at the amendment conference shall be the same as that applicable at the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea unless otherwise decided by the conference. The conference should make every effort to reach agreement on any amendments by way of consensus and there should be no voting on them until all efforts at consensus have been exhausted.

Article 313. Amendment by simplified procedure

1. A State Party may, by written communication addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, propose an amendment to this Convention, other than an amendment relating to activities in the Area, to be adopted by the simplified procedure set forth in this Article without convening a conference. The Secretary-General shall circulate the communication to all States Parties.

2. If, within a period of 12 months from the date of the circulation of the communication, a State Party objects to the proposed amendment or to the proposal for its adoption by the simplified procedure, the amendment shall be considered rejected. The Secretary-General shall immediately notify all States Parties accordingly.

3. If, 12 months from the date of the circulation of the communication, no State Party has objected to the proposed amendment or to the proposal for its adoption by the simplified procedure, the proposed amendment shall be considered adopted. The Secretary-General shall notify all States Parties that the proposed amendment has been adopted.

Article 314. Amendments to the provisions of this Convention relating exclusively to activities in the Area

1. A State Party may, by written communication addressed to the Secretary-General of the Authority, propose an amendment to the provisions of this Convention relating exclusively to activities in the Area, including Annex VI, section 4. The Secretary-General shall circulate such communication to all States Parties. The proposed amendment shall be subject to approval by the Assembly following its approval by the Council. Representatives of States Parties in those organs shall have full powers to consider and approve the proposed amendment. The proposed amendment as approved by the Council and the Assembly shall be considered adopted.

2. Before approving any amendment under paragraph 1, the Council and the Assembly shall ensure that it does not prejudice the system of exploration for and exploitation of the resources of the Area, pending the Review Conference in accordance with Article 155.

Article 315. Signature, ratification of, accession to and authentic texts of amendments

1. Once adopted, amendments to this Convention shall be open for signature by States Parties for 12 months from the date of adoption, at United Nations Headquarters in New York, unless otherwise provided in the amendment itself.

2. Articles 306, 307 and 320 apply to all amendments to this Convention.

Article 316. Entry into force of amendments

1. Amendments to this Convention, other than those referred to in paragraph 5, shall enter into force for the States Parties ratifying or acceding to them on the thirtieth day following the deposit of instruments of ratification or accession by two thirds of the States Parties or by 60 States Parties, whichever is greater. Such amendments shall not affect the enjoyment by other States Parties of their rights or the performance of their obligations under this Convention.

2. An amendment may provide that a larger number of ratifications or accessions shall be required for its entry into force than are required by this article.

3. For each State Party ratifying or acceding to an amendment referred to in paragraph 1 after the deposit of the required number of instruments of ratification or accession, the amendment shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the deposit of its instrument of ratification or accession.

4. A State which becomes a Party to this Convention after the entry into force of an amendment in accordance with paragraph 1 shall, failing an expression of a different intention by that State:

(a) be considered as a Party to this Convention as so amended; and

(b) be considered as a Party to the unamended Convention in relation to any State Party not bound by the amendment.

5. Any amendment relating exclusively to activities in the Area and any amendment to Annex VI shall enter into force for all States Parties one year following the deposit of instruments of ratification or accession by three fourths of the States Parties.

6. A State which becomes a Party to this Convention after the entry into force of amendments in accordance with paragraph 5 shall be considered as a Party to this Convention as so amended.

Article 317. Denunciation

1. A State Party may, by written notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, denounce this Convention and may indicate its reasons. Failure to indicate reasons shall not affect the validity of the denunciation. The denunciation shall take effect one year after the date of receipt of the notification, unless the notification specifies a later date.

2. A State shall not be discharged by reason of the denunciation from the financial and contractual obligations which accrued while it was a Party to this Convention, nor shall the denunciation affect any right, obligation or legal situation of that State created through the execution of this Convention prior to its termination for that State.

3. The denunciation shall not in any way affect the duty of any State Party to fulfil any obligation embodied in this Convention to which it would be subject under international law independently of this Convention.

Article 318. Status of Annexes

The Annexes form an integral part of this Convention and, unless expressly provided otherwise, a reference to this Convention or to one of its Parts includes a reference to the Annexes relating thereto.

Article 319. Depositary

1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the depositary of this Convention and amendments thereto.

2. In addition to his functions as depositary, the Secretary-General shall:

(a) report to all States Parties, the Authority and competent international organizations on issues of a general nature that have arisen with respect to this Convention;

(b) notify the Authority of ratifications and formal confirmations of and accessions to this Convention and amendments thereto, as well as of denunciations of this Convention;

(c) notify States Parties of agreements in accordance with Article 311, paragraph 4;

(d) circulate amendments adopted in accordance with this Convention to States Parties for ratification or accession;

(e) convene necessary meetings of States Parties in accordance with this Convention.

3. (a) The Secretary-General shall also transmit to the observers referred to in Article 156:

(i) reports referred to in paragraph 2(a);

(ii) notifications referred to in paragraph 2(b) and (c); and

(iii) texts of amendments referred to in paragraph 2(d), for their information.

(b) The Secretary-General shall also invite those observers to participate as observers at meetings of States Parties referred to in paragraph 2(e).

Article 320. Authentic texts

The original of this Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall, subject to Article 305, paragraph 2, be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized thereto, have signed this Convention.

DONE AT MONTEGO BAY, this tenth day of December, one thousand nine hundred and eighty-two.

Annex I

HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES

1. Albacore tuna: Thunnus alalunga.

2. Bluefin tuna: Thunnus thynnus.

3. Bigeye tuna: Thunnus obesus.

4. Skipjack tuna: Katsuwonus pelamis.

5. Yellowfin tuna: Thunnus albacares.

6. Blackfin tuna: Thunnus atlanticus.

7. Little tuna: Euthynnus alletteratus; Euthynnus affinis.

8. Southern bluefin tuna: Thunnus maccoyii.

9. Frigate mackerel: Auxis thazard; Auxis rochei.

10. Pomfrets: Family Bramidae.

11. Marlins: Tetrapturus angustirostris; Tetrapturus belone; Tetrapturus pfluegeri; Tetrapturus albidus; Tetrapturus audax; Tetrapturus georgei; Makaira mazara; Makaira indica; Makaira nigricans.

12. Sail-fishes: Istiophorus platypterus; Istiophorus albicans.

13. Swordfish: Xiphias gladius.

14. Sauries: Scomberesox saurus; Cololabis saira; Cololabis adocetus; Scomberesox saurus scombroides.

15. Dolphin: Coryphaena hippurus; Coryphaena equiselis.

16. Oceanic sharks: Hexanchus griseus; Cetorhinus maximus; Family Alopiidae; Rhincodon typus; Family Carcharhinidae; Family Sphyrnidae; Family Isurida.

17. Cetaceans: Family Physeteridae; Family Balaenopteridae; Family Balaenidae; Family Eschrichtiidae; Family Monodontidae; Family Ziphiidae; Family Delphinidae.

Annex II

COMMISSION ON THE LIMITS OF THE CONTINENTAL SHELF

Article 1

In accordance with the provisions of Article 76, a Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf beyond 200 nautical miles shall be established in conformity with the following articles.

Article 2

1. The Commission shall consist of 21 members who shall be experts in the field of geology, geophysics or hydrography, elected by States Parties to this Convention from among their nationals, having due regard to the need to ensure equitable geographical representation, who shall serve in their personal capacities.

2. The initial election shall be held as soon as possible but in any case within 18 months after the date of entry into force of this Convention. At least three months before the date of each election, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall address a letter to the States Parties, inviting the submission of nominations, after appropriate regional consultations, within three months. The Secretary-General shall prepare a list in alphabetical order of all persons thus nominated and shall submit it to all the States Parties.

3. Elections of the members of the Commission shall be held at a meeting of States Parties convened by the Secretary-General at United Nations Headquarters. At that meeting, for which two thirds of the States Parties shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the Commission shall be those nominees who obtain a two-thirds majority of the votes of the representatives of States Parties present and voting. Not less than three members shall be elected from each geographical region.

4. The members of the Commission shall be elected for a term of five years. They shall be eligible for re-election.

5. The State Party which submitted the nomination of a member of the Commission shall defray the expenses of that member while in performance of Commission duties. The coastal State concerned shall defray the expenses incurred in respect of the advice referred to in Article 3, paragraph 1(b), of this Annex. The secretariat of the Commission shall be provided by the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 3

1. The functions of the Commission shall be:

(a) to consider the data and other material submitted by coastal States concerning the outer limits of the continental shelf in areas where those limits extend beyond 200 nautical miles, and to make recommendations in accordance with Article 76 and the Statement of Understanding adopted on 29 August 1980 by the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea;

(b) to provide scientific and technical advice, if requested by the coastal State concerned during the preparation of the data referred to in subparagraph (a).

2. The Commission may cooperate, to the extent considered necessary and useful, with the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, the International Hydrographic Organization and other competent international organizations with a view to exchanging scientific and technical information which might be of assistance in discharging the Commission's responsibilities.

Article 4

Where a coastal State intends to establish, in accordance with Article 76, the outer limits of its continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles, it shall submit particulars of such limits to the Commission along with supporting scientific and technical data as soon as possible but in any case within 10 years of the entry into force of this Convention for that State. The coastal State shall at the same time give the names of any Commission members who have provided it with scientific and technical advice.

Article 5

Unless the Commission decides otherwise, the Commission shall function by way of sub-commissions composed of seven members, appointed in a balanced manner taking into account the specific elements of each submission by a coastal State. Nationals of the coastal State making the submission who are members of the Commission and any Commission member who has assisted a coastal State by providing scientific and technical advice with respect to the delineation shall not be a member of the sub-commission dealing with that submission but has the right to participate as a member in the proceedings of the Commission concerning the said submission. The coastal State which has made a submission to the Commission may send its representatives to participate in the relevant proceedings without the right to vote.

Article 6

1. The sub-commission shall submit its recommendations to the Commission.

2. Approval by the Commission of the recommendations of the sub-commission shall be by a majority of two thirds of Commission members present and voting.

3. The recommendations of the Commission shall be submitted in writing to the coastal State which made the submission and to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 7

Coastal States shall establish the outer limits of the continental shelf in conformity with the provisions of Article 76, paragraph 8, and in accordance with the appropriate national procedures.

Article 8

In the case of disagreement by the coastal State with the recommendations of the Commission, the coastal State shall, within a reasonable time, make a revised or new submission to the Commission.

Article 9

The actions of the Commission shall not prejudice matters relating to delimitation of boundaries between States with opposite or adjacent coasts.

Annex III

BASIC CONDITIONS OF PROSPECTING, EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION

Article 1. Title to minerals

Title to minerals shall pass upon recovery in accordance with this Convention.

Article 2. Prospecting

1. (a) The Authority shall encourage prospecting in the Area.

(b) Prospecting shall be conducted only after the Authority has received a satisfactory written undertaking that the proposed prospector will comply with this Convention and the relevant rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority concerning cooperation in the training programmes referred to in articles 143 and 144 and the protection of the marine environment, and will accept verification by the Authority of compliance therewith. The proposed prospector shall, at the same time, notify the Authority of the approximate area or areas in which prospecting is to be conducted.

(c) Prospecting may be conducted simultaneously by more than one prospector in the same area or areas.

2. Prospecting shall not confer on the prospector any rights with respect to resources. A prospector may, however, recover a reasonable quantity of minerals to be used for testing.

Article 3. Exploration and exploitation

1. The Enterprise, States Parties, and the other entities referred to in Article 153, paragraph 2(b), may apply to the Authority for approval of plans of work for activities in the Area.

2. The Enterprise may apply with respect to any part of the Area, but applications by others with respect to reserved areas are subject to the additional requirements of Article 9 of this Annex.

3. Exploration and exploitation shall be carried out only in areas specified in plans of work referred to in Article 153, paragraph 3, and approved by the Authority in accordance with this Convention and the relevant rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

4. Every approved plan of work shall:

(a) be in conformity with this Convention and the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority;

(b) provide for control by the Authority of activities in the Area in accordance with Article 153, paragraph 4;

(c) confer on the operator, in accordance with the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, the exclusive right to explore for and exploit the specified categories of resources in the area covered by the plan of work. If, however, the applicant presents for approval a plan of work covering only the stage of exploration or the stage of exploitation, the approved plan of work shall confer such exclusive right with respect to that stage only.

5. Upon its approval by the Authority, every plan of work, except those presented by the Enterprise, shall be in the form of a contract concluded between the Authority and the applicant or applicants.

Article 4. Qualifications of applicants

1. Applicants, other than the Enterprise, shall be qualified if they have the nationality or control and sponsorship required by Article 153, paragraph 2(b), and if they follow the procedures and meet the qualification standards set forth in the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

2. Except as provided in paragraph 6, such qualification standards shall relate to the financial and technical capabilities of the applicant and his performance under any previous contracts with the Authority.

3. Each applicant shall be sponsored by the State Party of which it is a national unless the applicant has more than one nationality, as in the case of a partnership or consortium of entities from several States, in which event all States Parties involved shall sponsor the application, or unless the applicant is effectively controlled by another State Party or its nationals, in which event both States Parties shall sponsor the application. The criteria and procedures for implementation of the sponsorship requirements shall be set forth in the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

4. The sponsoring State or States shall, pursuant to Article 139, have the responsibility to ensure, within their legal systems, that a contractor so sponsored shall carry out activities in the Area in conformity with the terms of its contract and its obligations under this Convention. A sponsoring State shall not, however, be liable for damage caused by any failure of a contractor sponsored by it to comply with its obligations if that State Party has adopted laws and regulations and taken administrative measures which are, within the framework of its legal system, reasonably appropriate for securing compliance by persons under its jurisdiction.

5. The procedures for assessing the qualifications of States Parties which are applicants shall take into account their character as States.

6. The qualification standards shall require that every applicant, without exception, shall as part of his application undertake:

(a) to accept as enforceable and comply with the applicable obligations created by the provisions of Part XI, the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, the decisions of the organs of the Authority and terms of his contracts with the Authority;

(b) to accept control by the Authority of activities in the Area, as authorized by this Convention;

(c) to provide the Authority with a written assurance that his obligations under the contract will be fulfilled in good faith;

(d) to comply with the provisions on the transfer of technology set forth in Article 5 of this Annex.

Article 5. Transfer of technology

1. When submitting a plan of work, every applicant shall make available to the Authority a general description of the equipment and methods to be used in carrying out activities in the Area, and other relevant non-proprietary information about the characteristics of such technology and information as to where such technology is available.

2. Every operator shall inform the Authority of revisions in the description and information made available pursuant to paragraph 1 whenever a substantial technological change or innovation is introduced.

3. Every contract for carrying out activities in the Area shall contain the following undertakings by the contractor:

(a) to make available to the Enterprise on fair and reasonable commercial terms and conditions, whenever the Authority so requests, the technology which he uses in carrying out activities in the Area under the contract, which the contractor is legally entitled to transfer. This shall be done by means of licences or other appropriate arrangements which the contractor shall negotiate with the Enterprise and which shall be set forth in a specific agreement supplementary to the contract. This undertaking may be invoked only if the Enterprise finds that it is unable to obtain the same or equally efficient and useful technology on the open market on fair and reasonable commercial terms and conditions;

(b) to obtain a written assurance from the owner of any technology used in carrying out activities in the Area under the contract, which is not generally available on the open market and which is not covered by subparagraph (a), that the owner will, whenever the Authority so requests, make that technology available to the Enterprise under licence or other appropriate arrangements and on fair and reasonable commercial terms and conditions, to the same extent as made available to the contractor. If this assurance is not obtained, the technology in question shall not be used by the contractor in carrying out activities in the Area;

(c) to acquire from the owner by means of an enforceable contract, upon the request of the Enterprise and if it is possible to do so without substantial cost to the contractor, the legal right to transfer to the Enterprise any technology used by the contractor, in carrying out activities in the Area under the contract, which the contractor is otherwise not legally entitled to transfer and which is not generally available on the open market. In cases where there is a substantial corporate relationship between the contractor and the owner of the technology, the closeness of this relationship and the degree of control or influence shall be relevant to the determination whether all feasible measures have been taken to acquire such a right. In cases where the contractor exercises effective control over the owner, failure to acquire from the owner the legal right shall be considered relevant to the contractor's qualification for any subsequent application for approval of a plan of work;

(d) to facilitate, upon the request of the Enterprise, the acquisition by the Enterprise of any technology covered by subparagraph (b), under licence or other appropriate arrangements and on fair and reasonable commercial terms and conditions, if the Enterprise decides to negotiate directly with the owner of the technology;

(e) to take the same measures as are prescribed in subparagraphs (a), (b), (c) and (d) for the benefit of a developing State or group of developing States which has applied for a contract under Article 9 of this Annex, provided that these measures shall be limited to the exploitation of the part of the area proposed by the contractor which has been reserved pursuant to Article 8 of this Annex and provided that activities under the contract sought by the developing State or group of developing States would not involve transfer of technology to a third State or the nationals of a third State. The obligation under this provision shall only apply with respect to any given contractor where technology has not been requested by the Enterprise or transferred by that contractor to the Enterprise.

4. Disputes concerning undertakings required by paragraph 3, like other provisions of the contracts, shall be subject to compulsory settlement in accordance with Part XI and, in cases of violation of these undertakings, suspension or termination of the contract or monetary penalties may be ordered in accordance with Article 18 of this Annex. Disputes as to whether offers made by the contractor are within the range of fair and reasonable commercial terms and conditions may be submitted by either party to binding commercial arbitration in accordance with the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules or such other arbitration rules as may be prescribed in the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority. If the finding is that the offer made by the contractor is not within the range of fair and reasonable commercial terms and conditions, the contractor shall be given 45 days to revise his offer to bring it within that range before the Authority takes any action in accordance with Article 18 of this Annex.

5. If the Enterprise is unable to obtain on fair and reasonable commercial terms and conditions appropriate technology to enable it to commence in a timely manner the recovery and processing of minerals from the Area, either the Council or the Assembly may convene a group of States Parties composed of those which are engaged in activities in the Area, those which have sponsored entities which are engaged in activities in the Area and other States Parties having access to such technology. This group shall consult together and shall take effective measures to ensure that such technology is made available to the Enterprise on fair and reasonable commercial terms and conditions. Each such State Party shall take all feasible measures to this end within its own legal system.

6. In the case of joint ventures with the Enterprise, transfer of technology will be in accordance with the terms of the joint venture agreement.

7. The undertakings required by paragraph 3 shall be included in each contract for the carrying out of activities in the Area until 10 years after the commencement of commercial production by the Enterprise, and may be invoked during that period.

8. For the purposes of this article, "technology" means the specialized equipment and technical know-how, including manuals, designs, operating instructions, training and technical advice and assistance, necessary to assemble, maintain and operate a viable system and the legal right to use these items for that purpose on a non-exclusive basis.

Article 6. Approval of plans of work

1. Six months after the entry into force of this Convention, and thereafter each fourth month, the Authority shall take up for consideration proposed plans of work.

2. When considering an application for approval of a plan of work in the form of a contract, the Authority shall first ascertain whether:

(a) the applicant has complied with the procedures established for applications in accordance with Article 4 of this Annex and has given the Authority the undertakings and assurances required by that article. In cases of non-compliance with these procedures or in the absence of any of these undertakings and assurances, the applicant shall be given 45 days to remedy these defects;

(b) the applicant possesses the requisite qualifications provided for in Article 4 of this Annex.

3. All proposed plans of work shall be taken up in the order in which they are received. The proposed plans of work shall comply with and be governed by the relevant provisions of this Convention and the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, including those on operational requirements, financial contributions and the undertakings concerning the transfer of technology. If the proposed plans of work conform to these requirements, the Authority shall approve them provided that they are in accordance with the uniform and non-discriminatory requirements set forth in the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, unless:

(a) part or all of the area covered by the proposed plan of work is included in an approved plan of work or a previously submitted proposed plan of work which has not yet been finally acted on by the Authority;

(b) part or all of the area covered by the proposed plan of work is disapproved by the Authority pursuant to Article 162, paragraph 2(x); or

(c) the proposed plan of work has been submitted or sponsored by a State Party which already holds:

(i) plans of work for exploration and exploitation of polymetallic nodules in non-reserved areas that, together with either part of the area covered by the application for a plan of work, exceed in size 30 per cent of a circular area of 400,000 square kilometres surrounding the centre of either part of the area covered by the proposed plan of work;

(ii) plans of work for the exploration and exploitation of polymetallic nodules in non-reserved areas which, taken together, constitute 2 per cent of the total seabed area which is not reserved or disapproved for exploitation pursuant to Article 162, paragraph (2)(x).

4. For the purpose of the standard set forth in paragraph 3(c), a plan of work submitted by a partnership or consortium shall be counted on a pro rata basis among the sponsoring States Parties involved in accordance with Article 4, paragraph 3, of this Annex. The Authority may approve plans of work covered by paragraph 3(c) if it determines that such approval would not permit a State Party or entities sponsored by it to monopolize the conduct of activities in the Area or to preclude other States Parties from activities in the Area.

5. Notwithstanding paragraph 3(a), after the end of the interim period specified in Article 151, paragraph 3, the Authority may adopt by means of rules, regulations and procedures other procedures and criteria consistent with this Convention for deciding which applicants shall have plans of work approved in cases of selection among applicants for a proposed area. These procedures and criteria shall ensure approval of plans of work on an equitable and non-discriminatory basis.

Article 7. Selection among applicants for production authorizations

1. Six months after the entry into force of this Convention, and thereafter each fourth month, the Authority shall take up for consideration applications for production authorizations submitted during the immediately preceding period. The Authority shall issue the authorizations applied for if all such applications can be approved without exceeding the production limitation or contravening the obligations of the Authority under a commodity agreement or arrangement to which it has become a party, as provided in Article 151.

2. When a selection must be made among applicants for production authorizations because of the production limitation set forth in Article 151, paragraphs 2 to 7, or because of the obligations of the Authority under a commodity agreement or arrangement to which it has become a party, as provided for in Article 151, paragraph 1, the Authority shall make the selection on the basis of objective and non-discriminatory standards set forth in its rules, regulations and procedures.

3. In the application of paragraph 2, the Authority shall give priority to those applicants which:

(a) give better assurance of performance, taking into account their financial and technical qualifications and their performance, if any, under previously approved plans of work;

(b) provide earlier prospective financial benefits to the Authority, taking into account when commercial production is scheduled to begin;

(c) have already invested the most resources and effort in prospecting or exploration.

4. Applicants which are not selected in any period shall have priority in subsequent periods until they receive a production authorization.

5. Selection shall be made taking into account the need to enhance opportunities for all States Parties, irrespective of their social and economic systems or geographical locations so as to avoid discrimination against any State or system, to participate in activities in the Area and to prevent monopolization of those activities.

6. Whenever fewer reserved areas than non-reserved areas are under exploitation, applications for production authorizations with respect to reserved areas shall have priority.

7. The decisions referred to in this Article shall be taken as soon as possible after the close of each period.

Article 8. Reservation of areas

Each application, other than those submitted by the Enterprise or by any other entities for reserved areas, shall cover a total area, which need not be a single continuous area, sufficiently large and of sufficient estimated commercial value to allow two mining operations. The applicant shall indicate the coordinates dividing the area into two parts of equal estimated commercial value and submit all the data obtained by him with respect to both parts. Without prejudice to the powers of the Authority pursuant to Article 17 of this Annex, the data to be submitted concerning polymetallic nodules shall relate to mapping, sampling, the abundance of nodules, and their metal content. Within 45 days of receiving such data, the Authority shall designate which part is to be reserved solely for the conduct of activities by the Authority through the Enterprise or in association with developing States. This designation may be deferred for a further period of 45 days if the Authority requests an independent expert to assess whether all data required by this Article has been submitted. The area designated shall become a reserved area as soon as the plan of work for the non-reserved area is approved and the contract is signed.

Article 9. Activities in reserved areas

1. The Enterprise shall be given an opportunity to decide whether it intends to carry out activities in each reserved area. This decision may be taken at any time, unless a notification pursuant to paragraph 4 is received by the Authority, in which event the Enterprise shall take its decision within a reasonable time. The Enterprise may decide to exploit such areas in joint ventures with the interested State or entity.

2. The Enterprise may conclude contracts for the execution of part of its activities in accordance with Annex IV, Article 12. It may also enter into joint ventures for the conduct of such activities with any entities which are eligible to carry out activities in the Area pursuant to Article 153, paragraph 2(b). When considering such joint ventures, the Enterprise shall offer to States Parties which are developing States and their nationals the opportunity of effective participation.

3. The Authority may prescribe, in its rules, regulations and procedures, substantive and procedural requirements and conditions with respect to such contracts and joint ventures.

4. Any State Party which is a developing State or any natural or juridical person sponsored by it and effectively controlled by it or by other developing State which is a qualified applicant, or any group of the foregoing, may notify the Authority that it wishes to submit a plan of work pursuant to Article 6 of this Annex with respect to a reserved area. The plan of work shall be considered if the Enterprise decides, pursuant to paragraph 1, that it does not intend to carry out activities in that area.

Article 10. Preference and priority among applicants

An operator who has an approved plan of work for exploration only, as provided in Article 3, paragraph 4(c), of this Annex shall have a preference and a priority among applicants for a plan of work covering exploitation of the same area and resources. However, such preference or priority may be withdrawn if the operator's performance has not been satisfactory.

Article 11. Joint arrangements

1. Contracts may provide for joint arrangements between the contractor and the Authority through the Enterprise, in the form of joint ventures or production sharing, as well as any other form of joint arrangement, which shall have the same protection against revision, suspension or termination as contracts with the Authority.

2. Contractors entering into such joint arrangements with the Enterprise may receive financial incentives as provided for in Article 13 of this Annex.

3. Partners in joint ventures with the Enterprise shall be liable for the payments required by Article 13 of this Annex to the extent of their share in the joint ventures, subject to financial incentives as provided for in that article.

Article 12. Activities carried out by the Enterprise

1. Activities in the Area carried out by the Enterprise pursuant to Article 153, paragraph 2(a), shall be governed by Part XI, the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority and its relevant decisions.

2. Any plan of work submitted by the Enterprise shall be accompanied by evidence supporting its financial and technical capabilities.

Article 13. Financial terms of contracts

1. In adopting rules, regulations and procedures concerning the financial terms of a contract between the Authority and the entities referred to in Article 153, paragraph 2(b), and in negotiating those financial terms in accordance with Part XI and those rules, regulations and procedures, the Authority shall be guided by the following objectives:

(a) to ensure optimum revenues for the Authority from the proceeds of commercial production;

(b) to attract investments and technology to the exploration and exploitation of the Area;

(c) to ensure equality of financial treatment and comparable financial obligations for contractors;

(d) to provide incentives on a uniform and non-discriminatory basis for contractors to undertake joint arrangements with the Enterprise and developing States or their nationals, to stimulate the transfer of technology thereto, and to train the personnel of the Authority and of developing States;

(e) to enable the Enterprise to engage in seabed mining effectively at the same time as the entities referred to in Article 153, paragraph 2(b); and

(f) to ensure that, as a result of the financial incentives provided to contractors under paragraph 14, under the terms of contracts reviewed in accordance with Article 19 of this Annex or under the provisions of Article 11 of this Annex with respect to joint ventures, contractors are not subsidized so as to be given an artificial competitive advantage with respect to land-based miners.

2. A fee shall be levied for the administrative cost of processing an application for approval of a plan of work in the form of a contract and shall be fixed at an amount of $US 500,000 per application. The amount of the fee shall be reviewed from time to time by the Council in order to ensure that it covers the administrative cost incurred. If such administrative cost incurred by the Authority in processing an application is less than the fixed amount, the Authority shall refund the difference to the applicant.

3. A contractor shall pay an annual fixed fee of $US 1 million from the date of entry into force of the contract. If the approved date of commencement of commercial production is postponed because of a delay in issuing the production authorization, in accordance with Article 151, the annual fixed fee shall be waived for the period of postponement. From the date of commencement of commercial production, the contractor shall pay either the production charge or the annual fixed fee, whichever is greater.

4. Within a year of the date of commencement of commercial production, in conformity with paragraph 3, a contractor shall choose to make his financial contribution to the Authority by either:

(a) paying a production charge only; or

(b) paying a combination of a production charge and a share of net proceeds.

5. (a) If a contractor chooses to make his financial contribution to the Authority by paying a production charge only, it shall be fixed at a percentage of the market value of the processed metals produced from the polymetallic nodules recovered from the area covered by the contract. This percentage shall be fixed as follows:

(i) years 1-10 of commercial production 5 per cent

(ii) years 11 to the end of commercial production 12 per cent

(b) The said market value shall be the product of the quantity of the processed metals produced from the polymetallic nodules extracted from the area covered by the contract and the average price for those metals during the relevant accounting year, as defined in paragraphs 7 and 8.

6. If a contractor chooses to make his financial contribution to the Authority by paying a combination of a production charge and a share of net proceeds, such payments shall be determined as follows:

(a) The production charge shall be fixed at a percentage of the market value, determined in accordance with subparagraph (b), of the processed metals produced from the polymetallic nodules recovered from the area covered by the contract. This percentage shall be fixed as follows:

(i) first period of commercial production 2 per cent

(ii) second period of commercial production 4 per cent

If, in the second period of commercial production, as defined in subparagraph (d), the return on investment in any accounting year as defined in subparagraph (m) falls below 15 per cent as a result of the payment of the production charge at 4 per cent, the production charge shall be 2 per cent instead of 4 per cent in that accounting year.

(b) The said market value shall be the product of the quantity of the processed metals produced from the polymetallic nodules recovered from the area covered by the contract and the average price for those metals during the relevant accounting year as defined in paragraphs 7 and 8.

(c) (i) The Authority's share of net proceeds shall be taken out of that portion of the contractor's net proceeds which is attributable to the mining of the resources of the area covered by the contract, referred to hereinafter as attributable net proceeds.

(ii) The Authority's share of attributable net proceeds shall be determined in accordance with the following incremental schedule:

Portion of attributable net proceeds

Share of the Authority

First period of commercial production

Second period of commercial production

That portion

35 per cent

40 per cent

representing a return

on investment which is

greater than 0 per cent,

but less than 10 per cent

That portion

42.5 per cent

50 per cent

representing a return

on investment which is

10 per cent or greater,

but less than 20 per cent

That portion

50 per cent

70 per cent

representing a return

on investment which is

20 per cent or greater

(d) (i) The first period of commercial production referred to in subparagraphs (a) and (c) shall commence in the first accounting year of commercial production and terminate in the accounting year in which the contractor's development costs with interest on the unrecovered portion thereof are fully recovered by his cash surplus, as follows:

In the first accounting year during which development costs are incurred, unrecovered development costs shall equal the development costs less cash surplus in that year. In each subsequent accounting year, unrecovered development costs shall equal the unrecovered development costs at the end of the preceding accounting year, plus interest thereon at the rate of 10 per cent per annum, plus development costs incurred in the current accounting year and less contractor's cash surplus in the current accounting year. The accounting year in which unrecovered development costs become zero for the first time shall be the accounting year in which the contractor's development costs with interest on the unrecovered portion thereof are fully recovered by his cash surplus. The contractor's cash surplus in any accounting year shall be his gross proceeds less his operating costs and less his payments to the Authority under subparagraph (c).

(ii) The second period of commercial production shall commence in the accounting year following the termination of the first period of commercial production and shall continue until the end of the contract.

(e) "Attributable net proceeds" means the product of the contractor's net proceeds and the ratio of the development costs in the mining sector to the contractor's development costs. If the contractor engages in mining, transporting polymetallic nodules and production primarily of three processed metals, namely, cobalt, copper and nickel, the amount of attributable net proceeds shall not be less than 25 per cent of the contractor's net proceeds. Subject to subparagraph (n), in all other cases, including those where the contractor engages in mining, transporting polymetallic nodules, and production primarily of four processed metals, namely, cobalt, copper, manganese and nickel, the Authority may, in its rules, regulations and procedures, prescribe appropriate floors which shall bear the same relationship to each case as the 25 per cent floor does to the three-metal case.

(f) "Contractor's net proceeds" means the contractor's gross proceeds less his operating costs and less the recovery of his development costs as set out in subparagraph (j).

(g) (i) If the contractor engages in mining, transporting polymetallic nodules and production of processed metals, "contractor's gross proceeds" means the gross revenues from the sale of the processed metals and any other monies deemed reasonably attributable to operations under the contract in accordance with the financial rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

(ii) In all cases other than those specified in subparagraphs (g)(i) and (n)(iii), "contractor's gross proceeds" means the gross revenues from the sale of the semi-processed metals from the polymetallic nodules recovered from the area covered by the contract, and any other monies deemed reasonably attributable to operations under the contract in accordance with the financial rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

(h) "Contractor's development costs" means:

(i) all expenditures incurred prior to the commencement of commercial production which are directly related to the development of the productive capacity of the area covered by the contract and the activities related thereto for operations under the contract in all cases other than that specified in subparagraph (n), in conformity with generally recognized accounting principles, including, inter alia, costs of machinery, equipment, ships, processing plant, construction, buildings, land, roads, prospecting and exploration of the area covered by the contract, research and development, interest, required leases, licences and fees; and

(ii) expenditures similar to those set forth in (i) above incurred subsequent to the commencement of commercial production and necessary to carry out the plan of work, except those chargeable to operating costs.

(i) The proceeds from the disposal of capital assets and the market value of those capital assets which are no longer required for operations under the contract and which are not sold shall be deducted from the contractor's development costs during the relevant accounting year. When these deductions exceed the contractor's development costs the excess shall be added to the contractor's gross proceeds.

(j) The contractor's development costs incurred prior to the commencement of commercial production referred to in subparagraphs (h)(i) and (n)(iv) shall be recovered in 10 equal annual instalments from the date of commencement of commercial production. The contractor's development costs incurred subsequent to the commencement of commercial production referred to in subparagraphs (h)(ii) and (n)(iv) shall be recovered in 10 or fewer equal annual instalments so as to ensure their complete recovery by the end of the contract.

(k) "Contractor's operating costs" means all expenditures incurred after the commencement of commercial production in the operation of the productive capacity of the area covered by the contract and the activities related thereto for operations under the contract, in conformity with generally recognized accounting principles, including, inter alia, the annual fixed fee or the production charge, whichever is greater, expenditures for wages, salaries, employee benefits, materials, services, transporting, processing and marketing costs, interest, utilities, preservation of the marine environment, overhead and administrative costs specifically related to operations under the contract, and any net operating losses carried forward or backward as specified herein. Net operating losses may be carried forward for two consecutive years except in the last two years of the contract in which case they may be carried backward to the two preceding years.

(l) If the contractor engages in mining, transporting of polymetallic nodules, and production of processed and semi-processed metals, "development costs of the mining sector" means the portion of the contractor's development costs which is directly related to the mining of the resources of the area covered by the contract, in conformity with generally recognized accounting principles, and the financial rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, including, inter alia, application fee, annual fixed fee and, where applicable, costs of prospecting and exploration of the area covered by the contract, and a portion of research and development costs.

(m) "Return on investment" in any accounting year means the ratio of attributable net proceeds in that year to the development costs of the mining sector. For the purpose of computing this ratio the development costs of the mining sector shall include expenditures on new or replacement equipment in the mining sector less the original cost of the equipment replaced.

(n) If the contractor engages in mining only:

(i) "attributable net proceeds" means the whole of the contractor's net proceeds;

(ii) "contractor's net proceeds" shall be as defined in subparagraph (f);

(iii) "contractor's gross proceeds" means the gross revenues from the sale of the polymetallic nodules, and any other monies deemed reasonably attributable to operations under the contract in accordance with the financial rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority;

(iv) "contractor's development costs" means all expenditures incurred prior to the commencement of commercial production as set forth in subparagraph (h)(i), and all expenditures incurred subsequent to the commencement of commercial production as set forth in subparagraph (h)(ii), which are directly related to the mining of the resources of the area covered by the contract, in conformity with generally recognized accounting principles;

(v) "contractor's operating costs" means the contractor's operating costs as in subparagraph (k) which are directly related to the mining of the resources of the area covered by the contract in conformity with generally recognized accounting principles;

(vi) "return on investment" in any accounting year means the ratio of the contractor's net proceeds in that year to the contractor's development costs. For the purpose of computing this ratio, the contractor's development costs shall include expenditures on new or

replacement equipment less the original cost of the equipment replaced.

(o) The costs referred to in subparagraphs (h), (k), (l) and (n) in respect of interest paid by the contractor shall be allowed to the extent that, in all the circumstances, the Authority approves, pursuant to Article 4, paragraph 1, of this Annex, the debt-equity ratio and the rates of interest as reasonable, having regard to existing commercial practice.

(p) The costs referred to in this paragraph shall not be interpreted as including payments of corporate income taxes or similar charges levied by States in respect of the operations of the contractor.

7. (a) "Processed metals", referred to in paragraphs 5 and 6, means the metals in the most basic form in which they are customarily traded on international terminal markets. For this purpose, the Authority shall specify, in its financial rules, regulations and procedures, the relevant international terminal market. For the metals which are not traded on such markets, "processed metals" means the metals in the most basic form in which they are customarily traded in representative arm's length transactions.

(b) If the Authority cannot otherwise determine the quantity of the processed metals produced from the polymetallic nodules recovered from the area covered by the contract referred to in paragraphs 5(b) and 6(b), the quantity shall be determined on the basis of the metal content of the nodules, processing recovery efficiency and other relevant factors, in accordance with the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority and in conformity with generally recognized accounting principles.

8. If an international terminal market provides a representative pricing mechanism for processed metals, polymetallic nodules and semi-processed metals from the nodules, the average price on that market shall be used. In all other cases, the Authority shall, after consulting the contractor, determine a fair price for the said products in accordance with paragraph 9.

9. (a) All costs, expenditures, proceeds and revenues and all determinations of price and value referred to in this Article shall be the result of free market or arm's length transactions. In the absence thereof, they shall be determined by the Authority, after consulting the contractor, as though they were the result of free market or arm's length transactions, taking into account relevant transactions in other markets.

(b) In order to ensure compliance with and enforcement of the provisions of this paragraph, the Authority shall be guided by the principles adopted for, and the interpretation given to, arm's length transactions by the Commission on Transnational Corporations of the United Nations, the Group of Experts on Tax Treaties between Developing and Developed Countries and other international organizations, and shall, in its rules, regulations and procedures, specify uniform and internationally acceptable accounting rules and procedures, and the means of selection by the contractor of certified independent accountants acceptable to the Authority for the purpose of carrying out auditing in compliance with those rules, regulations and procedures.

10. The contractor shall make available to the accountants, in accordance with the financial rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, such financial data as are required to determine compliance with this article.

11. All costs, expenditures, proceeds and revenues, and all prices and values referred to in this article, shall be determined in accordance with generally recognized accounting principles and the financial rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

12. Payments to the Authority under paragraphs 5 and 6 shall be made in freely usable currencies or currencies which are freely available and effectively usable on the major foreign exchange markets or, at the contractor's option, in the equivalents of processed metals at market value. The market value shall be determined in accordance with paragraph 5(b). The freely usable currencies and currencies which are freely available and effectively usable on the major foreign exchange markets shall be defined in the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority in accordance with prevailing international monetary practice.

13. All financial obligations of the contractor to the Authority, as well as all his fees, costs, expenditures, proceeds and revenues referred to in this article, shall be adjusted by expressing them in constant terms relative to a base year.

14. The Authority may, taking into account any recommendations of the Economic Planning Commission and the Legal and Technical Commission, adopt rules, regulations and procedures that provide for incentives, on a uniform and non-discriminatory basis, to contractors to further the objectives set out in paragraph 1.

15. In the event of a dispute between the Authority and a contractor over the interpretation or application of the financial terms of a contract, either party may submit the dispute to binding commercial arbitration, unless both parties agree to settle the dispute by other means, in accordance with Article 188, paragraph 2.

Article 14. Transfer of data

1. The operator shall transfer to the Authority, in accordance with its rules, regulations and procedures and the terms and conditions of the plan of work, at time intervals determined by the Authority all data which are both necessary for and relevant to the effective exercise of the powers and functions of the principal organs of the Authority in respect of the area covered by the plan of work.

2. Transferred data in respect of the area covered by the plan of work, deemed proprietary, may only be used for the purposes set forth in this article. Data necessary for the formulation by the Authority of rules, regulations and procedures concerning protection of the marine environment and safety, other than equipment design data, shall not be deemed proprietary.

3. Data transferred to the Authority by prospectors, applicants for contracts or contractors, deemed proprietary, shall not be disclosed by the Authority to the Enterprise or to anyone external to the Authority, but data on the reserved areas may be disclosed to the Enterprise. Such data transferred by such persons to the Enterprise shall not be disclosed by the Enterprise to the Authority or to anyone external to the Authority.

Article 15. Training programmes

The contractor shall draw up practical programmes for the training of personnel of the Authority and developing States, including the participation of such personnel in all activities in the Area which are covered by the contract, in accordance with Article 144, paragraph 2.

Article 16. Exclusive right to explore and exploit

The Authority shall, pursuant to Part XI and its rules, regulations and procedures, accord the operator the exclusive right to explore and exploit the area covered by the plan of work in respect of a specified category of resources and shall ensure that no other entity operates in the same area for a different category of resources in a manner which might interfere with the operations of the operator. The operator shall have security of tenure in accordance with Article 153, paragraph 6.

Article 17. Rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority

1. The Authority shall adopt and uniformly apply rules, regulations and procedures in accordance with Article 160, paragraph 2(f)(ii), and Article 162, paragraph 2(o)(ii), for the exercise of its functions as set forth in Part XI on, inter alia, the following matters:

(a) administrative procedures relating to prospecting, exploration and exploitation in the Area;

(b) operations:

(i) size of area;

(ii) duration of operations;

(iii) performance requirements including assurances pursuant to Article 4, paragraph 6(c), of this Annex;

(iv) categories of resources;

(v) renunciation of areas;

(vi) progress reports;

(vii) submission of data;

(viii) inspection and supervision of operations;

(ix) prevention of interference with other activities in the marine environment;

(x) transfer of rights and obligations by a contractor;

(xi) procedures for transfer of technology to developing States in accordance with Article 144 and for their direct participation;

(xii) mining standards and practices, including those relating to operational safety, conservation of the resources and the protection of the marine environment;

(xiii) definition of commercial production;

(xiv) qualification standards for applicants;

(c) financial matters:

(i) establishment of uniform and non-discriminatory costing and accounting rules and the method of selection of auditors;

(ii) apportionment of proceeds of operations;

(iii) the incentives referred to in Article 13 of this Annex;

(d) implementation of decisions taken pursuant to Article 151, paragraph 10, and Article 164, paragraph 2(d).

2. Rules, regulations and procedures on the following items shall fully reflect the objective criteria set out below:

(a) Size of areas:

The Authority shall determine the appropriate size of areas for exploration which may be up to twice as large as those for exploitation in order to permit intensive exploration operations. The size of area shall be calculated to satisfy the requirements of Article 8 of this Annex on reservation of areas as well as stated production requirements consistent with Article 151 in accordance with the terms of the contract taking into account the state of the art of technology then available for seabed mining and the relevant physical characteristics of the areas. Areas shall be neither smaller nor larger than are necessary to satisfy this objective.

(b) Duration of operations:

(i) Prospecting shall be without time-limit;

(ii) Exploration should be of sufficient duration to permit a thorough survey of the specific area, the design and construction of mining equipment for the area and the design and construction of small and medium-size processing plants for the purpose of testing mining and processing systems;

(iii) The duration of exploitation should be related to the economic life of the mining project, taking into consideration such factors as the depletion of the ore, the useful life of mining equipment and processing facilities and commercial viability. Exploitation should be of sufficient duration to permit commercial extraction of minerals of the area and should include a reasonable time period for construction of commercial-scale mining and processing systems, during which period commercial production should not be required. The total duration of exploitation, however, should also be short enough to give the Authority an opportunity to amend the terms and conditions of the plan of work at the time it considers renewal in accordance with rules, regulations and procedures which it has adopted subsequent to approving the plan of work.

(c) Performance requirements:

The Authority shall require that during the exploration stage periodic expenditures be made by the operator which are reasonably related to the size of the area covered by the plan of work and the expenditures which would be expected of a bona fide operator who intended to bring the area into commercial production within the time-limits established by the Authority. The required expenditures should not be established at a level which would discourage prospective operators with less costly technology than is prevalently in use. The Authority shall establish a maximum time interval, after the exploration stage is completed and the exploitation stage begins, to achieve commercial production. To determine this interval, the Authority should take into consideration that construction of large-scale mining and processing systems cannot be initiated until after the termination of the exploration stage and the commencement of the exploitation stage. Accordingly, the interval to bring an area into commercial production should take into account the time necessary for this construction after the completion of the exploration stage and reasonable allowance should be made for unavoidable delays in the construction schedule. Once commercial production is achieved, the Authority shall within reasonable limits and taking into consideration all relevant factors require the operator to maintain commercial production throughout the period of the plan of work.

(d) Categories of resources:

In determining the category of resources in respect of which a plan of work may be approved, the Authority shall give emphasis inter alia to the following characteristics:

(i) that certain resources require the use of similar mining methods; and

(ii) that some resources can be developed simultaneously without undue interference between operators developing different resources in the same area.

Nothing in this subparagraph shall preclude the Authority from approving a plan of work with respect to more than one category of resources in the same area to the same applicant.

(e) Renunciation of areas:

The operator shall have the right at any time to renounce without penalty the whole or part of his rights in the area covered by a plan of work.

(f) Protection of the marine environment:

Rules, regulations and procedures shall be drawn up in order to secure effective protection of the marine environment from harmful effects directly resulting from activities in the Area or from shipboard processing immediately above a mine site of minerals derived from that mine site, taking into account the extent to which such harmful effects may directly result from drilling, dredging, coring and excavation and from disposal, dumping and discharge into the marine environment of sediment, wastes or other effluents.

(g) Commercial production:

Commercial production shall be deemed to have begun if an operator engages in sustained large-scale recovery operations which yield a quantity of materials sufficient to indicate clearly that the principal purpose is large-scale production rather than production intended for information gathering, analysis or the testing of equipment or plant.

Article 18. Penalties

1. A contractor's rights under the contract may be suspended or terminated only in the following cases:

(a) if, in spite of warnings by the Authority, the contractor has conducted his activities in such a way as to result in serious, persistent and wilful violations of the fundamental terms of the contract, Part XI and the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority; or

(b) if the contractor has failed to comply with a final binding decision of the dispute settlement body applicable to him.

2. In the case of any violation of the contract not covered by paragraph 1(a), or in lieu of suspension or termination under paragraph 1(a), the Authority may impose upon the contractor monetary penalties proportionate to the seriousness of the violation.

3. Except for emergency orders under Article 162, paragraph 2(w), the Authority may not execute a decision involving monetary penalties, suspension or termination until the contractor has been accorded a reasonable opportunity to exhaust the judicial remedies available to him pursuant to Part XI, section 5.

Article 19. Revision of contract

1. When circumstances have arisen or are likely to arise which, in the opinion of either party, would render the contract inequitable or make it impracticable or impossible to achieve the objectives set out in the contract or in Part XI, the parties shall enter into negotiations to revise it accordingly.

2. Any contract entered into in accordance with Article 153, paragraph 3, may be revised only with the consent of the parties.

Article 20. Transfer of rights and obligations

The rights and obligations arising under a contract may be transferred only with the consent of the Authority, and in accordance with its rules, regulations and procedures. The Authority shall not unreasonably withhold consent to the transfer if the proposed transferee is in all respects a qualified applicant and assumes all of the obligations of the transferor and if the transfer does not confer to the transferee a plan of work, the approval of which would be forbidden by Article 6, paragraph 3(c), of this Annex.

Article 21. Applicable law

1. The contract shall be governed by the terms of the contract, the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, Part XI and other rules of international law not incompatible with this Convention.

2. Any final decision rendered by a court or tribunal having jurisdiction under this Convention relating to the rights and obligations of the Authority and of the contractor shall be enforceable in the territory of each State Party.

3. No State Party may impose conditions on a contractor that are inconsistent with Part XI. However, the application by a State Party to contractors sponsored by it, or to ships flying its flag, of environmental or other laws and regulations more stringent than those in the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority adopted pursuant to Article 17, paragraph 2(f), of this Annex shall not be deemed inconsistent with Part XI.

Article 22. Responsibility

The contractor shall have responsibility or liability for any damage arising out of wrongful acts in the conduct of its operations, account being taken of contributory acts or omissions by the Authority. Similarly, the Authority shall have responsibility or liability for any damage arising out of wrongful acts in the exercise of its powers and functions, including violations under Article 168, paragraph 2, account being taken of contributory acts or omissions by the contractor. Liability in every case shall be for the actual amount of damage.

Annex IV

STATUTE OF THE ENTERPRISE

Article 1. Purposes

1. The Enterprise is the organ of the Authority which shall carry out activities in the Area directly, pursuant to Article 153, paragraph 2 (a), as well as the transporting, processing and marketing of minerals recovered from the Area.

2. In carrying out its purposes and in the exercise of its functions, the Enterprise shall act in accordance with this Convention and the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

3. In developing the resources of the Area pursuant to paragraph 1, the Enterprise shall, subject to this Convention, operate in accordance with sound commercial principles.

Article 2. Relationship to the Authority

1. Pursuant to Article 170, the Enterprise shall act in accordance with the general policies of the Assembly and the directives of the Council.

2. Subject to paragraph l, the Enterprise shall enjoy autonomy in the conduct of its operations.

3. Nothing in this Convention shall make the Enterprise liable for the acts or obligations of the Authority, or make the Authority liable for the acts or obligations of the Enterprise.

Article 3. Limitation of liability

Without prejudice to Article 11, paragraph 3, of this Annex, no member of the Authority shall be liable by reason only of its membership for the acts or obligations of the Enterprise.

Article 4. Structure

The Enterprise shall have a Governing Board, a Director-General and the staff necessary for the exercise of its functions.

Article 5. Governing Board

1. The Governing Board shall be composed of 15 members elected by the Assembly in accordance with Article 160, paragraph 2(c). In the election of the members of the Board, due regard shall be paid to the principle of equitable geographical distribution. In submitting nominations of candidates for election to the Board, members of the Authority shall bear in mind the need to nominate candidates of the highest standard of competence, with qualifications in relevant fields, so as to ensure the viability and success of the Enterprise.

2. Members of the Board shall be elected for four years and may be re-elected; and due regard shall be paid to the principle of rotation of membership.

3. Members of the Board shall continue in office until their successors are elected. If the office of a member of the Board becomes vacant, the Assembly shall, in accordance with Article 160, paragraph 2(c), elect a new member for the remainder of his predecessor's term.

4. Members of the Board shall act in their personal capacity. In the performance of their duties they shall not seek or receive instructions from any government or from any other source. Each member of the Authority shall respect the independent character of the members of the Board and shall refrain from all attempts to influence any of them in the discharge of their duties.

5. Each member of the Board shall receive remuneration to be paid out of the funds of the Enterprise. The amount of remuneration shall be fixed by the Assembly, upon the recommendation of the Council.

6. The Board shall normally function at the principal office of the Enterprise and shall meet as often as the business of the Enterprise may require.

7. Two thirds of the members of the Board shall constitute a quorum.

8. Each member of the Board shall have one vote. All matters before the Board shall be decided by a majority of its members. If a member has a conflict of interest on a matter before the Board he shall refrain from voting on that matter.

9. Any member of the Authority may ask the Board for information in respect of its operations which particularly affect that member. The Board shall endeavour to provide such information.

Article 6. Powers and functions of the Governing Board

The Governing Board shall direct the operations of the Enterprise. Subject to this Convention, the Governing Board shall exercise the powers necessary to fulfil the purposes of the Enterprise, including powers:

(a) to elect a Chairman from among its members;

(b) to adopt its rules of procedure;

(c) to draw up and submit formal written plans of work to the Council in accordance with Article 153, paragraph 3, and Article 162, paragraph 2(j);

(d) to develop plans of work and programmes for carrying out the activities specified in Article 170;

(e) to prepare and submit to the Council applications for production authorizations in accordance with Article 151, paragraphs 2 to 7;

(f) to authorize negotiations concerning the acquisition of technology, including those provided for in Annex III, Article 5, paragraph 3(a), (c) and (d), and to approve the results of those negotiations;

(g) to establish terms and conditions, and to authorize negotiations, concerning joint ventures and other forms of joint arrangements referred to in Annex III, articles 9 and 11, and to approve the results of such negotiations;

(h) to recommend to the Assembly what portion of the net income of the Enterprise should be retained as its reserves in accordance with Article 160, paragraph 2(f), and Article 10 of this Annex;

(i) to approve the annual budget of the Enterprise;

(j) to authorize the procurement of goods and services in accordance with Article 12, paragraph 3, of this Annex;

(k) to submit an annual report to the Council in accordance with Article 9 of this Annex;

(l) to submit to the Council for the approval of the Assembly draft rules in respect of the organization, management, appointment and dismissal of the staff of the Enterprise and to adopt regulations to give effect to such rules;

(m) to borrow funds and to furnish such collateral or other security as it may determine in accordance with Article 11, paragraph 2, of this Annex;

(n) to enter into any legal proceedings, agreements and transactions and to take any other actions in accordance with Article 13 of this Annex;

(o) to delegate, subject to the approval of the Council, any non-discretionary powers to the Director-General and to its committees.

Article 7. Director-General and staff of the Enterprise

1. The Assembly shall, upon the recommendation of the Council and the nomination of the Governing Board, elect the Director-General of the Enterprise who shall not be a member of the Board. The Director-General shall hold office for a fixed term, not exceeding five years, and may be re-elected for further terms.

2. The Director-General shall be the legal representative and chief executive of the Enterprise and shall be directly responsible to the Board for the conduct of the operations of the Enterprise. He shall be responsible for the organization, management, appointment and dismissal of the staff of the Enterprise in accordance with the rules and regulations referred to in Article 6, subparagraph (l), of this Annex. He shall participate, without the right to vote, in the meetings of the Board and may participate, without the right to vote, in the meetings of the Assembly and the Council when these organs are dealing with matters concerning the Enterprise.

3. The paramount consideration in the recruitment and employment of the staff and in the determination of their conditions of service shall be the necessity of securing the highest standards of efficiency and of technical competence. Subject to this consideration, due regard shall be paid to the importance of recruiting the staff on an equitable geographical basis.

4. In the performance of their duties the Director-General and the staff shall not seek or receive instructions from any government or from any other source external to the Enterprise. They shall refrain from any action which might reflect on their position as international officials of the Enterprise responsible only to the Enterprise. Each State Party undertakes to respect the exclusively international character of the responsibilities of the Director-General and the staff and not to seek to influence them in the discharge of their responsibilities.

5. The responsibilities set forth in Article 168, paragraph 2, are equally applicable to the staff of the Enterprise.

Article 8. Location

The Enterprise shall have its principal office at the seat of the Authority. The Enterprise may establish other offices and facilities in the territory of any State Party with the consent of that State Party.

Article 9. Reports and financial statements

1. The Enterprise shall, not later than three months after the end of each financial year, submit to the Council for its consideration an annual report containing an audited statement of its accounts and shall transmit to the Council at appropriate intervals a summary statement of its financial position and a profit and loss statement showing the results of its operations.

2. The Enterprise shall publish its annual report and such other reports as it finds appropriate.

3. All reports and financial statements referred to in this Article shall be distributed to the members of the Authority.

Article 10. Allocation of net income

1. Subject to paragraph 3, the Enterprise shall make payments to the Authority under Annex III, Article 13, or their equivalent.

2. The Assembly shall, upon the recommendation of the Governing Board, determine what portion of the net income of the Enterprise shall be retained as reserves of the Enterprise. The remainder shall be transferred to the Authority.

3. During an initial period required for the Enterprise to become self-supporting, which shall not exceed 10 years from the commencement of commercial production by it, the Assembly shall exempt the Enterprise from the payments referred to in paragraph 1, and shall leave all of the net income of the Enterprise in its reserves.

Article 11. Finances

1. The funds of the Enterprise shall include:

(a) amounts received from the Authority in accordance with Article 173, paragraph 2(b);

(b) voluntary contributions made by States Parties for the purpose of financing activities of the Enterprise;

(c) amounts borrowed by the Enterprise in accordance with paragraphs 2 and 3;

(d) income of the Enterprise from its operations;

(e) other funds made available to the Enterprise to enable it to commence operations as soon as possible and to carry out its functions.

2. (a) The Enterprise shall have the power to borrow funds and to furnish such collateral or other security as it may determine. Before making a public sale of its obligations in the financial markets or currency of a State Party, the Enterprise shall obtain the approval of that State Party. The total amount of borrowings shall be approved by the Council upon the recommendation of the Governing Board.

(b) States Parties shall make every reasonable effort to support applications by the Enterprise for loans on capital markets and from international financial institutions.

3. (a) The Enterprise shall be provided with the funds necessary to explore and exploit one mine site, and to transport, process and market the minerals recovered therefrom and the nickel, copper, cobalt and manganese obtained, and to meet its initial administrative expenses. The amount of the said funds, and the criteria and factors for its adjustment, shall be included by the Preparatory Commission in the draft rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

(b) All States Parties shall make available to the Enterprise an amount equivalent to one half of the funds referred to in subparagraph (a) by way of long-term interest-free loans in accordance with the scale of assessments for the United Nations regular budget in force at the time when the assessments are made, adjusted to take into account the States which are not members of the United Nations. Debts incurred by the Enterprise in raising the other half of the funds shall be guaranteed by all States Parties in accordance with the same scale.

(c) If the sum of the financial contributions of States Parties is less than the funds to be provided to the Enterprise under subparagraph (a), the Assembly shall, at its first session, consider the extent of the shortfall and adopt by consensus measures for dealing with this shortfall, taking into account the obligation of States Parties under subparagraphs (a) and (b) and any recommendations of the Preparatory Commission.

(d) (i) Each State Party shall, within 60 days after the entry into force of this Convention, or within 30 days after the deposit of its instrument of ratification or accession, whichever is later, deposit with the Enterprise irrevocable, non-negotiable, non-interest-bearing promissory notes in the amount of the share of such State Party of interest-free loans pursuant to subparagraph (b).

(ii) The Board shall prepare, at the earliest practicable date after this Convention enters into force, and thereafter at annual or other appropriate intervals, a schedule of the magnitude and timing of its requirements for the funding of its administrative expenses and for activities carried out by the Enterprise in accordance with Article 170 and Article 12 of this Annex.

(iii) The States Parties shall, thereupon, be notified by the Enterprise, through the Authority, of their respective shares of the funds in accordance with subparagraph (b), required for such expenses. The Enterprise shall encash such amounts of the promissory notes as may be required to meet the expenditure referred to in the schedule with respect to interest-free loans.

(iv) States Parties shall, upon receipt of the notification, make available their respective shares of debt guarantees for the Enterprise in accordance with subparagraph (b).

(e) (i) If the Enterprise so requests, State Parties may provide debt guarantees in addition to those provided in accordance with the scale referred to in subparagraph (b).

(ii) In lieu of debt guarantees, a State Party may make a voluntary contribution to the Enterprise in an amount equivalent to that portion of the debts which it would otherwise be liable to guarantee.

(f) Repayment of the interest-bearing loans shall have priority over the repayment of the interest-free loans. Repayment of interest-free loans shall be in accordance with a schedule adopted by the Assembly, upon the recommendation of the Council and the advice of the Board. In the exercise of this function the Board shall be guided by the relevant provisions of the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority, which shall take into account the paramount importance of ensuring the effective functioning of the Enterprise and, in particular, ensuring its financial independence.

(g) Funds made available to the Enterprise shall be in freely usable currencies or currencies which are freely available and effectively usable in the major foreign exchange markets. These currencies shall be defined in the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority in accordance with prevailing international monetary practice. Except as provided in paragraph 2, no State Party shall maintain or impose restrictions on the holding, use or exchange by the Enterprise of these funds.

(h) "Debt guarantee" means a promise of a State Party to creditors of the Enterprise to pay, pro rata in accordance with the appropriate scale, the financial obligations of the Enterprise covered by the guarantee following notice by the creditors to the State Party of a default by the Enterprise. Procedures for the payment of those obligations shall be in conformity with the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority.

4. The funds, assets and expenses of the Enterprise shall be kept separate from those of the Authority. This Article shall not prevent the Enterprise from making arrangements with the Authority regarding facilities, personnel and services and arrangements for reimbursement of administrative expenses paid by either on behalf of the other.

5. The records, books and accounts of the Enterprise, including its annual financial statements, shall be audited annually by an independent auditor appointed by the Council.

Article 12. Operations

1. The Enterprise shall propose to the Council projects for carrying out activities in accordance with Article 170. Such proposals shall include a formal written plan of work for activities in the Area in accordance with Article 153, paragraph 3, and all such other information and data as may be required from time to time for its appraisal by the Legal and Technical Commission and approval by the Council.

2. Upon approval by the Council, the Enterprise shall execute the project on the basis of the formal written plan of work referred to in paragraph 1.

3. (a) If the Enterprise does not possess the goods and services required for its operations it may procure them. For that purpose, it shall issue invitations to tender and award contracts to bidders offering the best combination of quality, price and delivery time.

(b) If there is more than one bid offering such a combination, the contract shall be awarded in accordance with:

(i) the principle of non-discrimination on the basis of political or other considerations not relevant to the carrying out of operations with due diligence and efficiency; and

(ii) guidelines approved by the Council with regard to the preferences to be accorded to goods and services originating in developing States, including the land-locked and geographically disadvantaged among them.

(c) The Governing Board may adopt rules determining the special circumstances in which the requirement of invitations to bid may, in the best interests of the Enterprise, be dispensed with.

4. The Enterprise shall have title to all minerals and processed substances produced by it.

5. The Enterprise shall sell its products on a non-discriminatory basis. It shall not give non-commercial discounts.

6. Without prejudice to any general or special power conferred on the Enterprise under any other provision of this Convention, the Enterprise shall exercise such powers incidental to its business as shall be necessary.

7. The Enterprise shall not interfere in the political affairs of any State Party; nor shall it be influenced in its decisions by the political character of the State Party concerned. Only commercial considerations shall be relevant to its decisions, and these considerations shall be weighed impartially in order to carry out the purposes specified in Article 1 of this Annex.

Article 13. Legal status, privileges and immunities

1. To enable the Enterprise to exercise its functions, the status, privileges and immunities set forth in this Article shall be accorded to the Enterprise in the territories of States Parties. To give effect to this principle the Enterprise and States Parties may, where necessary, enter into special agreements.

2. The Enterprise shall have such legal capacity as is necessary for the exercise of its functions and the fulfilment of its purposes and, in particular, the capacity:

(a) to enter into contracts, joint arrangements or other arrangements, including agreements with States and international organizations;

(b) to acquire, lease, hold and dispose of immovable and movable property;

(c) to be a party to legal proceedings.

3. (a) Actions may be brought against the Enterprise only in a court of competent jurisdiction in the territory of a State Party in which the Enterprise:

(i) has an office or facility;

(ii) has appointed an agent for the purpose of accepting service or notice of process;

(iii) has entered into a contract for goods or services;

(iv) has issued securities; or

(v) is otherwise engaged in commercial activity.

(b) The property and assets of the Enterprise, wherever located and by whomsoever held, shall be immune from all forms of seizure, attachment or execution before the delivery of final judgment against the Enterprise.

4. (a) The property and assets of the Enterprise, wherever located and by whomsoever held, shall be immune from requisition, confiscation, expropriation or any other form of seizure by executive or legislative action.

(b) The property and assets of the Enterprise, wherever located and by whomsoever held, shall be free from discriminatory restrictions, regulations, controls and moratoria of any nature.

(c) The Enterprise and its employees shall respect local laws and regulations in any State or territory in which the Enterprise or its employees may do business or otherwise act.

(d) States Parties shall ensure that the Enterprise enjoys all rights, privileges and immunities accorded by them to entities conducting commercial activities in their territories. These rights, privileges and immunities shall be accorded to the Enterprise on no less favourable a basis than that on which they are accorded to entities engaged in similar commercial activities. If special privileges are provided by States Parties for developing States or their commercial entities, the Enterprise shall enjoy those privileges on a similarly preferential basis.

(e) States Parties may provide special incentives, rights, privileges and immunities to the Enterprise without the obligation to provide such incentives, rights, privileges and immunities to other commercial entities.

5. The Enterprise shall negotiate with the host countries in which its offices and facilities are located for exemption from direct and indirect taxation.

6. Each State Party shall take such action as is necessary for giving effect in terms of its own law to the principles set forth in this Annex and shall inform the Enterprise of the specific action which it has taken.

7. The Enterprise may waive any of the privileges and immunities conferred under this Article or in the special agreements referred to in paragraph 1 to such extent and upon such conditions as it may determine.

Annex V

CONCILIATION

Section 1. CONCILIATION PROCEDURE PURSUANT TO SECTION 1 OF PART XV

Article 1. Institution of proceedings

If the parties to a dispute have agreed, in accordance with Article 284, to submit it to conciliation under this section, any such party may institute the proceedings by written notification addressed to the other party or parties to the dispute.

Article 2. List of conciliators

A list of conciliators shall be drawn up and maintained by the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Every State Party shall be entitled to nominate four conciliators, each of whom shall be a person enjoying the highest reputation for fairness, competence and integrity. The names of the persons so nominated shall constitute the list. If at any time the conciliators nominated by a State Party in the list so constituted shall be fewer than four, that State Party shall be entitled to make further nominations as necessary. The name of a conciliator shall remain on the list until withdrawn by the State Party which made the nomination, provided that such conciliator shall continue to serve on any conciliation commission to which that conciliator has been appointed until the completion of the proceedings before that commission.

Article 3. Constitution of conciliation commission

The conciliation commission shall, unless the parties otherwise agree, be constituted as follows:

(a) Subject to subparagraph (g), the conciliation commission shall consist of five members.

(b) The party instituting the proceedings shall appoint two conciliators to be chosen preferably from the list referred to in Article 2 of this Annex, one of whom may be its national, unless the parties otherwise agree. Such appointments shall be included in the notification referred to in Article 1 of this Annex.

(c) The other party to the dispute shall appoint two conciliators in the manner set forth in subparagraph (b) within 21 days of receipt of the notification referred to in Article 1 of this Annex. If the appointments are not made within that period, the party instituting the proceedings may, within one week of the expiration of that period, either terminate the proceedings by notification addressed to the other party or request the Secretary-General of the United Nations to make the appointments in accordance with subparagraph (e).

(d) Within 30 days after all four conciliators have been appointed, they shall appoint a fifth conciliator chosen from the list referred to in Article 2 of this Annex, who shall be chairman. If the appointment is not made within that period, either party may, within one week of the expiration of that period, request the Secretary-General of the United Nations to make the appointment in accordance with subparagraph (e).

(e) Within 30 days of the receipt of a request under subparagraph (c) or (d), the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall make the necessary appointments from the list referred to in Article 2 of this Annex in consultation with the parties to the dispute.

(f) Any vacancy shall be filled in the manner prescribed for the initial appointment.

(g) Two or more parties which determine by agreement that they are in the same interest shall appoint two conciliators jointly. Where two or more parties have separate interests or there is a disagreement as to whether they are of the same interest, they shall appoint conciliators separately.

(h) In disputes involving more than two parties having separate interests, or where there is disagreement as to whether they are of the same interest, the parties shall apply subparagraphs (a) to (f) in so far as possible.

Article 4. Procedure

The conciliation commission shall, unless the parties otherwise agree, determine its own procedure. The commission may, with the consent of the parties to the dispute, invite any State Party to submit to it its views orally or in writing. Decisions of the commission regarding procedural matters, the report and recommendations shall be made by a majority vote of its members.

Article 5. Amicable settlement

The commission may draw the attention of the parties to any measures which might facilitate an amicable settlement of the dispute.

Article 6. Functions of the commission

The commission shall hear the parties, examine their claims and objections, and make proposals to the parties with a view to reaching an amicable settlement.

Article 7. Report

1. The commission shall report within 12 months of its constitution. Its report shall record any agreements reached and, failing agreement, its conclusions on all questions of fact or law relevant to the matter in dispute and such recommendations as the commission may deem appropriate for an amicable settlement. The report shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations and shall immediately be transmitted by him to the parties to the dispute.

2. The report of the commission, including its conclusions or recommendations, shall not be binding upon the parties.

Article 8. Termination

The conciliation proceedings are terminated when a settlement has been reached, when the parties have accepted or one party has rejected the recommendations of the report by written notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, or when a period of three months has expired from the date of transmission of the report to the parties.

Article 9. Fees and expenses

The fees and expenses of the commission shall be borne by the parties to the dispute.

Article 10. Right of parties to modify procedure

The parties to the dispute may by agreement applicable solely to that dispute modify any provision of this Annex.

Section 2. COMPULSORY SUBMISSION TO CONCILIATION PROCEDURE PURSUANT TO SECTION 3 OF PART XV

Article 11. Institution of proceedings

1. Any party to a dispute which, in accordance with Part XV, section 3, may be submitted to conciliation under this section, may institute the proceedings by written notification addressed to the other party or parties to the dispute.

2. Any party to the dispute, notified under paragraph 1, shall be obliged to submit to such proceedings.

Article 12. Failure to reply or to submit to conciliation

The failure of a party or parties to the dispute to reply to notification of institution of proceedings or to submit to such proceedings shall not constitute a bar to the proceedings.

Article 13. Competence

A disagreement as to whether a conciliation commission acting under this section has competence shall be decided by the commission.

Article 14. Application of section 1

Articles 2 to 10 of section l of this Annex apply subject to this section.

Annex VI

STATUTE OF THE INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE LAW OF THE SEA

Article 1. General provisions

1. The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea is constituted and shall function in accordance with the provisions of this Convention and this Statute.

2. The seat of the Tribunal shall be in the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

3. The Tribunal may sit and exercise its functions elsewhere whenever it considers this desirable.

4. A reference of a dispute to the Tribunal shall be governed by the provisions of Parts XI and XV.

Section 1. ORGANIZATION OF THE TRIBUNAL

Article 2. Composition

1. The Tribunal shall be composed of a body of 21 independent members, elected from among persons enjoying the highest reputation for fairness and integrity and of recognized competence in the field of the law of the sea.

2. In the Tribunal as a whole the representation of the principal legal systems of the world and equitable geographical distribution shall be assured.

Article 3. Membership

1. No two members of the Tribunal may be nationals of the same State. A person who for the purposes of membership in the Tribunal could be regarded as a national of more than one State shall be deemed to be a national of the one in which he ordinarily exercises civil and political rights.

2. There shall be no fewer than three members from each geographical group as established by the General Assembly of the United Nations.

Article 4. Nominations and elections

1. Each State Party may nominate not more than two persons having the qualifications prescribed in Article 2 of this Annex. The members of the Tribunal shall be elected from the list of persons thus nominated.

2. At least three months before the date of the election, the Secretary-General of the United Nations in the case of the first election and the Registrar of the Tribunal in the case of subsequent elections shall address a written invitation to the States Parties to submit their nominations for members of the Tribunal within two months. He shall prepare a list in alphabetical order of all the persons thus nominated, with an indication of the States Parties which have nominated them, and shall submit it to the States Parties before the seventh day of the last month before the date of each election.

3. The first election shall be held within six months of the date of entry into force of this Convention.

4. The members of the Tribunal shall be elected by secret ballot. Elections shall be held at a meeting of the States Parties convened by the Secretary-General of the United Nations in the case of the first election and by a procedure agreed to by the States Parties in the case of subsequent elections. Two thirds of the States Parties shall constitute a quorum at that meeting. The persons elected to the Tribunal shall be those nominees who obtain the largest number of votes and a two-thirds majority of the States Parties present and voting, provided that such majority includes a majority of the States Parties.

Article 5. Term of office

1. The members of the Tribunal shall be elected for nine years and may be re-elected; provided, however, that of the members elected at the first election, the terms of seven members shall expire at the end of three years and the terms of seven more members shall expire at the end of six years.

2. The members of the Tribunal whose terms are to expire at the end of the above-mentioned initial periods of three and six years shall be chosen by lot to be drawn by the Secretary-General of the United Nations immediately after the first election.

3. The members of the Tribunal shall continue to discharge their duties until their places have been filled. Though replaced, they shall finish any proceedings which they may have begun before the date of their replacement.

4. In the case of the resignation of a member of the Tribunal, the letter of resignation shall be addressed to the President of the Tribunal. The place becomes vacant on the receipt of that letter.

Article 6. Vacancies

1. Vacancies shall be filled by the same method as that laid down for the first election, subject to the following provision: the Registrar shall, within one month of the occurrence of the vacancy, proceed to issue the invitations provided for in Article 4 of this Annex, and the date of the election shall be fixed by the President of the Tribunal after consultation with the States Parties.

2. A member of the Tribunal elected to replace a member whose term of office has not expired shall hold office for the remainder of his predecessor's term.

Article 7. Incompatible activities

1. No member of the Tribunal may exercise any political or administrative function, or associate actively with or be financially interested in any of the operations of any enterprise concerned with the exploration for or exploitation of the resources of the sea or the seabed or other commercial use of the sea or the seabed.

2. No member of the Tribunal may act as agent, counsel or advocate in any case.

3. Any doubt on these points shall be resolved by decision of the majority of the other members of the Tribunal present.

Article 8. Conditions relating to participation of members in a particular case

1. No member of the Tribunal may participate in the decision of any case in which he has previously taken part as agent, counsel or advocate for one of the parties, or as a member of a national or international court or tribunal, or in any other capacity.

2. If, for some special reason, a member of the Tribunal considers that he should not take part in the decision of a particular case, he shall so inform the President of the Tribunal.

3. If the President considers that for some special reason one of the members of the Tribunal should not sit in a particular case, he shall give him notice accordingly.

4. Any doubt on these points shall be resolved by decision of the majority of the other members of the Tribunal present.

Article 9. Consequence of ceasing to fulfil required conditions

If, in the unanimous opinion of the other members of the Tribunal, a member has ceased to fulfil the required conditions, the President of the Tribunal shall declare the seat vacant.

Article 10. Privileges and immunities

The members of the Tribunal, when engaged on the business of the Tribunal, shall enjoy diplomatic privileges and immunities.

Article 11. Solemn declaration by members

Every member of the Tribunal shall, before taking up his duties, make a solemn declaration in open session that he will exercise his powers impartially and conscientiously.

Article 12. President, Vice-President and Registrar

1. The Tribunal shall elect its President and Vice-President for three years; they may be re-elected.

2. The Tribunal shall appoint its Registrar and may provide for the appointment of such other officers as may be necessary.

3. The President and the Registrar shall reside at the seat of the Tribunal.

Article 13. Quorum

1. All available members of the Tribunal shall sit; a quorum of 11 elected members shall be required to constitute the Tribunal.

2. Subject to Article 17 of this Annex, the Tribunal shall determine which members are available to constitute the Tribunal for the consideration of a particular dispute, having regard to the effective functioning of the chambers as provided for in articles 14 and 15 of this Annex.

3. All disputes and applications submitted to the Tribunal shall be heard and determined by the Tribunal, unless Article 14 of this Annex applies, or the parties request that it shall be dealt with in accordance with Article 15 of this Annex.

Article 14. Seabed Disputes Chamber

A Seabed Disputes Chamber shall be established in accordance with the provisions of section 4 of this Annex. Its jurisdiction, powers and functions shall be as provided for in Part XI, section 5.

Article 15. Special chambers

1. The Tribunal may form such chambers, composed of three or more of its elected members, as it considers necessary for dealing with particular categories of disputes.

2. The Tribunal shall form a chamber for dealing with a particular dispute submitted to it if the parties so request. The composition of such a chamber shall be determined by the Tribunal with the approval of the parties.

3. With a view to the speedy dispatch of business, the Tribunal shall form annually a chamber composed of five of its elected members which may hear and determine disputes by summary procedure. Two alternative members shall be selected for the purpose of replacing members who are unable to participate in a particular proceeding.

4. Disputes shall be heard and determined by the chambers provided for in this Article if the parties so request.

5. A judgment given by any of the chambers provided for in this Article and in Article 14 of this Annex shall be considered as rendered by the Tribunal.

Article 16. Rules of the Tribunal

The Tribunal shall frame rules for carrying out its functions. In particular it shall lay down rules of procedure.

Article 17. Nationality of members

1. Members of the Tribunal of the nationality of any of the parties to a dispute shall retain their right to participate as members of the Tribunal.

2. If the Tribunal, when hearing a dispute, includes upon the bench a member of the nationality of one of the parties, any other party may choose a person to participate as a member of the Tribunal.

3. If the Tribunal, when hearing a dispute, does not include upon the bench a member of the nationality of the parties, each of those parties may choose a person to participate as a member of the Tribunal.

4. This Article applies to the chambers referred to in articles 14 and 15 of this Annex. In such cases, the President, in consultation with the parties, shall request specified members of the Tribunal forming the chamber, as many as necessary, to give place to the members of the Tribunal of the nationality of the parties concerned, and, failing such, or if they are unable to be present, to the members specially chosen by the parties.

5. Should there be several parties in the same interest, they shall, for the purpose of the preceding provisions, be considered as one party only. Any doubt on this point shall be settled by the decision of the Tribunal.

6. Members chosen in accordance with paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 shall fulfil the conditions required by articles 2, 8 and 11 of this Annex. They shall participate in the decision on terms of complete equality with their colleagues.

Article 18. Remuneration of members

1. Each elected member of the Tribunal shall receive an annual allowance and, for each day on which he exercises his functions, a special allowance, provided that in any year the total sum payable to any member as special allowance shall not exceed the amount of the annual allowance.

2. The President shall receive a special annual allowance.

3. The Vice-President shall receive a special allowance for each day on which he acts as President.

4. The members chosen under Article 17 of this Annex, other than elected members of the Tribunal, shall receive compensation for each day on which they exercise their functions.

5. The salaries, allowances and compensation shall be determined from time to time at meetings of the States Parties, taking into account the workload of the Tribunal. They may not be decreased during the term of office.

6. The salary of the Registrar shall be determined at meetings of the States Parties, on the proposal of the Tribunal.

7. Regulations adopted at meetings of the States Parties shall determine the conditions under which retirement pensions may be given to members of the Tribunal and to the Registrar, and the conditions under which members of the Tribunal and Registrar shall have their travelling expenses refunded.

8. The salaries, allowances, and compensation shall be free of all taxation.

Article 19. Expenses of the Tribunal

1. The expenses of the Tribunal shall be borne by the States Parties and by the Authority on such terms and in such a manner as shall be decided at meetings of the States Parties.

2. When an entity other than a State Party or the Authority is a party to a case submitted to it, the Tribunal shall fix the amount which that party is to contribute towards the expenses of the Tribunal.

Section 2. COMPETENCE

Article 20. Access to the Tribunal

1. The Tribunal shall be open to States Parties.

2. The Tribunal shall be open to entities other than States Parties in any case expressly provided for in Part XI or in any case submitted pursuant to any other agreement conferring jurisdiction on the Tribunal which is accepted by all the parties to that case.

Article 21. Jurisdiction

The jurisdiction of the Tribunal comprises all disputes and all applications submitted to it in accordance with this Convention and all matters specifically provided for in any other agreement which confers jurisdiction on the Tribunal.

Article 22. Reference of disputes subject to other agreements

If all the parties to a treaty or convention already in force and concerning the subject-matter covered by this Convention so agree, any disputes concerning the interpretation or application of such treaty or convention may, in accordance with such agreement, be submitted to the Tribunal.

Article 23. Applicable law

The Tribunal shall decide all disputes and applications in accordance with Article 293.

Section 3. PROCEDURE

Article 24. Institution of proceedings

1. Disputes are submitted to the Tribunal, as the case may be, either by notification of a special agreement or by written application, addressed to the Registrar. In either case, the subject of the dispute and the parties shall be indicated.

2. The Registrar shall forthwith notify the special agreement or the application to all concerned.

3. The Registrar shall also notify all States Parties.

Article 25. Provisional measures

1. In accordance with Article 290, the Tribunal and its Seabed Disputes Chamber shall have the power to prescribe provisional measures.

2. If the Tribunal is not in session or a sufficient number of members is not available to constitute a quorum, the provisional measures shall be prescribed by the chamber of summary procedure formed under Article 15, paragraph 3, of this Annex. Notwithstanding Article 15, paragraph 4, of this Annex, such provisional measures may be adopted at the request of any party to the dispute. They shall be subject to review and revision by the Tribunal.

Article 26. Hearing

1. The hearing shall be under the control of the President or, if he is unable to preside, of the Vice-President. If neither is able to preside, the senior judge present of the Tribunal shall preside.

2. The hearing shall be public, unless the Tribunal decides otherwise or unless the parties demand that the public be not admitted.

Article 27. Conduct of case

The Tribunal shall make orders for the conduct of the case, decide the form and time in which each party must conclude its arguments, and make all arrangements connected with the taking of evidence.

Article 28. Default

When one of the parties does not appear before the Tribunal or fails to defend its case, the other party may request the Tribunal to continue the proceedings and make its decision. Absence of a party or failure of a party to defend its case shall not constitute a bar to the proceedings. Before making its decision, the Tribunal must satisfy itself not only that it has jurisdiction over the dispute, but also that the claim is well founded in fact and law.

Article 29. Majority for decision

1. All questions shall be decided by a majority of the members of the Tribunal who are present.

2. In the event of an equality of votes, the President or the member of the Tribunal who acts in his place shall have a casting vote.

Article 30. Judgment

1. The judgment shall state the reasons on which it is based.

2. It shall contain the names of the members of the Tribunal who have taken part in the decision.

3. If the judgment does not represent in whole or in part the unanimous opinion of the members of the Tribunal, any member shall be entitled to deliver a separate opinion.

4. The judgment shall be signed by the President and by the Registrar. It shall be read in open court, due notice having been given to the parties to the dispute.

Article 3l. Request to intervene

1. Should a State Party consider that it has an interest of a legal nature which may be affected by the decision in any dispute, it may submit a request to the Tribunal to be permitted to intervene.

2. It shall be for the Tribunal to decide upon this request.

3. If a request to intervene is granted, the decision of the Tribunal in respect of the dispute shall be binding upon the intervening State Party in so far as it relates to matters in respect of which that State Party intervened.

Article 32. Right to intervene in cases of interpretation or application

1. Whenever the interpretation or application of this Convention is in question, the Registrar shall notify all States Parties forthwith.

2. Whenever pursuant to Article 21 or 22 of this Annex the interpretation or application of an international agreement is in question, the Registrar shall notify all the parties to the agreement.

3. Every party referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 has the right to intervene in the proceedings; if it uses this right, the interpretation given by the judgment will be equally binding upon it.

Article 33. Finality and binding force of decisions

1. The decision of the Tribunal is final and shall be complied with by all the parties to the dispute.

2. The decision shall have no binding force except between the parties in respect of that particular dispute.

3. In the event of dispute as to the meaning or scope of the decision, the Tribunal shall construe it upon the request of any party.

Article 34. Costs

Unless otherwise decided by the Tribunal, each party shall bear its own costs.

Section 4. SEABED DISPUTES CHAMBER

Article 35. Composition

1. The Seabed Disputes Chamber referred to in Article 14 of this Annex shall be composed of 11 members, selected by a majority of the elected members of the Tribunal from among them.

2. In the selection of the members of the Chamber, the representation of the principal legal systems of the world and equitable geographical distribution shall be assured. The Assembly of the Authority may adopt recommendations of a general nature relating to such representation and distribution.

3. The members of the Chamber shall be selected every three years and may be selected for a second term.

4. The Chamber shall elect its President from among its members, who shall serve for the term for which the Chamber has been selected.

5. If any proceedings are still pending at the end of any three-year period for which the Chamber has been selected, the Chamber shall complete the proceedings in its original composition.

6. If a vacancy occurs in the Chamber, the Tribunal shall select a successor from among its elected members, who shall hold office for the remainder of his predecessor's term.

7. A quorum of seven of the members selected by the Tribunal shall be required to constitute the Chamber.

Article 36. Ad hoc chambers

1. The Seabed Disputes Chamber shall form an ad hoc chamber, composed of three of its members, for dealing with a particular dispute submitted to it in accordance with Article 188, paragraph 1(b). The composition of such a chamber shall be determined by the Seabed Disputes Chamber with the approval of the parties.

2. If the parties do not agree on the composition of an ad hoc chamber, each party to the dispute shall appoint one member, and the third member shall be appointed by them in agreement. If they disagree, or if any party fails to make an appointment, the President of the Seabed Disputes Chamber shall promptly make the appointment or appointments from among its members, after consultation with the parties.

3. Members of the ad hoc chamber must not be in the service of, or nationals of, any of the parties to the dispute.

Article 37. Access

The Chamber shall be open to the States Parties, the Authority and the other entities referred to in Part XI, section 5.

Article 38. Applicable law

In addition to the provisions of Article 293, the Chamber shall apply:

(a) the rules, regulations and procedures of the Authority adopted in accordance with this Convention; and

(b) the terms of contracts concerning activities in the Area in matters relating to those contracts.

Article 39. Enforcement of decisions of the Chamber

The decisions of the Chamber shall be enforceable in the territories of the States Parties in the same manner as judgments or orders of the highest court of the State Party in whose territory the enforcement is sought.

Article 40. Applicability of other sections of this Annex

1. The other sections of this Annex which are not incompatible with this section apply to the Chamber.

2. In the exercise of its functions relating to advisory opinions, the Chamber shall be guided by the provisions of this Annex relating to procedure before the Tribunal to the extent to which it recognizes them to be applicable.

Section 5. AMENDMENTS

Article 41. Amendments

1. Amendments to this Annex, other than amendments to section 4, may be adopted only in accordance with Article 313 or by consensus at a conference convened in accordance with this Convention.

2. Amendments to section 4 may be adopted only in accordance with Article 314.

3. The Tribunal may propose such amendments to this Statute as it may consider necessary, by written communications to the States Parties for their consideration in conformity with paragraphs 1 and 2.

Annex VII

ARBITRATION

Article 1. Institution of proceedings

Subject to the provisions of Part XV, any party to a dispute may submit the dispute to the arbitral procedure provided for in this Annex by written notification addressed to the other party or parties to the dispute. The notification shall be accompanied by a statement of the claim and the grounds on which it is based.

Article 2. List of arbitrators

l. A list of arbitrators shall be drawn up and maintained by the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Every State Party shall be entitled to nominate four arbitrators, each of whom shall be a person experienced in maritime affairs and enjoying the highest reputation for fairness, competence and integrity. The names of the persons so nominated shall constitute the list.

2. If at any time the arbitrators nominated by a State Party in the list so constituted shall be fewer than four, that State Party shall be entitled to make further nominations as necessary.

3. The name of an arbitrator shall remain on the list until withdrawn by the State Party which made the nomination, provided that such arbitrator shall continue to serve on any arbitral tribunal to which that arbitrator has been appointed until the completion of the proceedings before that arbitral tribunal.

Article 3. Constitution of arbitral tribunal

For the purpose of proceedings under this Annex, the arbitral tribunal shall, unless the parties otherwise agree, be constituted as follows:

(a) Subject to subparagraph (g), the arbitral tribunal shall consist of five members.

(b) The party instituting the proceedings shall appoint one member to be chosen preferably from the list referred to in Article 2 of this Annex, who may be its national. The appointment shall be included in the notification referred to in Article l of this Annex.

(c) The other party to the dispute shall, within 30 days of receipt of the notification referred to in Article l of this Annex, appoint one member to be chosen preferably from the list, who may be its national. If the appointment is not made within that period, the party instituting the proceedings may, within two weeks of the expiration of that period, request that the appointment be made in accordance with subparagraph (e).

(d) The other three members shall be appointed by agreement between the parties. They shall be chosen preferably from the list and shall be nationals of third States unless the parties otherwise agree. The parties to the dispute shall appoint the President of the arbitral tribunal from among those three members. If, within 60 days of receipt of the notification referred to in Article l of this Annex, the parties are unable to reach agreement on the appointment of one or more of the members of the tribunal to be appointed by agreement, or on the appointment of the President, the remaining appointment or appointments shall be made in accordance with subparagraph (e), at the request of a party to the dispute. Such request shall be made within two weeks of the expiration of the aforementioned 60-day period.

(e) Unless the parties agree that any appointment under subparagraphs (c) and (d) be made by a person or a third State chosen by the parties, the President of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea shall make the necessary appointments. If the President is unable to act under this subparagraph or is a national of one of the parties to the dispute, the appointment shall be made by the next senior member of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea who is available and is not a national of one of the parties. The appointments referred to in this subparagraph shall be made from the list referred to in Article 2 of this Annex within a period of 30 days of the receipt of the request and in consultation with the parties. The members so appointed shall be of different nationalities and may not be in the service of, ordinarily resident in the territory of, or nationals of, any of the parties to the dispute.

(f) Any vacancy shall be filled in the manner prescribed for the initial appointment.

(g) Parties in the same interest shall appoint one member of the tribunal jointly by agreement. Where there are several parties having separate interests or where there is disagreement as to whether they are of the same interest, each of them shall appoint one member of the tribunal. The number of members of the tribunal appointed separately by the parties shall always be smaller by one than the number of members of the tribunal to be appointed jointly by the parties.

(h) In disputes involving more than two parties, the provisions of subparagraphs (a) to (f) shall apply to the maximum extent possible.

Article 4. Functions of arbitral tribunal

An arbitral tribunal constituted under Article 3 of this Annex shall function in accordance with this Annex and the other provisions of this Convention.

Article 5. Procedure

Unless the parties to the dispute otherwise agree, the arbitral tribunal shall determine its own procedure, assuring to each party a full opportunity to be heard and to present its case.

Article 6. Duties of parties to a dispute

The parties to the dispute shall facilitate the work of the arbitral tribunal and, in particular, in accordance with their law and using all means at their disposal, shall:

(a) provide it with all relevant documents, facilities and information; and

(b) enable it when necessary to call witnesses or experts and receive their evidence and to visit the localities to which the case relates.

Article 7. Expenses

Unless the arbitral tribunal decides otherwise because of the particular circumstances of the case, the expenses of the tribunal, including the remuneration of its members, shall be borne by the parties to the dispute in equal shares.

Article 8. Required majorityb for decisions

Decisions of the arbitral tribunal shall be taken by a majority vote of its members. The absence or abstention of less than half of the members shall not constitute a bar to the tribunal reaching a decision. In the event of an equality of votes, the President shall have a casting vote.

Article 9. Default of appearance

If one of the parties to the dispute does not appear before the arbitral tribunal or fails to defend its case, the other party may request the tribunal to continue the proceedings and to make its award. Absence of a party or failure of a party to defend its case shall not constitute a bar to the proceedings. Before making its award, the arbitral tribunal must satisfy itself not only that it has jurisdiction over the dispute but also that the claim is well founded in fact and law.

Article 10. Award

The award of the arbitral tribunal shall be confined to the subject-matter of the dispute and state the reasons on which it is based. It shall contain the names of the members who have participated and the date of the award. Any member of the tribunal may attach a separate or dissenting opinion to the award.

Article 11. Finality of award

The award shall be final and without appeal, unless the parties to the dispute have agreed in advance to an appellate procedure. It shall be complied with by the parties to the dispute.

Article 12. Interpretation or implementation of award

1. Any controversy which may arise between the parties to the dispute as regards the interpretation or manner of implementation of the award may be submitted by either party for decision to the arbitral tribunal which made the award. For this purpose, any vacancy in the tribunal shall be filled in the manner provided for in the original appointments of the members of the tribunal.

2. Any such controversy may be submitted to another court or tribunal under Article 287 by agreement of all the parties to the dispute.

Article 13. Application to entities other than States Parties

The provisions of this Annex shall apply mutatis mutandis to any dispute involving entities other than States Parties.

Annex VIII

SPECIAL ARBITRATION

Article 1. Institution of proceedings

Subject to Part XV, any party to a dispute concerning the interpretation or application of the articles of this Convention relating to (1) fisheries, (2) protection and preservation of the marine environment, (3) marine scientific research, or (4) navigation, including pollution from vessels and by dumping, may submit the dispute to the special arbitral procedure provided for in this Annex by written notification addressed to the other party or parties to the dispute. The notification shall be accompanied by a statement of the claim and the grounds on which it is based.

Article 2. Lists of experts

1. A list of experts shall be established and maintained in respect of each of the fields of (1) fisheries, (2) protection and preservation of the marine environment, (3) marine scientific research, and (4) navigation, including pollution from vessels and by dumping.

2. The lists of experts shall be drawn up and maintained, in the field of fisheries by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, in the field of protection and preservation of the marine environment by the United Nations Environment Programme, in the field of marine scientific research by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, in the field of navigation, including pollution from vessels and by dumping, by the International Maritime Organization, or in each case by the appropriate subsidiary body concerned to which such organization, programme or commission has delegated this function.

3. Every State Party shall be entitled to nominate two experts in each field whose competence in the legal, scientific or technical aspects of such field is established and generally recognized and who enjoy the highest reputation for fairness and integrity. The names of the persons so nominated in each field shall constitute the appropriate list.

4. If at any time the experts nominated by a State Party in the list so constituted shall be fewer than two, that State Party shall be entitled to make further nominations as necessary.

5. The name of an expert shall remain on the list until withdrawn by the State Party which made the nomination, provided that such expert shall continue to serve on any special arbitral tribunal to which that expert has been appointed until the completion of the proceedings before that special arbitral tribunal.

Article 3. Constitution of special arbitral tribunal

For the purpose of proceedings under this Annex, the special arbitral tribunal shall, unless the parties otherwise agree, be constituted as follows:

(a) Subject to subparagraph (g), the special arbitral tribunal shall consist of five members.

(b) The party instituting the proceedings shall appoint two members to be chosen preferably from the appropriate list or lists referred to in Article 2 of this Annex relating to the matters in dispute, one of whom may be its national. The appointments shall be included in the notification referred to in Article 1 of this Annex.

(c) The other party to the dispute shall, within 30 days of receipt of the notification referred to in Article 1 of this Annex, appoint two members to be chosen preferably from the appropriate list or lists relating to the matters in dispute, one of whom may be its national. If the appointments are not made within that period, the party instituting the proceedings may, within two weeks of the expiration of that period, request that the appointments be made in accordance with subparagraph (e).

(d) The parties to the dispute shall by agreement appoint the President of the special arbitral tribunal, chosen preferably from the appropriate list, who shall be a national of a third State, unless the parties otherwise agree. If, within 30 days of receipt of the notification referred to in Article l of this Annex, the parties are unable to reach agreement on the appointment of the President, the appointment shall be made in accordance with subparagraph (e), at the request of a party to the dispute. Such request shall be made within two weeks of the expiration of the aforementioned 30-day period.

(e) Unless the parties agree that the appointment be made by a person or a third State chosen by the parties, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall make the necessary appointments within 30 days of receipt of a request under subparagraphs (c) and (d). The appointments referred to in this subparagraph shall be made from the appropriate list or lists of experts referred to in Article 2 of this Annex and in consultation with the parties to the dispute and the appropriate international organization. The members so appointed shall be of different nationalities and may not be in the service of, ordinarily resident in the territory of, or nationals of, any of the parties to the dispute.

(f) Any vacancy shall be filled in the manner prescribed for the initial appointment.

(g) Parties in the same interest shall appoint two members of the tribunal jointly by agreement. Where there are several parties having separate interests or where there is disagreement as to whether they are of the same interest, each of them shall appoint one member of the tribunal.

(h) In disputes involving more than two parties, the provisions of subparagraphs (a) to (f) shall apply to the maximum extent possible.

Article 4. General provisions

Annex VII, articles 4 to 13, apply mutatis mutandis to the special arbitration proceedings in accordance with this Annex.

Article 5. Fact finding

1. The parties to a dispute concerning the interpretation or application of the provisions of this Convention relating to (l) fisheries, (2) protection and preservation of the marine environment, (3) marine scientific research, or (4) navigation, including pollution from vessels and by dumping, may at any time agree to request a special arbitral tribunal constituted in accordance with Article 3 of this Annex to carry out an inquiry and establish the facts giving rise to the dispute.

2. Unless the parties otherwise agree, the findings of fact of the special arbitral tribunal acting in accordance with paragraph 1, shall be considered as conclusive as between the parties.

3. If all the parties to the dispute so request, the special arbitral tribunal may formulate recommendations which, without having the force of a decision, shall only constitute the basis for a review by the parties of the questions giving rise to the dispute.

4. Subject to paragraph 2, the special arbitral tribunal shall act in accordance with the provisions of this Annex, unless the parties otherwise agree.

Annex IX

PARTICIPATION BY INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

Article 1. Use of terms

For the purposes of Article 305 and of this Annex, "international organization" means an intergovernmental organization constituted by States to which its member States have transferred competence over matters governed by this Convention, including the competence to enter into treaties in respect of those matters.

Article 2. Signature

An international organization may sign this Convention if a majority of its member States are signatories of this Convention. At the time of signature an international organization shall make a declaration specifying the matters governed by this Convention in respect of which competence has been transferred to that organization by its member States which are signatories, and the nature and extent of that competence.

Article 3. Formal confirmation and accession

1. An international organization may deposit its instrument of formal confirmation or of accession if a majority of its member States deposit or have deposited their instruments of ratification or accession.

2. The instruments deposited by the international organization shall contain the undertakings and declarations required by articles 4 and 5 of this Annex.

Article 4. Extent of participation and rights and obligations

l. The instrument of formal confirmation or of accession of an international organization shall contain an undertaking to accept the rights and obligations of States under this Convention in respect of matters relating to which competence has been transferred to it by its member States which are Parties to this Convention.

2. An international organization shall be a Party to this Convention to the extent that it has competence in accordance with the declarations, communications of information or notifications referred to in Article 5 of this Annex.

3. Such an international organization shall exercise the rights and perform the obligations which its member States which are Parties would otherwise have under this Convention, on matters relating to which competence has been transferred to it by those member States. The member States of that international organization shall not exercise competence which they have transferred to it.

4. Participation of such an international organization shall in no case entail an increase of the representation to which its member States which are States Parties would otherwise be entitled, including rights in decision-making.

5. Participation of such an international organization shall in no case confer any rights under this Convention on member States of the organization which are not States Parties to this Convention.

6. In the event of a conflict between the obligations of an international organization under this Convention and its obligations under the agreement establishing the organization or any acts relating to it, the obligations under this Convention shall prevail.

Article 5. Declarations, notifications and communications

l. The instrument of formal confirmation or of accession of an international organization shall contain a declaration specifying the matters governed by this Convention in respect of which competence has been transferred to the organization by its member States which are Parties to this Convention.

2. A member State of an international organization shall, at the time it ratifies or accedes to this Convention or at the time when the organization deposits its instrument of formal confirmation or of accession, whichever is later, make a declaration specifying the matters governed by this Convention in respect of which it has transferred competence to the organization.

3. States Parties which are member States of an international organization which is a Party to this Convention shall be presumed to have competence over all matters governed by this Convention in respect of which transfers of competence to the organization have not been specifically declared, notified or communicated by those States under this article.

4. The international organization and its member States which are States Parties shall promptly notify the depositary of this Convention of any changes to the distribution of competence, including new transfers of competence, specified in the declarations under paragraphs 1 and 2.

5. Any State Party may request an international organization and its member States which are States Parties to provide information as to which, as between the organization and its member States, has competence in respect of any specific question which has arisen. The organization and the member States concerned shall provide this information within a reasonable time. The international organization and the member States may also, on their own initiative, provide this information.

6. Declarations, notifications and communications of information under this Article shall specify the nature and extent of the competence transferred.

Article 6. Responsibility and liability

l. Parties which have competence under Article 5 of this Annex shall have responsibility for failure to comply with obligations or for any other violation of this Convention.

2. Any State Party may request an international organization or its member States which are States Parties for information as to who has responsibility in respect of any specific matter. The organization and the member States concerned shall provide this information. Failure to provide this information within a reasonable time or the provision of contradictory information shall result in joint and several liability.

Article 7. Settlement of disputes

l. At the time of deposit of its instrument of formal confirmation or of accession, or at any time thereafter, an international organization shall be free to choose, by means of a written declaration, one or more of the means for the settlement of disputes concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention, referred to in Article 287, paragraph 1(a), (c) or (d).

2. Part XV applies mutatis mutandis to any dispute between Parties to this Convention, one or more of which are international organizations.

3. When an international organization and one or more of its member States are joint parties to a dispute, or parties in the same interest, the organization shall be deemed to have accepted the same procedures for the settlement of disputes as the member States; when, however, a member State has chosen only the International Court of Justice under Article 287, the organization and the member State concerned shall be deemed to have accepted arbitration in accordance with Annex VII, unless the parties to the dispute otherwise agree.

Article 8. Applicability of Part XVII

Part XVII applies mutatis mutandis to an international organization, except in respect of the following:

(a) the instrument of formal confirmation or of accession of an international organization shall not be taken into account in the application of Article 308, paragraph l;

(b) (i) an international organization shall have exclusive capacity with respect to the application of articles 312 to 315, to the extent that it has competence under Article 5 of this Annex over the entire subject-matter of the amendment;

(ii) the instrument of formal confirmation or of accession of an international organization to an amendment, the entire subject-matter over which the international organization has competence under Article 5 of this Annex, shall be considered to be the instrument of ratification or accession of each of the member States which are States Parties, for the purposes of applying Article 316, paragraphs 1, 2 and 3;

(iii) the instrument of formal confirmation or of accession of the international organization shall not be taken into account in the application of Article 316, paragraphs 1 and 2, with regard to all other amendments;

(c) (i) an international organization may not denounce this Convention in accordance with Article 317 if any of its member States is a State Party and if it continues to fulfil the qualifications specified in Article 1 of this Annex;

(ii) an international organization shall denounce this Convention when none of its member States is a State Party or if the international organization no longer fulfils the qualifications specified in Article 1 of this Annex. Such denunciation shall take effect immediately.

Agreement relating to the Implementation of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982

The States Parties to this Agreement,

Recognizing the important contribution of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 (hereinafter referred to as "the Convention") to the maintenance of peace, justice and progress for all peoples of the world,

Reaffirming that the seabed and ocean floor and subsoil thereof, beyond the limits of national jurisdiction (hereinafter referred to as "the Area"), as well as the resources of the Area, are the common heritage of mankind,

Mindful of the importance of the Convention for the protection and preservation of the marine environment and of the growing concern for the global environment,

Having considered the report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations on the results of the informal consultations among States held from 1990 to 1994 on outstanding issues relating to Part XI and related provisions of the Convention (hereinafter referred to as "Part XI"),

Noting the political and economic changes, including market-oriented approaches, affecting the implementation of Part XI,

Wishing to facilitate universal participation in the Convention,

Considering that an agreement relating to the implementation of Part XI would best meet that objective,

Have agreed as follows:

Article 1. Implementation of Part XI

1. The States Parties to this Agreement undertake to implement Part XI in accordance with this Agreement.

2. The Annex forms an integral part of this Agreement.

Article 2. Relationship between this Agreement and Part XI

1. The provisions of this Agreement and Part XI shall be interpreted and applied together as a single instrument. In the event of any inconsistency between this Agreement and Part XI, the provisions of this Agreement shall prevail.

2. Articles 309 to 319 of the Convention shall apply to this Agreement as they apply to the Convention.

Article 3. Signature

This Agreement shall remain open for signature at United Nations Headquarters by the States and entities referred to in article 305, paragraph 1(a), (c), (d), (e) and (f), of the Convention for 12 months from the date of its adoption.

Article 4. Consent to be bound

1. After the adoption of this Agreement, any instrument of ratification or formal confirmation of or accession to the Convention shall also represent consent to be bound by this Agreement.

2. No State or entity may establish its consent to be bound by this Agreement unless it has previously established or establishes at the same time its consent to be bound by the Convention.

3. A State or entity referred to in article 3 may express its consent to be bound by this Agreement by:

(a) Signature not subject to ratification, formal confirmation or the procedure set out in article 5;

(b) Signature subject to ratification or formal confirmation, followed by ratification or formal confirmation;

(c) Signature subject to the procedure set out in article 5; or

(d) Accession.

4. Formal confirmation by the entities referred to in article 305, paragraph 1(f), of the Convention shall be in accordance with Annex IX of the Convention.

5. The instruments of ratification, formal confirmation or accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 5. Simplified procedure

1. A State or entity which has deposited before the date of the adoption of this Agreement an instrument of ratification or formal confirmation of or accession to the Convention and which has signed this Agreement in accordance with article 4, paragraph 3(c), shall be considered to have established its consent to be bound by this Agreement 12 months after the date of its adoption, unless that State or entity notifies the depositary in writing before that date that it is not availing itself of the simplified procedure set out in this article.

2. In the event of such notification, consent to be bound by this Agreement shall be established in accordance with article 4, paragraph 3(b).

Article 6. Entry into force

1. This Agreement shall enter into force 30 days after the date on which 40 States have established their consent to be bound in accordance with articles 4 and 5, provided that such States include at least seven of the States referred to in paragraph l(a) of resolution II of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (hereinafter referred to as "resolution II") and that at least five of those States are developed States. If these conditions for entry into force are fulfilled before 16 November 1994, this Agreement shall enter into force on 16 November 1994.

2. For each State or entity establishing its consent to be bound by this Agreement after the requirements set out in paragraph 1 have been fulfilled, this Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the date of establishment of its consent to be bound.

Article 7. Provisional application

1. If on 16 November 1994 this Agreement has not entered into force, it shall be applied provisionally pending its entry into force by:

(a) States which have consented to its adoption in the General Assembly of the United Nations, except any such State which before 16 November 1994 notifies the depositary in writing either that it will not so apply this Agreement or that it will consent to such application only upon subsequent signature or notification in writing;

(b) States and entities which sign this Agreement, except any such State or entity which notifies the depositary in writing at the time of signature that it will not so apply this Agreement;

(c) States and entities which consent to its provisional application by so notifying the depositary in writing;

(d) States which accede to this Agreement.

2. All such States and entities shall apply this Agreement provisionally in accordance with their national or internal laws and regulations, with effect from 16 November 1994 or the date of signature, notification of consent or accession, if later.

3. Provisional application shall terminate upon the date of entry into force of this Agreement. In any event, provisional application shall terminate on 16 November 1998 if at that date the requirement in article 6, paragraph 1, of consent to be bound by this Agreement by at least seven of the States (of which at least five must be developed States) referred to in paragraph 1(a) of resolution II has not been fulfilled.

Article 8. States Parties

1. For the purposes of this Agreement, "States Parties" means States which have consented to be bound by this Agreement and for which this Agreement is in force.

2. This Agreement applies mutatis mutandis to the entities referred to in article 305, paragraph 1(c), (d), (e) and (f), of the Convention which become Parties to this Agreement in accordance with the conditions relevant to each, and to that extent "States Parties" refers to those entities.

Article 9. Depositary

The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the depositary of this Agreement.

Article 10. Authentic texts

The original of this Agreement, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized thereto, have signed this Agreement.

DONE AT NEW YORK, this twenty-eighth day of July, one thousand nine hundred and ninety-four.

 

Annex

Section 1. COSTS TO STATES PARTIES AND INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

1. The International Seabed Authority (hereinafter referred to as "the Authority") is the organization through which States Parties to the Convention shall, in accordance with the regime for the Area established in Part XI and this Agreement, organize and control activities in the Area, particularly with a view to administering the resources of the Area. The powers and functions of the Authority shall be those expressly conferred upon it by the Convention. The Authority shall have such incidental powers, consistent with the Convention, as are implicit in, and necessary for, the exercise of those powers and functions with respect to activities in the Area.

2. In order to minimize costs to States Parties, all organs and subsidiary bodies to be established under the Convention and this Agreement shall be cost-effective. This principle shall also apply to the frequency, duration and scheduling of meetings.

3. The setting up and the functioning of the organs and subsidiary bodies of the Authority shall be based on an evolutionary approach, taking into account the functional needs of the organs and subsidiary bodies concerned in order that they may discharge effectively their respective responsibilities at various stages of the development of activities in the Area.

4. The early functions of the Authority upon entry into force of the Convention shall be carried out by the Assembly, the Council, the Secretariat, the Legal and Technical Commission and the Finance Committee. The functions of the Economic Planning Commission shall be performed by the Legal and Technical Commission until such time as the Council decides otherwise or until the approval of the first plan of work for exploitation.

5. Between the entry into force of the Convention and the approval of the first plan of work for exploitation, the Authority shall concentrate on:

(a) Processing of applications for approval of plans of work for exploration in accordance with Part XI and this Agreement;

(b) Implementation of decisions of the Preparatory Commission for the International Seabed Authority and for the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (hereinafter referred to as "the Preparatory Commission") relating to the registered pioneer investors and their certifying States, including their rights and obligations, in accordance with article 308, paragraph 5, of the Convention and resolution II, paragraph 13;

(c) Monitoring of compliance with plans of work for exploration approved in the form of contracts;

(d) Monitoring and review of trends and developments relating to deep seabed mining activities, including regular analysis of world metal market conditions and metal prices, trends and prospects;

(e) Study of the potential impact of mineral production from the Area on the economies of developing land-based producers of those minerals which are likely to be most seriously affected, with a view to minimizing their difficulties and assisting them in their economic adjustment, taking into account the work done in this regard by the Preparatory Commission;

(f) Adoption of rules, regulations and procedures necessary for the conduct of activities in the Area as they progress. Notwithstanding the provisions of Annex III, article 17, paragraph 2(b) and (c), of the Convention, such rules, regulations and procedures shall take into account the terms of this Agreement, the prolonged delay in commercial deep seabed mining and the likely pace of activities in the Area;

(g) Adoption of rules, regulations and procedures incorporating applicable standards for the protection and preservation of the marine environment;

(h) Promotion and encouragement of the conduct of marine scientific research with respect to activities in the Area and the collection and dissemination of the results of such research and analysis, when available, with particular emphasis on research related to the environmental impact of activities in the Area;

(i) Acquisition of scientific knowledge and monitoring of the development of marine technology relevant to activities in the Area, in particular technology relating to the protection and preservation of the marine environment;

(j) Assessment of available data relating to prospecting and exploration;

(k) Timely elaboration of rules, regulations and procedures for exploitation, including those relating to the protection and preservation of the marine environment.

6. (a) An application for approval of a plan of work for exploration shall be considered by the Council following the receipt of a recommendation on the application from the Legal and Technical Commission. The processing of an application for approval of a plan of work for exploration shall be in accordance with the provisions of the Convention, including Annex III thereof, and this Agreement, and subject to the following:

(i) A plan of work for exploration submitted on behalf of a State or entity, or any component of such entity, referred to in resolution II, paragraph 1(a)(ii) or (iii), other than a registered pioneer investor, which had already undertaken substantial activities in the Area prior to the entry into force of the Convention, or its successor in interest, shall be considered to have met the financial and technical qualifications necessary for approval of a plan of work if the sponsoring State or States certify that the applicant has expended an amount equivalent to at least US$ 30 million in research and exploration activities and has expended no less than 10 per cent of that amount in the location, survey and evaluation of the area referred to in the plan of work. If the plan of work otherwise satisfies the requirements of the Convention and any rules, regulations and procedures adopted pursuant thereto, it shall be approved by the Council in the form of a contract. The provisions of section 3, paragraph 11, of this Annex shall be interpreted and applied accordingly;

(ii) Notwithstanding the provisions of resolution II, paragraph 8(a), a registered pioneer investor may request approval of a plan of work for exploration within 36 months of the entry into force of the Convention. The plan of work for exploration shall consist of documents, reports and other data submitted to the Preparatory Commission both before and after registration and shall be accompanied by a certificate of compliance, consisting of a factual report describing the status of fulfilment of obligations under the pioneer investor regime, issued by the Preparatory Commission in accordance with resolution II, paragraph 11(a). Such a plan of work shall be considered to be approved. Such an approved plan of work shall be in the form of a contract concluded between the Authority and the registered pioneer investor in accordance with Part XI and this Agreement. The fee of US $ 250,000 paid pursuant to resolution II, paragraph 7(a), shall be deemed to be the fee relating to the exploration phase pursuant to section 8, paragraph 3, of this Annex. Section 3, paragraph 11, of this Annex shall be interpreted and applied accordingly;

(iii) In accordance with the principle of non-discrimination, a contract with a State or entity or any component of such entity referred to in subparagraph (a)(i) shall include arrangements which shall be similar to and no less favourable than those agreed with any registered pioneer investor referred to in subparagraph (a)(ii). If any of the States or entities or any components of such entities referred to in subparagraph (a)(i) are granted more favourable arrangements, the Council shall make similar and no less favourable arrangements with regard to the rights and obligations assumed by the registered pioneer investors referred to in subparagraph (a)(ii), provided that such arrangements do not affect or prejudice the interests of the Authority;

(iv) A State sponsoring an application for a plan of work pursuant to the provisions of subparagraph (a)(i) or (ii) may be a State Party or a State which is applying this Agreement provisionally in accordance with article 7, or a State which is a member of the Authority on a provisional basis in accordance with paragraph 12;

(v) Resolution II, paragraph 8(c), shall be interpreted and applied in accordance with subparagraph (a)(iv).

(b) The approval of a plan of work for exploration shall be in accordance with article 153, paragraph 3, of the Convention.

7. An application for approval of a plan of work shall be accompanied by an assessment of the potential environmental impacts of the proposed activities and by a description of a programme for oceanographic and baseline environmental studies in accordance with the rules, regulations and procedures adopted by the Authority.

8. An application for approval of a plan of work for exploration, subject to paragraph 6(a)(i) or (ii), shall be processed in accordance with the procedures set out in section 3, paragraph 11, of this Annex.

9. A plan of work for exploration shall be approved for a period of 15 years. Upon the expiration of a plan of work for exploration, the contractor shall apply for a plan of work for exploitation unless the contractor has already done so or has obtained an extension for the plan of work for exploration. Contractors may apply for such extensions for periods of not more than five years each. Such extensions shall be approved if the contractor has made efforts in good faith to comply with the requirements of the plan of work but for reasons beyond the contractor's control has been unable to complete the necessary preparatory work for proceeding to the exploitation stage or if the prevailing economic circumstances do not justify proceeding to the exploitation stage.

10. Designation of a reserved area for the Authority in accordance with Annex III, article 8, of the Convention shall take place in connection with approval of an application for a plan of work for exploration or approval of an application for a plan of work for exploration and exploitation.

11. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 9, an approved plan of work for exploration which is sponsored by at least one State provisionally applying this Agreement shall terminate if such a State ceases to apply this Agreement provisionally and has not become a member on a provisional basis in accordance with paragraph 12 or has not become a State Party.

12. Upon the entry into force of this Agreement, States and entities referred to in article 3 of this Agreement which have been applying it provisionally in accordance with article 7 and for which it is not in force may continue to be members of the Authority on a provisional basis pending its entry into force for such States and entities, in accordance with the following subparagraphs:

(a) If this Agreement enters into force before 16 November 1996, such States and entities shall be entitled to continue to participate as members of the Authority on a provisional basis upon notification to the depositary of the Agreement by such a State or entity of its intention to participate as a member on a provisional basis. Such membership shall terminate either on 16 November 1996 or upon the entry into force of this Agreement and the Convention for such member, whichever is earlier. The Council may, upon the request of the State or entity concerned, extend such membership beyond 16 November 1996 for a further period or periods not exceeding a total of two years provided that the Council is satisfied that the State or entity concerned has been making efforts in good faith to become a party to the Agreement and the Convention;

(b) If this Agreement enters into force after 15 November 1996, such States and entities may request the Council to grant continued membership in the Authority on a provisional basis for a period or periods not extending beyond 16 November 1998. The Council shall grant such membership with effect from the date of the request if it is satisfied that the State or entity has been making efforts in good faith to become a party to the Agreement and the Convention;

(c) States and entities which are members of the Authority on a provisional basis in accordance with subparagraph (a) or (b) shall apply the terms of Part XI and this Agreement in accordance with their national or internal laws, regulations and annual budgetary appropriations and shall have the same rights and obligations as other members, including:

(i) The obligation to contribute to the administrative budget of the Authority in accordance with the scale of assessed contributions;

(ii) The right to sponsor an application for approval of a plan of work for exploration. In the case of entities whose components are natural or juridical persons possessing the nationality of more than one State, a plan of work for exploration shall not be approved unless all the States whose natural or juridical persons comprise those entities are States Parties or members on a provisional basis;

(d) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 9, an approved plan of work in the form of a contract for exploration which was sponsored pursuant to subparagraph (c)(ii) by a State which was a member on a provisional basis shall terminate if such membership ceases and the State or entity has not become a State Party;

(e) If such a member has failed to make its assessed contributions or otherwise failed to comply with its obligations in accordance with this paragraph, its membership on a provisional basis shall be terminated.

13. The reference in Annex III, article 10, of the Convention to performance which has not been satisfactory shall be interpreted to mean that the contractor has failed to comply with the requirements of an approved plan of work in spite of a written warning or warnings from the Authority to the contractor to comply therewith.

14. The Authority shall have its own budget. Until the end of the year following the year during which this Agreement enters into force, the administrative expenses of the Authority shall be met through the budget of the United Nations. Thereafter, the administrative expenses of the Authority shall be met by assessed contributions of its members, including any members on a provisional basis, in accordance with articles 171, subparagraph (a), and 173 of the Convention and this Agreement, until the Authority has sufficient funds from other sources to meet those expenses. The Authority shall not exercise the power referred to in article 174, paragraph 1, of the Convention to borrow funds to finance its administrative budget.

15. The Authority shall elaborate and adopt, in accordance with article 162, paragraph 2(o)(ii), of the Convention, rules, regulations and procedures based on the principles contained in sections 2, 5, 6, 7 and 8 of this Annex, as well as any additional rules, regulations and procedures necessary to facilitate the approval of plans of work for exploration or exploitation, in accordance with the following subparagraphs:

(a) The Council may undertake such elaboration any time it deems that all or any of such rules, regulations or procedures are required for the conduct of activities in the Area, or when it determines that commercial exploitation is imminent, or at the request of a State whose national intends to apply for approval of a plan of work for exploitation;

(b) If a request is made by a State referred to in subparagraph (a) the Council shall, in accordance with article 162, paragraph 2(o), of the Convention, complete the adoption of such rules, regulations and procedures within two years of the request;

(c) If the Council has not completed the elaboration of the rules, regulations and procedures relating to exploitation within the prescribed time and an application for approval of a plan of work for exploitation is pending, it shall none the less consider and provisionally approve such plan of work based on the provisions of the Convention and any rules, regulations and procedures that the Council may have adopted provisionally, or on the basis of the norms contained in the Convention and the terms and principles contained in this Annex as well as the principle of non-discrimination among contractors.

16. The draft rules, regulations and procedures and any recommendations relating to the provisions of Part XI, as contained in the reports and recommendations of the Preparatory Commission, shall be taken into account by the Authority in the adoption of rules, regulations and procedures in accordance with Part XI and this Agreement.

17. The relevant provisions of Part XI, section 4, of the Convention shall be interpreted and applied in accordance with this Agreement.

Section 2. THE ENTERPRISE

1. The Secretariat of the Authority shall perform the functions of the Enterprise until it begins to operate independently of the Secretariat. The Secretary-General of the Authority shall appoint from within the staff of the Authority an interim Director-General to oversee the performance of these functions by the Secretariat.

These functions shall be:

(a) Monitoring and review of trends and developments relating to deep seabed mining activities, including regular analysis of world metal market conditions and metal prices, trends and prospects;

(b) Assessment of the results of the conduct of marine scientific research with respect to activities in the Area, with particular emphasis on research related to the environmental impact of activities in the Area;

(c) Assessment of available data relating to prospecting and exploration, including the criteria for such activities;

(d) Assessment of technological developments relevant to activities in the Area, in particular technology relating to the protection and preservation of the marine environment;

(e) Evaluation of information and data relating to areas reserved for the Authority;

(f) Assessment of approaches to joint-venture operations;

(g) Collection of information on the availability of trained manpower;

(h) Study of managerial policy options for the administration of the Enterprise at different stages of its operations.

2. The Enterprise shall conduct its initial deep seabed mining operations through joint ventures. Upon the approval of a plan of work for exploitation for an entity other than the Enterprise, or upon receipt by the Council of an application for a joint-venture operation with the Enterprise, the Council shall take up the issue of the functioning of the Enterprise independently of the Secretariat of the Authority. If joint-venture operations with the Enterprise accord with sound commercial principles, the Council shall issue a directive pursuant to article 170, paragraph 2, of the Convention providing for such independent functioning.

3. The obligation of States Parties to fund one mine site of the Enterprise as provided for in Annex IV, article 11, paragraph 3, of the Convention shall not apply and States Parties shall be under no obligation to finance any of the operations in any mine site of the Enterprise or under its joint-venture arrangements.

4. The obligations applicable to contractors shall apply to the Enterprise. Notwithstanding the provisions of article 153, paragraph 3, and Annex III, article 3, paragraph 5, of the Convention, a plan of work for the Enterprise upon its approval shall be in the form of a contract concluded between the Authority and the Enterprise.

5. A contractor which has contributed a particular area to the Authority as a reserved area has the right of first refusal to enter into a joint-venture arrangement with the Enterprise for exploration and exploitation of that area. If the Enterprise does not submit an application for a plan of work for activities in respect of such a reserved area within 15 years of the commencement of its functions independent of the Secretariat of the Authority or within 15 years of the date on which that area is reserved for the Authority, whichever is the later, the contractor which contributed the area shall be entitled to apply for a plan of work for that area provided it offers in good faith to include the Enterprise as a joint-venture partner.

6. Article 170, paragraph 4, Annex IV and other provisions of the Convention relating to the Enterprise shall be interpreted and applied in accordance with this section.

Section 3. DECISION-MAKING

1. The general policies of the Authority shall be established by the Assembly in collaboration with the Council.

2. As a general rule, decision-making in the organs of the Authority should be by consensus.

3. If all efforts to reach a decision by consensus have been exhausted, decisions by voting in the Assembly on questions of procedure shall be taken by a majority of members present and voting, and decisions on questions of substance shall be taken by a two-thirds majority of members present and voting, as provided for in article 159, paragraph 8, of the Convention.

4. Decisions of the Assembly on any matter for which the Council also has competence or on any administrative, budgetary or financial matter shall be based on the recommendations of the Council. If the Assembly does not accept the recommendation of the Council on any matter, it shall return the matter to the Council for further consideration. The Council shall reconsider the matter in the light of the views expressed by the Assembly.

5. If all efforts to reach a decision by consensus have been exhausted, decisions by voting in the Council on questions of procedure shall be taken by a majority of members present and voting, and decisions on questions of substance, except where the Convention provides for decisions by consensus in the Council, shall be taken by a two-thirds majority of members present and voting, provided that such decisions are not opposed by a majority in any one of the chambers referred to in paragraph 9. In taking decisions the Council shall seek to promote the interests of all the members of the Authority.

6. The Council may defer the taking of a decision in order to facilitate further negotiation whenever it appears that all efforts at achieving consensus on a question have not been exhausted.

7. Decisions by the Assembly or the Council having financial or budgetary implications shall be based on the recommendations of the Finance Committee.

8. The provisions of article 161, paragraph 8(b) and (c), of the Convention shall not apply.

9. (a) Each group of States elected under paragraph 15(a) to (c) shall be treated as a chamber for the purposes of voting in the Council. The developing States elected under paragraph 15(d) and (e) shall be treated as a single chamber for the purposes of voting in the Council.

(b) Before electing the members of the Council, the Assembly shall establish lists of countries fulfilling the criteria for membership in the groups of States in paragraph 15(a) to (d). If a State fulfils the criteria for membership in more than one group, it may only be proposed by one group for election to the Council and it shall represent only that group in voting in the Council.

10. Each group of States in paragraph 15(a) to (d) shall be represented in the Council by those members nominated by that group. Each group shall nominate only as many candidates as the number of seats required to be filled by that group. When the number of potential candidates in each of the groups referred to in paragraph 15(a) to (e) exceeds the number of seats available in each of those respective groups, as a general rule, the principle of rotation shall apply. States members of each of those groups shall determine how this principle shall apply in those groups.

11. (a) The Council shall approve a recommendation by the Legal and Technical Commission for approval of a plan of work unless by a two-thirds majority of its members present and voting, including a majority of members present and voting in each of the chambers of the Council, the Council decides to disapprove a plan of work. If the Council does not take a decision on a recommendation for approval of a plan of work within a prescribed period, the recommendation shall be deemed to have been approved by the Council at the end of that period. The prescribed period shall normally be 60 days unless the Council decides to provide for a longer period. If the Commission recommends the disapproval of a plan of work or does not make a recommendation, the Council may nevertheless approve the plan of work in accordance with its rules of procedure for decision-making on questions of substance.

(b) The provisions of article 162, paragraph 2(j), of the Convention shall not apply.

12. Where a dispute arises relating to the disapproval of a plan of work, such dispute shall be submitted to the dispute settlement procedures set out in the Convention.

13. Decisions by voting in the Legal and Technical Commission shall be by a majority of members present and voting.

14. Part XI, section 4, subsections B and C, of the Convention shall be interpreted and applied in accordance with this section.

15. The Council shall consist of 36 members of the Authority elected by the Assembly in the following order:

(a) Four members from among those States Parties which, during the last five years for which statistics are available, have either consumed more than 2 per cent in value terms of total world consumption or have had net imports of more than 2 per cent in value terms of total world imports of the commodities produced from the categories of minerals to be derived from the Area, provided that the four members shall include one State from the Eastern European region having the largest economy in that region in terms of gross domestic product and the State, on the date of entry into force of the Convention, having the largest economy in terms of gross domestic product, if such States wish to be represented in this group;

(b) Four members from among the eight States Parties which have made the largest investments in preparation for and in the conduct of activities in the Area, either directly or through their nationals;

(c) Four members from among States Parties which, on the basis of production in areas under their jurisdiction, are major net exporters of the categories of minerals to be derived from the Area, including at least two developing States whose exports of such minerals have a substantial bearing upon their economies;

(d) Six members from among developing States Parties, representing special interests. The special interests to be represented shall include those of States with large populations, States which are land-locked or geographically disadvantaged, island States, States which are major importers of the categories of minerals to be derived from the Area, States which are potential producers of such minerals and least developed States;

(e) Eighteen members elected according to the principle of ensuring an equitable geographical distribution of seats in the Council as a whole, provided that each geographical region shall have at least one member elected under this subparagraph. For this purpose, the geographical regions shall be Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean and Western Europe and Others.

16. The provisions of article 161, paragraph 1, of the Convention shall not apply.

Section 4. REVIEW CONFERENCE

The provisions relating to the Review Conference in article 155, paragraphs 1, 3 and 4, of the Convention shall not apply. Notwithstanding the provisions of article 314, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Assembly, on the recommendation of the Council, may undertake at any time a review of the matters referred to in article 155, paragraph 1, of the Convention. Amendments relating to this Agreement and Part XI shall be subject to the procedures contained in articles 314, 315 and 316 of the Convention, provided that the principles, regime and other terms referred to in article 155, paragraph 2, of the Convention shall be maintained and the rights referred to in paragraph 5 of that article shall not be affected.

Section 5. TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY

1. In addition to the provisions of article 144 of the Convention, transfer of technology for the purposes of Part XI shall be governed by the following principles:

(a) The Enterprise, and developing States wishing to obtain deep seabed mining technology, shall seek to obtain such technology on fair and reasonable commercial terms and conditions on the open market, or through joint-venture arrangements;

(b) If the Enterprise or developing States are unable to obtain deep seabed mining technology, the Authority may request all or any of the contractors and their respective sponsoring State or States to cooperate with it in facilitating the acquisition of deep seabed mining technology by the Enterprise or its joint venture, or by a developing State or States seeking to acquire such technology on fair and reasonable commercial terms and conditions, consistent with the effective protection of intellectual property rights. States Parties undertake to cooperate fully and effectively with the Authority for this purpose and to ensure that contractors sponsored by them also cooperate fully with the Authority;

(c) As a general rule, States Parties shall promote international technical and scientific cooperation with regard to activities in the Area either between the parties concerned or by developing training, technical assistance and scientific cooperation programmes in marine science and technology and the protection and preservation of the marine environment.

2. The provisions of Annex III, article 5, of the Convention shall not apply.

Section 6. PRODUCTION POLICY

1. The production policy of the Authority shall be based on the following principles:

(a) Development of the resources of the Area shall take place in accordance with sound commercial principles;

(b) The provisions of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, its relevant codes and successor or superseding agreements shall apply with respect to activities in the Area;

(c) In particular, there shall be no subsidization of activities in the Area except as may be permitted under the agreements referred to in subparagraph (b). Subsidization for the purpose of these principles shall be defined in terms of the agreements referred to in subparagraph (b);

(d) There shall be no discrimination between minerals derived from the Area and from other sources. There shall be no preferential access to markets for such minerals or for imports of commodities produced from such minerals, in particular:

(i) By the use of tariff or non-tariff barriers; and

(ii) Given by States Parties to such minerals or commodities produced by their state enterprises or by natural or juridical persons which possess their nationality or are controlled by them or their nationals;

(e) The plan of work for exploitation approved by the Authority in respect of each mining area shall indicate an anticipated production schedule which shall include the estimated maximum amounts of minerals that would be produced per year under the plan of work;

(f) The following shall apply to the settlement of disputes concerning the provisions of the agreements referred to in subparagraph (b):

(i) Where the States Parties concerned are parties to such agreements, they shall have recourse to the dispute settlement procedures of those agreements;

(ii) Where one or more of the States Parties concerned are not parties to such agreements, they shall have recourse to the dispute settlement procedures set out in the Convention;

(g) In circumstances where a determination is made under the agreements referred to in subparagraph (b) that a State Party has engaged in subsidization which is prohibited or has resulted in adverse effects on the interests of another State Party and appropriate steps have not been taken by the relevant State Party or States Parties, a State Party may request the Council to take appropriate measures.

2. The principles contained in paragraph 1 shall not affect the rights and obligations under any provision of the agreements referred to in paragraph 1(b), as well as the relevant free trade and customs union agreements, in relations between States Parties which are parties to such agreements.

3. The acceptance by a contractor of subsidies other than those which may be permitted under the agreements referred to in paragraph 1(b) shall constitute a violation of the fundamental terms of the contract forming a plan of work for the carrying out of activities in the Area.

4. Any State Party which has reason to believe that there has been a breach of the requirements of paragraphs 1(b) to (d) or 3 may initiate dispute settlement procedures in conformity with paragraph 1(f) or (g).

5. A State Party may at any time bring to the attention of the Council activities which in its view are inconsistent with the requirements of paragraph 1(b) to (d).

6. The Authority shall develop rules, regulations and procedures which ensure the implementation of the provisions of this section, including relevant rules, regulations and procedures governing the approval of plans of work.

7. The provisions of article 151, paragraphs 1 to 7 and 9, article 162, paragraph 2(q), article 165, paragraph 2(n), and Annex III, article 6, paragraph 5, and article 7, of the Convention shall not apply.

Section 7. ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE

1. The policy of the Authority of assisting developing countries which suffer serious adverse effects on their export earnings or economies resulting from a reduction in the price of an affected mineral or in the volume of exports of that mineral, to the extent that such reduction is caused by activities in the Area, shall be based on the following principles:

(a) The Authority shall establish an economic assistance fund from a portion of the funds of the Authority which exceeds those necessary to cover the administrative expenses of the Authority. The amount set aside for this purpose shall be determined by the Council from time to time, upon the recommendation of the Finance Committee. Only funds from payments received from contractors, including the Enterprise, and voluntary contributions shall be used for the establishment of the economic assistance fund;

(b) Developing land-based producer States whose economies have been determined to be seriously affected by the production of minerals from the deep seabed shall be assisted from the economic assistance fund of the Authority;

(c) The Authority shall provide assistance from the fund to affected developing land-based producer States, where appropriate, in cooperation with existing global or regional development institutions which have the infrastructure and expertise to carry out such assistance programmes;

(d) The extent and period of such assistance shall be determined on a case-by-case basis. In doing so, due consideration shall be given to the nature and magnitude of the problems encountered by affected developing land-based producer States.

2. Article 151, paragraph 10, of the Convention shall be implemented by means of measures of economic assistance referred to in paragraph 1. Article 160, paragraph 2(l), article 162, paragraph 2(n), article 164, paragraph 2(d), article 171, subparagraph (f), and article 173, paragraph 2(c), of the Convention shall be interpreted accordingly.

Section 8. FINANCIAL TERMS OF CONTRACTS

1. The following principles shall provide the basis for establishing rules, regulations and procedures for financial terms of contracts:

(a) The system of payments to the Authority shall be fair both to the contractor and to the Authority and shall provide adequate means of determining compliance by the contractor with such system;

(b) The rates of payments under the system shall be within the range of those prevailing in respect of land-based mining of the same or similar minerals in order to avoid giving deep seabed miners an artificial competitive advantage or imposing on them a competitive disadvantage;

(c) The system should not be complicated and should not impose major administrative costs on the Authority or on a contractor. Consideration should be given to the adoption of a royalty system or a combination of a royalty and profit-sharing system. If alternative systems are decided upon, the contractor has the right to choose the system applicable to its contract. Any subsequent change in choice between alternative systems, however, shall be made by agreement between the Authority and the contractor;

(d) An annual fixed fee shall be payable from the date of commencement of commercial production. This fee may be credited against other payments due under the system adopted in accordance with subparagraph (c). The amount of the fee shall be established by the Council;

(e) The system of payments may be revised periodically in the light of changing circumstances. Any changes shall be applied in a non-discriminatory manner. Such changes may apply to existing contracts only at the election of the contractor. Any subsequent change in choice between alternative systems shall be made by agreement between the Authority and the contractor;

(f) Disputes concerning the interpretation or application of the rules and regulations based on these principles shall be subject to the dispute settlement procedures set out in the Convention.

2. The provisions of Annex III, article 13, paragraphs 3 to 10, of the Convention shall not apply.

3. With regard to the implementation of Annex III, article 13, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the fee for processing applications for approval of a plan of work limited to one phase, either the exploration phase or the exploitation phase, shall be US$ 250,000.

Section 9. THE FINANCE COMMITTEE

1. There is hereby established a Finance Committee. The Committee shall be composed of 15 members with appropriate qualifications relevant to financial matters. States Parties shall nominate candidates of the highest standards of competence and integrity.

2. No two members of the Finance Committee shall be nationals of the same State Party.

3. Members of the Finance Committee shall be elected by the Assembly and due account shall be taken of the need for equitable geographical distribution and the representation of special interests. Each group of States referred to in section 3, paragraph 15(a), (b), (c) and (d), of this Annex shall be represented on the Committee by at least one member. Until the Authority has sufficient funds other than assessed contributions to meet its administrative expenses, the membership of the Committee shall include representatives of the five largest financial contributors to the administrative budget of the Authority. Thereafter, the election of one member from each group shall be on the basis of nomination by the members of the respective group, without prejudice to the possibility of further members being elected from each group.

4. Members of the Finance Committee shall hold office for a term of five years. They shall be eligible for re-election for a further term.

5. In the event of the death, incapacity or resignation of a member of the Finance Committee prior to the expiration of the term of office, the Assembly shall elect for the remainder of the term a member from the same geographical region or group of States.

6. Members of the Finance Committee shall have no financial interest in any activity relating to matters upon which the Committee has the responsibility to make recommendations. They shall not disclose, even after the termination of their functions, any confidential information coming to their knowledge by reason of their duties for the Authority.

7. Decisions by the Assembly and the Council on the following issues shall take into account recommendations of the Finance Committee:

(a) Draft financial rules, regulations and procedures of the organs of the Authority and the financial management and internal financial administration of the Authority;

(b) Assessment of contributions of members to the administrative budget of the Authority in accordance with article 160, paragraph 2(e), of the Convention;

(c) All relevant financial matters, including the proposed annual budget prepared by the Secretary-General of the Authority in accordance with article 172 of the Convention and the financial aspects of the implementation of the programmes of work of the Secretariat;

(d) The administrative budget;

(e) Financial obligations of States Parties arising from the implementation of this Agreement and Part XI as well as the administrative and budgetary implications of proposals and recommendations involving expenditure from the funds of the Authority;

(f) Rules, regulations and procedures on the equitable sharing of financial and other economic benefits derived from activities in the Area and the decisions to be made thereon.

8. Decisions in the Finance Committee on questions of procedure shall be taken by a majority of members present and voting. Decisions on questions of substance shall be taken by consensus.

9. The requirement of article 162, paragraph 2(y), of the Convention to establish a subsidiary organ to deal with financial matters shall be deemed to have been fulfilled by the establishment of the Finance Committee in accordance with this section.

TULKOJUMS
APVIENOTO NĀCIJU ORGANIZĀCIJAS JŪRAS TIESĪBU KONVENCIJA

I daļa. IEVADS

1. pants. Terminu lietošana un piemērošana

1. Šīs konvencijas izpratnē:

1) "Rajons" nozīmē jūras un okeāna dibenu un dzīles ārpus valsts jurisdikcijas robežām;

2) "Institūcija" nozīmē Starptautisko Jūras dibena Institūciju;

3) "darbība Rajonā" nozīmē visa veida darbību Rajona resursu meklēšanā un ieguvē;

4) "jūras vides piesārņošana" nozīmē, ka cilvēks tieši vai netieši ievada jūras vidē vielas vai enerģijas, ieskaitot estuārus, kas rada vai var radīt tādas kaitīgas sekas kā kaitējums dzīvajiem resursiem un dzīvībai jūrā, draudus cilvēka veselībai, traucējumus darbībai jūrā, tajā skaitā zvejniecībai un citiem tiesiskiem jūras izmantošanas veidiem, izmantojamā jūras ūdens kvalitātes pazemināšanu un atpūtas apstākļu pasliktināšanu;

5) a) "atkritumu izgāšana" nozīmē:

i) katru ar nodomu izdarītu atkritumu vai citu materiālu izmešanu no kuģiem, gaisa kuģiem, platformām vai citām jūrā mākslīgi radītām konstrukcijām;

ii) katru ar nodomu izdarītu kuģa, gaisa kuģa, platformas vai citas jūrā mākslīgi radītas konstrukcijas iznīcināšanu;

b) par "atkritumu izgāšanu" netiek uzskatīta:

i) atbrīvošanās no atkritumiem vai citiem materiāliem, kas rodas kuģu, gaisa kuģu, platformu vai citu jūrā mākslīgi radītu konstrukciju un to iekārtu normālas ekspluatācijas rezultātā, izņemot atkritumus un citus materiālus, kurus transportē ar kuģiem, gaisa kuģiem, platformām vai citām jūrā mākslīgi radītām konstrukcijām, kuras tiek ekspluatētas šādu materiālu iznīcināšanai, vai kurus nogādā uz tādiem kuģiem, gaisa kuģiem, platformām vai citām jūrā mākslīgi radītām konstrukcijām, tāpat izņemot tos, kas ir šādu atkritumu vai kādu citu materiālu apstrādes rezultāts uz tādiem kuģiem, gaisa kuģiem, platformām vai konstrukcijām;

ii) materiālu novietošana ar citiem mērķiem nekā parasta atbrīvošanās no tiem, ar noteikumu, ka tas nav pretrunā ar šīs konvencijas mērķiem.

2. 1) "Dalībvalstis" nozīmē valstis, kas ir atzinušas šo konvenciju par saistošu un kurās šī konvencija ir spēkā.

2) šī konvencija tiek piemērota mutatis mutandis attiecībā uz tiesību subjektiem, kas ir noteikti 305.panta 1.punkta b, c, d, e un f apakšpunktos, kuri kļūst par šīs konvencijas dalībniekiem saskaņā ar priekšnosacījumiem, kas raksturīgi katram no tiem, un šajā nozīmē ar terminu "Dalībvalstis" saprot šos tiesību subjektus.

II daļa. Teritoriālā jūra un piegulošā zona

1. nodaļa. Vispārīgie noteikumi

2. pants. Teritoriālās jūras, gaisa telpas virs teritoriālās jūras un tās dibena un dzīļu tiesiskais statuss

1. Piekrastes valsts suverenitāte izplatās aiz sauszemes teritorijas un iekšējo ūdeņu robežas, bet arhipelāga valstu gadījumā — tās arhipelāga ūdeņiem, pieguļošajā jūras joslā, kuru sauc par teritoriālo jūru.

2. Šī suverenitāte aptver gaisa telpu virs teritoriālās jūras, kā arī tās dibenu un dzīles.

3. Suverenitāte pār teritoriālo jūru tiek realizēta saskaņā ar šo konvenciju un citām starptautisko tiesību normām.

2. nodaļa. Teritoriālās jūras robežas

3. pants. Teritoriālās jūras platums

Katrai valstij ir tiesības noteikt savas teritoriālās jūras platumu līdz robežai, kas nepārsniedz divpadsmit jūras jūdzes, to mērot no bāzes līnijām, ko nosaka saskaņā ar šo konvenciju.

4. pants. Teritoriālās jūras ārējā robeža

Teritoriālās jūras ārējā robeža ir līnija, kuras katrs punkts atrodas tādā attālumā no tuvākās bāzes līnijas, kas vienāds ar teritoriālās jūras platumu.

5. pants. Normāla bāzes līnija

Ja šajā konvencijā nav noteikts citādi, normāla bāzes līnija teritoriālās jūras platuma mērīšanai ir oficiāli atzītās piekrastes valsts jūras kartēs norādītā vislielākā bēguma līnija gar krastu.

6. pants. Rifi

Atolos izvietotu salu gadījumā vai gadījumā, kad salas iekļauj rifi, bāzes līnija teritoriālās jūras platuma izmērīšanai ir uz jūru vērstā rifu līnija pie vislielākā bēguma, kā tas norādīts ar atbilstošu simbolu piekrastes valsts oficiāli atzītās jūras kartēs.

7. pants. Taisnās bāzes līnijas

1. Vietās, kur krasta līnija ir dziļi robota un līkumota vai kur gar krastu tiešā tā tuvumā atrodas salu ķēde, lai novilktu bāzes līniju, no kuras tiek mērīts teritoriālās jūras platums, var tikt piemērota taisno bāzes līniju atsevišķu punktu savienošanas metode.

2. Tur, kur sakarā ar deltu vai citiem dabas apstākļiem krasta līnija ir ļoti nepastāvīga, attiecīgie punkti var tikt izvēlēti gar vislielākā bēguma līniju, kas vistālāk iesniedzas jūrā, un neņemot vērā vēlāko bēguma līniju atkāpšanos, taisnās bāzes līnijas paliek spēkā tik ilgi, kamēr tās neizmainīs piekrastes valsts saskaņā ar šo konvenciju.

3. Velkot taisnās bāzes līnijas, nav pieļaujama manāma atkāpšanās no krasta kopējā virziena, bet jūras daļām, kas atrodas šo līniju iekšpusē, ir jābūt pietiekami cieši saistītām ar piekrastes teritoriju, lai uz tām varētu izplatīt iekšējo ūdeņu režīmu.

4. Taisnās bāzes līnijas nevar vilkt uz bēguma laikā apžūstošiem paaugstinājumiem un no tiem, izņemot, ja uz tiem ir uzceltas bākas vai citas hidrotehniskās būves, kas vienmēr ir virs ūdens, vai arī izņemot gadījumus, kad bāzes līniju vilkšana uz šādiem apžūstošiem paaugstinājumiem vai no tiem ir vispārēji starptautiski atzīta.

5. Gadījumā, kad ir piemērojama taisno bāzes līniju metode saskaņā ar 1.punktu, nosakot atsevišķas bāzes līnijas, var tikt ņemtas vērā šī rajona īpašas ekonomiskās intereses, kuru realitāte un nozīmīgums ir skaidri pierādīts ilgākā darbībā.

6. Valsts nevar izmantot taisno bāzes līniju sistēmu tādā veidā, ka citas valsts teritoriālā jūra tiek nošķirta no atklātās jūras vai ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas.

8. pants. Iekšējie ūdeņi

1. Izņemot IV daļā noteikto, ūdeņi, kas atrodas uz krasta pusi no teritoriālās jūras bāzes līnijām, ir valsts iekšējo ūdeņu daļa.

2. Ja, nosakot taisno bāzes līniju saskaņā ar 7.pantā paredzēto metodi, iekšējos ūdeņos tiek iekļauti rajoni, kuri agrāk netika uzskatīti par tādiem, šajos ūdeņos jāpiemēro mierīgās caurbraukšanas tiesības, ko paredz šī konvencija.

9. pants. Upju ietekas

Ja upe ietek tieši jūrā, par bāzes līniju tiek uzskatīta taisna līnija, kas novilkta šķērsām upes ietekai starp krasta punktiem, kas atbilst vislielākajam bēgumam.

10. pants. Līči

1. Šis pants attiecas tikai uz tiem līčiem, kuru krasti pieder vienai valstij.

2. Šīs konvencijas nolūkā līcis ir skaidri apzīmēts krasta iedziļinājums, kas iesniedzas sauszemē tādā mērā salīdzinot ar tā ieejas platumu, ka tas satur sauszemes ieskautus ūdeņus un veido vairāk kā parastu krasta izrobojumu. Iedziļinājums nav uzskatāms par līci, ja vien tā laukums nav vienāds vai lielāks par pusapļa laukumu, kura diametrs ir līnija, kas šķērso ieeju šajā iedziļinājumā.

3. Apmērīšanas nolūkā par iedziļinājuma laukumu ir uzskatāms laukums, kas atrodas starp vislielākā bēguma līniju apkārt iedziļinājuma krastam un līniju, kas savieno vislielākā bēguma līnijas dabīgās ieejas punktus. Ja sakarā ar salu esamību padziļinājumam ir vairāk kā viena ieeja, par šāda pusapļa diametru tiek uzskatīta līnija, kuras garums ir vienāds ar līniju, kas šķērso atsevišķas ieejas, summu. Salas, kas atrodas padziļinājumā, tiek uzskatītas par šī padziļinājuma ūdens platības sastāvdaļu.

4. Ja attālums starp vislielākā bēguma līnijām līča dabīgās ieejas punktos pārsniedz divdesmit četras jūras jūdzes, taisnā bāzes līnija divdesmit četru jūras jūdžu garumā tiek novilkta līča iekšpusē tādā veidā, lai ar šādu līniju tiktu ierobežota pēc iespējas lielāka ūdens platība.

5. Ja attālums starp vislielākā bēguma līnijām līča dabiskās ieejas punktos nepārsniedz divdesmit četras jūras jūdzes, noslēdzošā līnija var tikt novilkta starp šīm divām vislielākā bēguma līnijām, un tādā veidā robežotie ūdeņi tiek uzskatīti par iekšējiem ūdeņiem.

6. Iepriekš minētie noteikumi nav piemērojami attiecībā uz tā saucamajiem "vēsturiskajiem" līčiem vai jebkurā gadījumu, kad ir piemērojama 7.pantā noteiktā taisno bāzes līniju sistēma.

11. pants. Ostas

Nolūkā noteikt teritoriālās jūras robežu, visattālāk jūrā esošās pastāvīgās ostu būves, kuras ir ostu sistēmas sastāvdaļa, tiek uzskatītas par krasta sastāvdaļu. Piekrastes iekārtas un mākslīgās salas netiek uzskatītas par pastāvīgām ostas būvēm.

12. pants. Reidi

Reidi, kurus parasti izmanto kuģu iekraušanai, izkraušanai un noenkurošanai un kuri citā gadījumā būtu novietoti pilnīgi vai daļēji aiz teritoriālās jūras ārējās robežas, tiek iekļauti teritoriālajā jūrā.

13. pants. Bēguma laikā apžūstošie paaugstinājumi

1. Bēguma laikā apžūstošs paaugstinājums ir dabīgi radusies sauszeme, kurai apkārt ir ūdens un kas atrodas virs ūdens līmeņa bēguma laikā, bet paisuma laikā pārklājas ar ūdeni. Ja paaugstinājums, kas atklājas bēguma laikā, atrodas no kontinenta vai salas tādā attālumā, kas nepārsniedz teritoriālās jūras platumu, tad paaugstinājuma vislielākā bēguma līnija var tikt izmantota kā bāzes līnija teritoriālās jūras platuma mērīšanai.

2. Ja paaugstinājums, kas atklājas bēguma laikā, atrodas no kontinenta vai salas tādā attālumā, kas pārsniedz teritoriālās jūras platumu, tad tam nav sava teritoriālā jūra.

14. pants. Bāzes līniju noteikšanas metožu saskaņošana

Piekrastes valsts var noteikt bāzes līnijas, pārmaiņus izmantojot jebkuru no metodēm, kas paredzētas iepriekšējos pantos, atbilstoši dažādiem apstākļiem.

15. pants. Teritoriālās jūras robežu noteikšana starp valstīm ar pretējiem vai blakus esošiem krastiem

Ja divu valstu krasti atrodas viens pretim otram vai blakus viens otram, tad ne vienai, ne otrai valstij nav tiesību, ja vien starp tām nav noslēgta vienošanās par ko citu, paplašināt savu teritoriālo jūru pāri viduslīnijai, kas novilkta tā, lai katrs tās punkts atrastos vienādā attālumā no tuvākajiem bāzes līniju punktiem, no kuriem katra valsts sāk teritoriālās jūras platuma mērīšanu. Tomēr iepriekšminētos noteikumus nepiemēro, ja sakarā ar vēsturiski izveidojušās tiesību bāzes vai citiem sevišķiem apstākļiem abu valstu teritoriālās jūras nepieciešams norobežot citādi, nekā norādīts šajā konvencijā.

16. pants. Ģeogrāfisko koordinātu kartes un uzskaitījumi

1. Bāzes līnijas teritoriālās jūras platuma izmērīšanai, kas noteiktas saskaņā ar 7., 9. un 10.pantu, vai robežas, kas noteiktas uz to pamata, un robežlīnijas, kas novilktas saskaņā ar 12. un 15.pantu, tiek norādītas tāda mēroga vai mērogu jūras kartēs, kur precīzi var noteikt to stāvokli. Alternatīvi tās var tikt aizvietotas ar punktu, kuri norāda sākotnējos ģeodēziskos datus, ģeogrāfisko koordinātu uzskaitījumu.

2. Piekrastes valsts pienācīgā kārtā publicē šādas kartes un ģeogrāfisko koordinātu uzskaitījumus, un katras šādas kartes vai uzskaitījuma kopiju nodod glabāšanā Apvienoto Nāciju Organizācijas ģenerālsekretāram.

3. nodaļa. Miermīlīga caurbraukšana teritoriālajā jūrā

A Apakšnodaļa. Noteikumi, kurus piemēro visiem kuģiem

17. pants. Miermīlīgas caurbraukšanas tiesības

Saskaņā ar šīs konvencijas noteikumiem, visu valstu kuģiem, gan piekrastes valstu, gan to valstu, kurām nav izejas uz jūru, ir miermīlīgas caurbraukšanas tiesības pa teritoriālo jūru.

18. pants. Caurbraukšanas jēdziens

1. Ar caurbraukšanu saprot braukšanu pa teritoriālo jūru nolūkā:

a) šķērsot šo jūru, neieejot iekšējos ūdeņos vai nestāvot reidā vai pie ostas būves ārpus iekšējiem ūdeņiem;

b) ieiet iekšējos ūdeņos vai iziet no tiem, vai apstāties tādā reidā vai pie tādas ostas būves.

2. Caurbraukšanai jābūt nepārtrauktai un ātrai. Tomēr caurbraukšanā ir iekļauta arī apstāšanās un noenkurota stāvēšana tiktāl, ciktāl tā ir saistīta ar parastām navigācijas operācijām, vai nepārvaramu varu vai kuģa katastrofu, vai arī ar mērķi sniegt palīdzību personām, kuģiem vai gaisa kuģiem, kas atrodas briesmās vai ir cietuši kuģa katastrofā.

19. pants. Miermīlīgas caurbraukšanas jēdziens

1. Caurbraukšana ir miermīlīga, ja ar to netiek traucēts piekrastes valsts miers, publiskā kārtība vai drošība. Tādai caurbraukšanai jānotiek saskaņā ar šo konvenciju un citām starptautisko tiesību normām.

2. Tiek uzskatīts, ka ārvalstu kuģa caurbraukšana traucē piekrastes valsts mieru, publisko kārtību un drošību, ja teritoriālajā jūrā tiek veikta jebkura no šādām darbībām:

a) spēka pielietošanas draudi vai spēka pielietošana pret piekrastes valsts suverenitāti, teritoriālo vienotību vai politisko neatkarību, vai citāda Apvienoto Nāciju Organizācijas statūtos ietverto normu pārkāpšana;

b) jebkuri manevri vai mācības ar jebkura veida ieročiem;

c) jebkura darbība, kas vērsta uz piekrastes valsts aizsardzībai vai drošībai kaitējošas informācijas vākšanu;

d) jebkurš propagandas akts, kura mērķis ir ietekmēt piekrastes valsts aizsardzību vai drošību;

e) jebkāda gaisa kuģa pacelšanās, nosēšanās vai uzņemšana uz borta;

f) jebkādas militārās ierīces palaišana, nosēšanās vai uzņemšana uz borta:

g) jebkādas preces vai valūtas iekraušana vai izkraušana, jebkādas personas uzņemšana uz borta vai izsēdināšana pretēji piekrastes valsts muitas, finansu, imigrācijas vai sanitārajiem likumiem un noteikumiem;

h) jebkāds ar nolūku izdarīts un nopietns piesārņošanas akts pretēji šīs konvencijas noteikumiem;

i) jebkura zvejniecība;

j) meklēšanas vai hidrogrāfisko mērījumu veikšana;

k) jebkāda darbība nolūkā traucēt piekrastes valsts jebkādu sakaru sistēmu vai jebkādu citu aprīkojumu vai iekārtu funkcionēšanu;

l) jebkāda cita darbība, kas tieši neattiecas uz caurbraukšanu.

20. pants. Zemūdenes un citi zemūdens transporta veidi

Teritoriālajā jūrā zemūdenēm un citiem zemūdens transporta līdzekļiem ir jāatrodas virsūdens stāvoklī un jāpaceļ savs karogs.

21. pants. Piekrastes valsts likumi un noteikumi attiecībā uz miermīlīgu caurbraukšanu

1. Piekrastes valsts saskaņā ar šīs konvencijas noteikumiem un citām starptautisko tiesību normām var pieņemt likumus un noteikumus, kas attiecas uz mierīgu caurbraukšanu pa teritoriālo jūru, attiecībā uz visu turpmāk minēto vai daļu no tā:

a) kuģošanas drošība un kuģu kustības regulēšana;

b) navigācijas līdzekļu un aprīkojuma, kā arī cita aprīkojuma un iekārtu aizsardzība;

c) kabeļu un cauruļvadu aizsardzība;

d) jūras dzīvo resursu saglabāšana;

e) piekrastes valsts zvejniecības likumu un noteikumu pārkāpumu novēršana;

f) piekrastes valsts apkārtējās vides saglabāšana, tās piesārņošanas novēršana, samazināšana un kontrolēšana;

g) jūras zinātniskā izpēte un hidrogrāfiskie mērījumi;

h) piekrastes valsts muitas, finansu, imigrācijas vai sanitāro likumu un noteikumu pārkāpumu novēršana.

2. Šādi likumi un noteikumi neattiecas uz ārvalstu kuģu projektēšanu, konstrukcijām, ekipāžas komplektēšanu vai aprīkojumu, ja vien tie neievieš vispārpieņemtās starptautisko tiesību normas.

3. Piekrastes valsts noteiktā veidā publicē visus šāda veida likumus un noteikumus.

4. Ārvalstu kuģi, īstenojot miermīlīgas caurbraukšanas tiesības pa teritoriālo jūru, ievēro visus tos likumus un noteikumus un visus vispārpieņemtos starptautiskos noteikumus, kas attiecas uz sadursmju novēršanu jūrā.

22. pants. Jūras koridori un kustības sadales shēmas teritoriālajā jūrā

1. Nepieciešamības gadījumā saistībā ar kuģošanas drošību, piekrastes valsts var pieprasīt no ārvalstu kuģiem, kas realizē mierīgas caurbraukšanas tiesības caur tās teritoriālo jūru, lai tie izmanto tādus jūras koridorus un kustību sadales shēmas, kuras tā var norādīt vai ieteikt, lai regulētu kuģu caurbraukšanu.

2. Īpaši attiecībā uz tankkuģiem, kuģiem ar kodoldzinējiem un kuģiem, kas pārvadā kodolvielas un citas bīstamas vai indīgas vielas, var tikt izvirzīta obligāta prasība braukt caur tādiem jūras koridoriem.

3.Nosakot jūras koridorus un iesakot kustības sadales shēmas saskaņā ar šo pantu, piekrastes valsts ņem vērā:

a) kompetentu starptautisko organizāciju rekomendācijas;

b) jebkurus ceļus, kurus parasti izmanto starptautiskajā kuģošanā;

c) konkrētu kuģu un ceļu raksturojumu; un

d) kuģu satiksmes intensitāti.

4. Piekrastes valstis skaidri norāda jūras koridorus un kustības sadales shēmas jūras kartēs, kuras noteiktā veidā publicē.

23. pants. Ārvalstu kuģi ar kodoldzinējiem un kuģi, kas pārvadā kodolvielas un citas bīstamas vai pēc savas dabas indīgas vielas

Uz ārvalstu kuģiem ar kodoldzinējiem, kā arī uz kuģiem, kas pārvadā kodolvielas un citas bīstamas vai pēc savas dabas indīgas vielas, realizējot miermīlīgas caurbraukšanas tiesības pa teritoriālo jūru, ir jābūt starptautiskos līgumos noteiktiem dokumentiem un jāievēro to noteikti īpaši piesardzības pasākumi.

24. pants. Piekrastes valsts pienākumi

1. Piekrastes valsts nedrīkst likt šķēršļus ārvalstu kuģu miermīlīgai caurbraukšanai pa teritoriālo jūru, izņemot gadījumus, kad tā rīkojas šādi saskaņā ar šo konvenciju. It sevišķi, piemērojot šo konvenciju vai jebkurus likumus vai noteikumus, kas pieņemti saskaņā ar šo Konvenciju, piekrastes valsts nedrīkst:

a) izvirzīt ārvalstu kuģiem prasības, kuras praktiski liedz miermīlīgas caurbraukšanas tiesības vai pārkāpj šīs tiesības;

b) pieļaut formālu vai faktisku diskrimināciju attiecībā uz jebkuras valsts kuģiem, vai attiecībā uz kuģiem, kas pārvadā kravas uz jebkuru valsti, no tās vai tās vārdā.

2. Piekrastes valsts pienācīgā kārtā paziņo par jebkurām tai zināmām kuģošanas briesmām tās teritoriālajā jūrā.

25. pants. Piekrastes valsts tiesību aizstāvība

1. Piekrastes valsts savā teritoriālajā jūrā var veikt pasākumus, kuri ir nepieciešami, lai nepieļautu tās šķērsošanu bez miermīlīgiem mērķiem.

2. Arī attiecībā pret kuģiem, kuri virzās uz iekšējiem ūdeņiem vai izmanto ostas būves ārpus iekšējo ūdeņu robežām, piekrastes valstij ir tiesības veikt nepieciešamos pasākumus, lai novērstu jebkuru noteikumu pārkāpšanu, uz kuriem balstoties, šie kuģi tiek ielaisti iekšējos ūdeņos un izmanto ostas būves.

3. Piekrastes valstis bez formālas vai faktiskas diskriminācijas pret ārvalstu kuģiem savu teritoriālo ūdeņu noteiktos rajonos var uz laiku apturēt, ārvalstu kuģu mierīgas ūdeņu šķērsošanas tiesības, ja šāda apturēšana ir būtiski svarīga tās drošības aizsardzībai, tai skaitā mācībām ar ieroču pielietošanu. Tāda apstādināšana stājas spēkā tikai pēc tās pienācīgas publicēšanas.

26. pants. Nodevas, ar kurām var aplikt ārvalstu kuģus

1. Ārvalstu kuģus nevar aplikt ne ar kādu maksu tikai par teritoriālās jūras šķērsošanu.

2. Ārvalstu kuģi, kas šķērso teritoriālo jūru, var aplikt ar maksu tikai par konkrētiem pakalpojumiem, kas ir sniegti šim kuģim. Šī maksa tiek iekasēta bez diskriminācijas.

B Apakšnodaļa. Noteikumi, ko piemēro tirdzniecības kuģiem un komerciālos nolūkos izmantotiem valsts kuģiem

27. pants. Kriminālā jurisdikcija uz ārvalstu kuģa

1. Piekrastes valsts kriminālā jurisdikcija nevar tikt realizēta uz ārvalsts kuģa, kas šķērso teritoriālo jūru, lai notiktu jebkādas personas arests vai tiktu veikta izmeklēšana jebkāda nozieguma sakarā, kurš noticis uz kuģa ūdeņu šķērsošanas laikā, izņemot sekojošus gadījumus:

a) ja nozieguma sekas izplatās uz piekrastes valsts teritoriju;

b) ja noziegumam ir tāds raksturs, ka tas traucē valsts mieru vai teritoriālās jūras labo kārtību;

c) ja kuģa kapteinis, karoga valsts diplomātiskais aģents vai konsulārā amatpersona griežas pie vietējām varas iestādēm ar lūgumu pēc palīdzības;

d) ja šādi pasākumi ir nepieciešami, lai novērstu nelikumīgu narkotisko vielu vai psihotropo līdzekļu tirdzniecību.

2. Augstākminētie noteikumi neietekmē piekrastes valsts tiesības veikt jebkurus saskaņā ar savu likumdošanu atļautus pasākumus, lai veiktu arestu vai izmeklēšanu uz ārvalsts kuģa, kas šķērso teritoriālo jūru pēc iekšējo ūdeņu atstāšanas.

3. 1. un 2.punktā norādītajos gadījumos piekrastes valsts pēc kapteiņa pieprasījuma pirms jebkādu pasākumu veikšanas sniedz paziņojumu karoga valsts diplomātiskajam aģentam vai konsulārajai amatpersonai un veicina kontaktu nodibināšanu starp norādīto aģentu un kuģa ekipāžu. Ārkārtējas steidzamības gadījumā šis paziņojums var tikt sniegts vienlaicīgi ar norādīto pasākumu veikšanu.

4. Izskatot jautājumu par to, vai arests ir veicams un kādā veidā, vietējās varas iestādes ņem vērā kuģošanas intereses.

5. Izņemot gadījumus, kas paredzēti XII daļā, vai attiecībā uz likumu un noteikumu, kas pieņemti saskaņā ar V daļu, pārkāpšanu, piekrastes valsts nevar veikt nekādus pasākumus uz ārvalsts kuģa, kas šķērso teritoriālo jūru, lai arestētu jebkādu personu vai veiktu izmeklēšanu sakarā ar noziegumu, kas izdarīts līdz kuģa ieiešanai teritoriālajā jūrā, ja kuģis, atstājot ārvalsts ostu, tikai šķērso teritoriālo jūru, neieejot iekšējos ūdeņos.

28. pants. Civilā jurisdikcija attiecībā uz ārvalstu kuģiem

1. Piekrastes valsts neapstādina ārvalsts kuģi, kas šķērso teritoriālo jūru, vai nemaina tā kursu nolūkā realizēt civilo jurisdikciju attiecībā pret personu, kas atrodas uz kuģa.

2. Piekrastes valsts pret tādu kuģi var piemērot soda pasākumus vai arestu kādā civillietā tikai atbilstoši saistībām vai atbildībai, ko ir uzņēmies vai izraisījis pret sevi šis kuģis, vai nu tam šķērsojot piekrastes valsts ūdeņus vai gatavojoties veikt to.

3. 2.punkts neietekmē piekrastes valsts tiesības saskaņā ar savu likumdošanu veikt soda pasākumus vai arestu civillietas gadījumā pret ārvalsts kuģi, kas atrodas teritoriālajā jūrā vai šķērso teritoriālo jūru pēc iekšējo ūdeņu atstāšanas.

C Apakšnodaļa. Noteikumi, kurus piemēro karakuģiem un citiem valsts kuģiem, kurus izmanto nekomerciālos nolūkos

29. pants. Karakuģu noteikšana

Šīs Konvencijas nolūkā "karakuģis" ir kuģis, kas pieder kādas valsts bruņotajiem spēkiem, kam ir tādu kuģu valstisko piederību apzīmējošas ārējās zīmes, ko komandē virsnieks, kas atrodas šīs valsts valdības dienestā un kura uzvārds ir ierakstīts atbilstošā militārpersonu sarakstā vai tam ekvivalentā dokumentā, un uz kura ir regulārai militārai disciplīnai pakļauta ekipāža.

30. pants. Piekrastes valsts likumu un noteikumu neievērošana no karakuģu puses

Ja kāds karakuģis neievēro piekrastes valsts likumus un noteikumus, kas attiecas uz teritoriālo ūdeņu šķērsošanu, un ignorē jebkuru viņam izvirzīto prasību tos ievērot, piekrastes valsts var to pieprasīt nekavējoties atstāt teritoriālo jūru.

31. pants. Karoga valsts atbildība par kaitējumu, ko nodarījis karakuģis vai cits nekomerciālos nolūkos izmantots valsts kuģis

Karoga valsts ir starptautiski atbildīga par jebkuru piekrastes valstij izdarītu kaitējumu vai zaudējumu, kas radies, ja karakuģis vai cits valsts kuģis, kas tiek izmantots nekomerciālos nolūkos, neievēro piekrastes valsts likumus un noteikumus attiecībā uz teritoriālās jūras šķērsošanu, vai šīs Konvencijas noteikumus, vai citas starptautiskās tiesību normas.

32. pants. Karakuģu vai citu nekomerciālos nolūkos izmantotu valsts kuģu imunitāte

Izņemot gadījumus, kas paredzēti A apakšnodaļā un 30. un 31. pantā, nekas šajā Konvencijā neskar karakuģu un citu nekomerciālos nolūkos izmantotu valsts kuģu imunitāti.

4. nodaļa. Pieguļošā zona

33. pants. Pieguļošā zona

1. Zonā, kas pieguļ tās teritoriālajai jūrai un kuru sauc par pieguļošo zonu, piekrastes valsts var veikt kontroli, kas nepieciešama:

a) lai tās teritorijā vai teritoriālajā jūrā novērstu muitas, finansu, imigrācijas vai sanitāro likumu un noteikumu pārkāpumus;

b) lai sodītu par iepriekš minēto likumu un noteikumu pārkāpumiem, kas veikti tās teritorijā vai teritoriālajā jūrā.

2. Pieguļošā zona nevar tikt attiecināta uz teritoriju, kas atrodas tālāk par divdesmit četrām jūras jūdzēm no bāzes līnijas, no kuras tiek mērīts teritoriālās jūras platums.

III daļa. Starptautiskajā kuģošanā izmantojamie jūras šaurumi

1. nodaļa. Vispārējie noteikumi

34. pants. Tiesiskais statuss ūdeņiem, kas veido starptautiskajā kuģošanā izmantojamus jūras šaurumus

1. Starptautiskajā kuģošanā izmantojamo jūras šaurumu šķērsošanas režīms, ko nosaka šī daļa, citādā ziņā neskar ne šos jūras šaurumus veidojošo ūdeņu tiesisko statusu, ne to valstu, kuras robežojas ar jūras šaurumiem, suverenitātes vai jurisdikcijas realizāciju šādos ūdeņos, gaisa telpā virs tiem, to dibenā un dzīlēs.

2. To valstu, kuras robežojas ar jūras šaurumiem, suverenitāte vai jurisdikcija tiek realizēta, ņemot vērā šo daļu un citas starptautisko tiesību normas.

35. pants. Šīs daļas darbības sfēra

Nekas šajā daļā neskar:

a) jebkurus iekšējo ūdeņu rajonus jūras šaurumu robežās, izņemot gadījumus, kad taisnās bāzes līnijas noteikšana atbilstoši 7.pantā paredzētajai metodei noved pie tādu rajonu iekļaušanas iekšējos ūdeņos, kuri līdz tam par tādiem netika uzskatīti;

b) ārpus teritoriālās jūras robežām tādu esošo ūdeņu tiesisko statusu tām valstīm, kuras robežojas ar jūras šaurumu, kā ekskluzīvā ekonomiskā zona vai atklātā jūra; vai

c) jūras šaurumu tiesisko statusu, kuru šķērsošanu pilnīgi vai daļēji regulē jau ilgi pastāvošas un spēkā esošas starptautiskās konvencijas, kas speciāli attiecas uz tādiem jūras šaurumiem.

36. pants. Ceļi atklātā jūrā vai ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā, kas atrodas starptautiskajā kuģošanā izmantojamos jūras šaurumos

Šī daļa netiek attiecināta uz jūras šaurumu, kas tiek izmantots starptautiskajā kuģošanā, ja šajā jūras šaurumā ir navigācijas un hidrogrāfisko apstākļu ziņā tikpat ērts ceļš, kā tas, kas atrodas atklātā jūrā vai ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskā zonā; šādiem ceļiem tiek piemērotas šīs konvencijas atbilstošas daļas, tajā skaitā noteikumi, kas skar kuģošanas vai lidojumu brīvību.

2. nodaļa. Tranzītšķērsošana

37. pants. Šīs nodaļas darbības sfēra

Šī nodaļa tiek piemērota starptautiskajai kuģošanai izmantojamos jūras šaurumos starp atklātās jūras vai ekskluzīvās ekonomiskas zonas vienu daļu un atklātās jūras vai ekskluzīvās ekonomiskas zonas citu daļu.

38. pants. Tranzīta šķērsošanas tiesības

1. 37. pantā norādītajos jūras šaurumos visiem kuģiem un gaisa kuģiem ir tranzīta šķērsošanas tiesības, kurām nedrīkst likt šķēršļus, izņemot gadījumus, kad jūras šaurumu veido tādai valstij piederoša sala, kas robežojas ar jūras šaurumu, un tās kontinentālā daļa; tranzīta šķērsošana netiek izmantota, ja salas jūras pusē no navigācijas un hidrogrāfisko apstākļu viedokļa ir tikpat ērts ceļš atklātajā jūrā vai ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskā zonā.

2. Tranzīta šķērsošana nozīmē saskaņā ar šo daļu realizētas kuģošanas un lidošanas brīvības tiesības tikai ar tādu mērķi, lai veiktu nepārtrauktu un ātru tranzītu caur jūras šaurumu starp atklātas jūras vai ekskluzīvās ekonomiskas zonas vienu daļu un atklātas jūras vai ekskluzīvās ekonomiskas zonas citu daļu. Tomēr prasības pēc nepārtraukta un ātra tranzīta neizslēdz jūras šauruma šķērsošanu ar mērķi iebraukt, izbraukt vai atgriezties no valsts, kura robežojas ar jūras šaurumu, ievērojot iebraukšanas noteikumus tādā valstī.

3. Jebkura darbība, kura nav jūras šauruma tranzītu šķērsošanas tiesību realizācija, ir pakļauta šīs Konvencijas citiem atbilstošiem noteikumiem.

39. pants. Kuģu un gaisa kuģu pienākumi tranzītšķērsošanas laikā

Kuģi un gaisa kuģi, realizējot tranzītšķērsošanas tiesības:

a) bez kavēšanās virzās caur jūras šaurumu vai virs tā;

b) atturas no jebkuriem spēka pielietošanas draudiem vai tā lietošanas pret to valstu suverenitāti, teritoriālo vienotību vai politisko neatkarību, kuras robežojas ar jūras šaurumu, vai arī kā citādi pārkāpjot Apvienoto Nāciju Organizācijas Statūtos deklarētos starptautisko tiesību principus;

c) atturas no jebkādas darbības, izņemot to, kas raksturīga to parastai nepārtraukta un ātra tranzīta kārtībai, izņemot gadījumus, kad tādu darbību izsauc nepārvaramas varas vai katastrofas apstākļi;

d) ievēro šīs daļas citus attiecīgos noteikumus.

2. Kuģi, veicot tranzītšķērsošanu:

a) ievēro vispārpieņemtos starptautiskos noteikumus, procedūru un praksi, kas attiecas uz drošību jūrā, tajā skaitā starptautiskos noteikumus par sadursmju novēršanu jūrā;

b) ievēro vispārpieņemtos starptautiskos noteikumus, procedūru un praksi kā novērst, samazināt un saglabāt kontroli pār piesārņojumu no kuģiem.

3.Gaisa kuģi, veicot tranzīta pārlidojumus:

a) ievēro lidojumu kārtību, ko noteikusi Starptautiskā civilās aviācijas organizācija, ciktāl tā attiecas uz civilo aviāciju; valsts gaisa kuģi parasti ievēro šādus drošības pasākumus un pastāvīgi darbojas, pienācīgi ievērojot lidojumu drošību;

b) pastāvīgi kontrolē radioviļņus, ko noteikusi starptautiskā kārtā nozīmēta par kustības kontroli gaisā atbildīga kompetenta Institūcija, vai atbilstošas starptautiskas frekvences, kas noteiktas, lai raidītu briesmu signālus.

40. pants. Izpēte un hidrogrāfiskie mērījumi

Ārvalstu kuģiem, tajā skaitā jūras zinātniski pētnieciskiem un hidrogrāfiskiem kuģiem, veicot jūras šauruma tranzīta šķērsošanu, nav tiesības veikt jebkādu izpēti vai hidrogrāfiskos mērījumus, nesaņemot valstu, kuras robežojas ar jūras šaurumiem, iepriekšējas atļaujas.

41. pants. Jūras koridori un kustības sadalījuma shēmas starptautiskajā kuģošanā izmantojamos jūras šaurumos

1. Saskaņā ar šo daļu valstis, kas robežojas ar jūras šaurumiem, var izveidot jūras koridorus un noteikt kustības sadalījuma shēmas, lai veiktu kuģošanu jūras šaurumos, kad tas ir nepieciešams drošas kuģošanas veicināšanai.

2. Tādas valstis, kad to prasa apstākļi, pēc pienācīgas paziņošanas var nomainīt jebkurus savus agrāk noteiktos un norādītos jūras koridorus vai kustības sadalījuma shēmas pret citiem koridoriem vai shēmām.

3. Šādiem jūras koridoriem vai kustības sadalījuma shēmām ir jāatbilst vispārpieņemtajiem starptautiskajiem noteikumiem.

4. Pirms jūras koridoru noteikšanas vai kustības sadalījuma shēmu noteikšanas vai nomainīšanas valstis, kas robežojas ar jūras šaurumiem, iesniedz priekšlikumus kompetentai starptautiskai organizācijai ar mērķi tos apstiprināt. Šī organizācija var apstiprināt tikai tādus jūras koridorus vai kustības sadalījuma shēmas, kuras var tikt saskaņotas ar valstīm, kas robežojas ar jūras šaurumiem, pēc kā šīs valstis var tās noteikt, norādīt vai nomainīt.

5. Attiecībā uz jūras šaurumiem, kur tiek piedāvāti jūras koridori vai kustības sadalījuma shēmas, kas šķērso divu vai vairāku valstu, kuras robežojas ar jūras šaurumiem, ūdeņus, ieinteresētās valstis sadarbojas priekšlikumu izstrādāšanā, konsultējoties ar kompetentām starptautiskām organizācijām.

6. Valstis, kas robežojas ar jūras šaurumiem, skaidri apzīmē visus to noteiktos vai norādītos jūras koridorus vai kustības sadalījuma shēmas pienācīgā kārtā publicētās jūras kartēs.

7. Kuģi, veicot tranzīta šķērsošanu, izmanto piemērojamos jūras koridorus un kustības sadalīšanas shēmas, kuras noteiktas saskaņā ar šo pantu.

42. pants. Valstu, kas robežojas ar jūras šaurumiem, likumi un noteikumi, kas attiecas uz tranzīta šķērsošanu

1. Ņemot vērā šīs nodaļas noteikumus, valstis, kas robežojas ar jūras šaurumiem, var pieņemt likumus un noteikumus par jūras šaurumu tranzīta šķērsošanu attiecībā uz visiem tālāk sekojošajiem jautājumiem vai uz jebkuru no tiem:

a) kuģošanas drošība un kuģu kustības regulēšana, kā paredzēts 41.pantā;

b) piesārņojuma novēršana, samazināšana un kontrolēšana, ieviešot praksē piemērojamos starptautiskos noteikumus, kas attiecas uz naftas noplūdēm, naftu saturošajiem atkritumiem un citām indīgajām vielām jūras šaurumā;

c) kas attiecas uz zvejas kuģiem, — zvejošanas nepieļaušana, tajā skaitā prasība novākt zvejas piederumus;

d) jebkuru preču vai valūtas iekraušana vai izkraušana, personu uzņemšana vai izsēdināšana, pārkāpjot to valstu muitas, finansiālos, imigrācijas vai sanitāros noteikumus, kuras robežojas ar jūras šaurumu;

2. Tādi likumi un noteikumi nedrīkst ne pēc formas, ne satura diskriminēt ārvalstu kuģus, bet to īstenošana praksē nedrīkst novest pie tranzīta šķērsošanas tiesību atņemšanas, pārkāpšanas vai ierobežošanas, kā tas ir noteikts šajā nodaļā.

3. Valstis, kuras robežojas ar jūras šaurumiem, pienācīgā kārtā publicē visus attiecīgos likumus un noteikumus.

4. Ārvalstu kuģi, kuri izmanto tranzīta caurbraukšanas tiesības, ievēros šos likumus un noteikumus.

5. Kad kuģis vai gaisa kuģis, kuram ir suverēna imunitāte, darbojas tādā veidā, ka tas nonāk pretrunā ar šādiem likumiem un noteikumiem vai citiem šīs daļas noteikumiem, kuģa karoga valsts vai gaisa kuģa reģistrācijas valsts ir starptautiski atbildīga par jebkuru kaitējumu vai zaudējumu, kas nodarīts valstij, kas robežojas ar jūras šaurumiem.

43. pants. Navigācijas un drošības līdzekļi un citi uzlabojumi, kā arī piesārņojuma novēršana, samazināšana un kontrolēšana

Valstīm, kuras izmanto jūras šaurumus, un valstīm, kuras robežojas ar jūras šaurumiem, ir jāsadarbojas, vienojoties par:

a) nepieciešamo navigācijas un drošības līdzekļu uzstādīšanu jūras šaurumos un uzturēšanu darba kārtībā vai citu līdzekļu pilnveidošanu, kas veicinātu starptautisko kuģošanu; un

b) novēršot, samazinot un kontrolējot piesārņošanu no kuģiem.

44. pants. Valstu, kuras robežojas ar jūras šaurumiem, pienākumi

Valstis, kuras robežojas ar jūras šaurumiem, nekavē tranzīta šķērsošanu un attiecīgā kārtā sniedz informāciju par jebkurām kuģošanas vai pārlidošanas briesmām jūras šaurumā. Nedrīkst notikt tranzīta šķērsošanas apstādināšana.

3. nodaļa. Miermīlīga caurbraukšana

45. pants. Miermīlīga caurbraukšana

1. Miermīlīgas caurbraukšanas režīms saskaņā ar II daļas 3. nodaļu tiek piemērots starptautiskajai kuģošanai izmantojamos jūras šaurumos:

a) kuri ir izslēgti no tranzīta režīma piemērošanas sfēras saskaņā ar 38.panta 1.punktu; vai

b) starp atklātas jūras vai ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas daļu un citas valsts teritoriālo jūru.

2. Jūras šaurumos nedrīkst notikt miermīlīgas caurbraukšanas kustības apstādināšana.

IV daļa. Arhipelāgu valstis

46. pants. Lietotie termini

Šīs Konvencijas izpratnē:

a) "Arhipelāga valsts" ir valsts, kura pilnībā sastāv no viena vai vairākiem arhipelāgiem un var ietvert sevī citas salas;

b) "arhipelāgs" ir salu grupa, ieskaitot salu daļas, kas savieno tās ūdeņus un citus dabiskus veidojumus, kas ir tik cieši saistīti, ka tādas salas, ūdeņi un citi dabiski veidojumi veido vienotu ģeogrāfisku, ekonomisku un politisku veselumu vai vēsturiski tas ir uzskatāms par tādu.

47. pants. Arhipelāga bāzes līnijas

1. Arhipelāga valsts var nospraust arhipelāga taisnās bāzes līnijas, kas savieno jūrā vistālāk attālināto salu visvairāk izvirzītos punktus un arhipelāgu rifus, kas redzami bēguma laikā, ar noteikumu, ka tādas bāzes līnijas ietver galvenās salas un rajonu, kurā proporcija starp ūdens virsmas platību un sauszemes platību, ieskaitot atolus, būtu no 1:1 līdz 9:1.

2. Tādu bāzes līniju garums nepārsniedz 100 jūras jūdzes, tomēr līdz 3% no bāzes līniju kopējā skaita, kas ietver jebkuru arhipelāgu, var pārsniegt šo garumu līdz maksimālajam garumam 125 jūras jūdzes.

3. Novelkot tādas bāzes līnijas, nav pieļaujamas būtiskas novirzes no arhipelāga vispārējās konfigurācijas.

4. Tādas bāzes līnijas tiek vilktas uz bēguma laikā redzamajiem paaugstinājumiem un no tiem tikai tādā gadījumā, ja uz tiem ir uzbūvētas bākas vai līdzīgas būves, kuras vienmēr atrodas virs jūras līmeņa, vai ja bēguma laikā redzamais paaugstinājums pilnīgi vai daļēji ir izvietots attālumā, kas nepārsniedz teritoriālās jūras platumu no tuvākās salas.

5. Tādu bāzes līniju sistēmu arhipelāga valstij nevajadzētu lietot tā, lai citas valsts teritoriālā jūra izrādītos nošķirta no atklātās jūras vai ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas.

6. Ja daļa no arhipelāga valsts arhipelāga ūdeņiem atrodas starp divām kaimiņvalsts tieši pieguļošām daļām, pastāvošās tiesības un visas citas likumsakarīgās intereses, kuras šīs pēdējās valstis tradicionāli realizē tādos ūdeņos, un visas tiesības, kas ir paredzētas pēc vienošanās starp šīm valstīm, ir jāsaglabā un jāciena.

7. Aprēķināšanas mērķim, saskaņā ar 1.punktu, nosakot proporcijas starp ūdens un sauszemes platību, sauszemes rajoni var ietvert ūdeņus, kas atrodas starp rifiem, kuri aptver salas un atolus, ieskaitot to okeāna plato daļu ar krasu slīpumu, kuru noslēdz vai gandrīz noslēdz kaļķakmens salu ķēde un nosēdušies rifi, kas izvietoti plato pa perimetru.

8. Bāzes līnijas, kas tiek vilktas atbilstoši šā panta norādījumiem, ir jāatzīmē uz tāda mēroga vai mērogu kartēm, kuras ir pieņemamas, lai varētu precīzi noteikt to stāvokli. Kā alternatīva to vietā var tikt sniegts ģeogrāfisko koordināšu punktu uzskaitījums, norādot galvenos atskaites ģeodēziskos datus.

9. Arhipelāga valsts pienācīgā veidā publicē tās kartes vai ģeogrāfisko koordināšu sarakstu un katras tādas kartes kopiju vai sarakstu nodod glabāšanā Apvienoto Nāciju Organizācijas Ģenerālsekretāram.

48. pants. Teritoriālās jūras, pieguļošās zonas, ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas un kontinentālā šelfa platuma mērīšana

Teritoriālās jūras, pieguļošās zonas, ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas un kontinentālā šelfa platumu mēra no arhipelāga bāzes līnijām, kas ir novilktas saskaņā ar 47.pantu.

49. pants. Arhipelāga ūdeņu, gaisa telpas virs arhipelāga ūdeņiem, kā arī tā dibena un dzīļu tiesiskais statuss

1. Arhipelāga valsts suverenitāte attiecas uz ūdeņiem, kas ir ierobežoti ar bāzes līnijām, kas novilktas saskaņā ar 47.pantu, tā sauktajiem arhipelāga ūdeņiem, neatkarīgi no to dziļuma vai attāluma no krasta.

2. Norādītā suverenitāte attiecas uz gaisa telpu virs arhipelāga ūdeņiem, kā arī uz to dibenu un dzīlēm, tāpat kā uz resursiem.

3. Šī suverenitāte realizējas, ja tiek ievēroti šīs daļas noteikumi.

4. Arhipelāga šķērsošanas režīms pa jūras koridoriem, kas ir noteikts šajā daļā, citās jomās neskar arhipelāga ūdeņu statusu, tajā skaitā jūras koridoru statusu, vai arhipelāga valsts realizēto suverenitāti pār tādiem ūdeņiem, gaisa telpu virs tiem, to dibenu un dzīlēm un to resursiem.

50. pants. Iekšējo ūdeņu delimitācija

Arhipelāga valsts savu arhipelāga ūdeņu robežās var novilkt noslēgtas līnijas, lai delimitētu iekšējos ūdeņus saskaņā ar 9., 10. un 11. pantu.

51. pants. Pastāvošie nolīgumi, zvejas paražu tiesības un esošie zemūdens kabeļi

1. Nepārkāpjot 49. pantu, arhipelāga valsts ievēro esošos nolīgumus ar citām valstīm un atzīst zvejas paražu tiesības un tieši pieguļošo kaimiņvalstu citas tiesiskās darbības noteiktos rajonos arhipelāga ūdeņu robežās. Šādu tiesību un šādas darbības realizēšanas kārtība un noteikumi, ieskaitot to raksturu, apjomu un rajonus, kuros tā realizējas, pēc jebkuras ieinteresētās valsts lūguma tiek regulēta ar divpusējiem nolīgumiem starp tām. Tādas tiesības nevar tikt nodotas trešajām valstīm vai to pilsoņiem vai realizētas kopīgi ar tām.

2. Arhipelāga valsts nenodara kaitējumu esošajiem zemūdens kabeļiem, kurus ir likušas citas valstis un kuri šķērso to ūdeņus, netuvojoties krastam. Arhipelāga valsts atļauj uzturēt tos darba kārtībā un nomainīt šādus kabeļus, saņemot pienācīgu informāciju par to atrašanās vietu un nodomiem veikt to remontu vai nomaiņu.

52. pants. Mierīgas caurbraukšanas tiesības

1. Ar noteikumu, ka tiek ievēroti 53.panta noteikumi un nepārkāpjot 50.pantu, visu valstu kuģiem ir tiesības mierīgi šķērsot arhipelāga ūdeņus saskaņā ar II daļas 3. nodaļu.

2. Arhipelāga valsts var bez faktiskas vai formālas diskriminācijas pret ārvalstu kuģiem uz laiku apturēt ārvalstu kuģu arhipelāga ūdeņu mierīgas caurbraukšanas tiesības, ja tāda apturēšana ir būtiski svarīga tās drošībai. Tāda apturēšana stājas spēkā tikai pēc tās pienācīgas publicēšanas.

53. pants. Tiesības uz arhipelāga caurbraukšanu jūras koridoros

1. Arhipelāga valsts var noteikt jūras koridorus un virs tiem gaisa koridorus, kas ir piemēroti nepārtrauktai un ātrai ārvalstu kuģu caurbraukšanai pa arhipelāga ūdeņiem un teritoriālajiem ūdeņiem, un ārvalstu gaisa kuģu pārlidojumiem pār tiem.

2. Šādas jūras koridoru un gaisa koridoru caurbraukšanas tiesības ir visiem kuģiem un gaisa kuģiem.

3. Arhipelāga caurbraukšana jūras koridoros saskaņā ar šo Konvenciju ir normālas kuģošanas vai pārlidošanas realizācija pa arhipelāga koridoru vienīgi ar mērķi veikt nepārtrauktu, ātru un bezšķēršļu tranzītu no atklātās jūras vai ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas vienas daļas uz atklātās jūras vai ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas citu daļu.

4. Šādi jūras un gaisa koridori šķērso arhipelāga ūdeņus un pieguļošo teritoriālo jūru un ietver sevī visus parastos caurbraukšanas ceļus, kurus izmanto kā starptautiskos kuģošanas vai pārlidošanas ceļus pa arhipelāga ūdeņiem vai virs tiem, un uz tādiem ceļiem attiecībā uz kuģiem — visus parastos kuģa kanālus ar noteikumu, ka nav nepieciešams dublēt vienlīdz izdevīgus ceļus starp vieniem un tiem pašiem ieejas un izejas punktiem.

5. Tādus jūras un gaisa koridorus nosaka ar ass līniju no caurbraukšanas ceļu sākumpunktiem līdz to beigu punktiem nepārtrauktu sēriju. Kuģi un gaisa kuģi, veicot arhipelāga caurbraukšanu pa jūras koridoriem, nevar novirzīties vairāk kā par 25 jūras jūdzēm jebkurā virzienā no tādām ass līnijām, ar nosacījumu, ka tādi kuģi un gaisa kuģi netuvosies krastam tuvāk kā par 10 procentiem no attāluma starp tuvākajiem salu punktiem, kuras robežojas ar jūras koridoriem.

6. Arhipelāga valsts, kura nosaka jūras koridorus saskaņā ar šo pantu, var noteikt arī kustības sadales shēmas šajos koridoros, lai nodrošinātu kuģu drošu braukšanu pa šauriem kanāliem šādos jūras koridoros.

7. Arhipelāga valsts, ja to prasa apstākļi, var nomainīt jebkurus agrāk noteiktos vai norādītos jūras koridorus vai kustības sadales shēmas ar citiem jūras koridoriem vai kustības sadales shēmām, iepriekš to pienācīgā kārtībā paziņojot.

8. Šādiem jūras koridoriem vai kustības sadales shēmām ir jāatbilst vispārpieņemtajiem starptautiskajiem noteikumiem.

9. Arhipelāga valsts, nosakot vai mainot jūras koridorus, kā arī norādot vai mainot kustības sadales shēmas, savus priekšlikumus nodod apstiprināšanai kompetentai starptautiskai organizācijai. Šī organizācija var apstiprināt tikai tādus jūras koridorus un kustības sadales shēmas, kuras var tikt saskaņotas ar arhipelāga valsti, pēc kā arhipelāga valsts tos nosaka, norāda vai maina.

10. Arhipelāga valsts jūras kartēs precīzi atzīmē tās noteikto vai norādīto jūras koridoru vai kustības sadales shēmu ass līnijas, kuras tā publicē pienācīgā kārtībā.

11. Kuģiem veicot arhipelāga caurbraukšanu pa jūras koridoru, ir jāievēro piemērojamie jūras koridori un kustības sadales shēmas, kas ir noteiktas saskaņā ar šo pantu.

12. Ja arhipelāga valsts nenosaka jūras vai gaisa koridorus, tad arhipelāga caurbraukšanas tiesības pa jūras koridoriem tiek realizētas pa parastajiem kuģu ceļiem, kurus izmanto starptautiskajā kuģošanā.

54. pants. Kuģu un gaisa kuģu pienākumi caurbraukšanas, zinātniskās izpētes un hidrogrāfiskās izpētes laikā, arhipelāga valsts pienākumi un arhipelāga valsts likumi un noteikumi, kas skar arhipelāga caurbraukšanu pa jūras koridoriem

39., 40., 42. un 44. pants ir piemērojams mutatis mutandis attiecībā uz arhipelāga caurbraukšanu pa jūras koridoriem.

V daļa. Ekskluzīvā ekonomiskā zona

55. pants. Ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas īpašais tiesiskais režīms

Ekskluzīvā ekonomiskā zona ir rajons, kas atrodas aiz teritoriālās jūras un ir pieguļošs tai, kuram piemērojams šajā daļā noteiktais īpašais tiesiskais režīms, saskaņā ar kuru piekrastes valsts tiesības un jurisdikciju, un citu valstu tiesības un brīvības regulē šīs Konvencijas atbilstošie noteikumi.

56. pants. Piekrastes valsts tiesības, jurisdikcija un pienākumi ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā

1. Piekrastes valstij ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā ir:

a) suverēnas tiesības izpētīt un izmantot, saglabāt un rīkoties ar dabas resursiem, kā dzīvajiem, tā arī nedzīvajiem, ūdeņos, kas sedz jūras dibenu, jūras dibenā un tās dzīlēs, un attiecībā uz citām darbībām zonas ekonomiskajā izpētē un ieguvē, tādām kā ūdens, straumju un vēja enerģijas ieguve;

b) jurisdikcija, kā tas paredzēts šīs Konvencijas attiecīgajos noteikumos, attiecībā uz:

i) mākslīgo salu, iekārtu un būvju izveidošanu un izmantošanu;

ii) jūras zinātnisko izpēti;

iii) jūras vides aizsardzību un saglabāšanu;

c) citas tiesības un pienākumi, kas paredzēti šajā Konvencijā.

2. Piekrastes valsts, realizējot savas tiesības un pildot savus pienākumus ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā, rēķinās ar citu valstu tiesībām un pienākumiem un rīkojas veidā, kas atbilst šīs Konvencijas noteikumiem.

3. Tiesības, kas paredzētas šajā pantā attiecībā uz jūras dibenu un dzīlēm, tiek realizētas saskaņā ar VI daļu.

57. pants. Ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas platums

Ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas platums nedrīkst pārsniegt 200 jūras jūdzes, kuras aprēķina no taisnajām bāzes līnijām, no kurām ir mērīts teritoriālās jūras platums.

58. pants. Citu valstu tiesības un pienākumi ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā

1. Ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā visām valstīm, gan piekrastes, gan arī valstīm, kurām nav izejas uz jūru atbilstoši šīs Konvencijas attiecīgajiem noteikumiem, ir 87.pantā noteiktās kuģošanas un pārlidojuma brīvība, zemūdens cauruļvadu un kabeļu vilkšanas brīvība un citas ar šīm brīvībām saistītas jūras izmantošanas tiesības, tādas kā ar kuģu, gaisa kuģu, zemūdens cauruļvadu un kabeļu ekspluatāciju saistītās, un kas atbilst šīs Konvencijas noteikumiem.

2. 88.-115.pants un citas atbilstošas starptautisko tiesību normas piemērojamas attiecībā uz ekskluzīvo ekonomisko zonu tiktāl, cik tās nav pretrunā ar šīs daļas noteikumiem.

3. Valstis, realizējot ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā savas šajā Konvencijā noteiktās tiesības un veicot savus pienākumus, pienācīgi rēķinās ar piekrastes valsts tiesībām un pienākumiem un ievēro likumus un noteikumus, kurus ir pieņēmusi piekrastes valsts saskaņā ar šīs Konvencijas noteikumiem un citām starptautiskajām tiesībām tiktāl, cik tie ir savienojami ar šīs daļas noteikumiem.

59. pants. Konfliktu noregulēšanas pamats attiecībā uz tiesību un jurisdikcijas piešķiršanu ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā

Gadījumos, kad šī Konvencija piekrastes valstij vai citām valstīm neparedz tiesības vai jurisdikciju ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā, un starp piekrastes valsts un jebkuras citas valsts vai valstu interesēm rodas konflikts, to atrisina uz taisnīguma pamata un noskaidrojot visus ar lietu saistītos apstākļus, ņemot vērā aizskarto interešu svarīgumu katrai pusei, kā arī starptautiskajai sabiedrībai kopumā.

60. pants. Mākslīgās salas, iekārtas un būves ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā

1. Ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā piekrastes valstij ir ekskluzīvas tiesības veidot un pilnvarot un regulēt veidošanu, ekspluatāciju un izmantošanu attiecībā uz:

a) mākslīgajām salām;

b) iekārtām un būvēm 56.pantā paredzētajos nolūkos, kā arī citos ekonomiskos nolūkos;

c) iekārtām un būvēm, kuras var traucēt piekrastes valsts tiesību realizāciju zonā.

2. Piekrastes valstij ir ekskluzīva jurisdikcija pār šādām mākslīgajām salām, iekārtām un būvēm, ieskaitot jurisdikciju attiecībā uz muitas, finansu, veselības, drošības un imigrācijas likumiem un noteikumiem.

3. Par mākslīgo salu, iekārtu un būvju veidošanu ir pienācīgi informējamas pārējās valstis, un patstāvīgie brīdināšanas līdzekļi par veidojumu atrašanos vienmēr jāuztur darba kārtībā. Jebkuras iekārtas vai būves, kas ir pamestas vai netiek izmantotas, ir likvidējamas, lai nodrošinātu kuģošanas drošību, ņemot vērā jebkādus vispārpieņemtos starptautiskos standartus, kurus šajā saistībā ir noteikusi kompetenta starptautiska organizācija. Šāda likvidēšana respektē arī zvejniecību, jūras vides aizsardzību un citu valstu tiesības un pienākumus. Nepieciešams sniegt informāciju par pilnībā nelikvidētu iekārtu vai būvju dziļumu, atrašanās vietu un izmēriem.

4. Piekrastes valsts apkārt šādām mākslīgajām salām, iekārtām un būvēm drīkst, kur tas ir nepieciešams, izveidot saprātīgas drošības zonas, kurās tā var veikt piemērotus pasākumus, lai nodrošinātu gan kuģošanas drošību, gan arī mākslīgo salu, iekārtu un būvju drošību.

5. Drošības zonu platumu nosaka piekrastes valsts, ņemot vērā piemērojamos starptautiskos standartus. Šādas zonas tiek noteiktas tādā veidā, lai tās būtu samērīgas ar mākslīgo salu, iekārtu un būvju raksturu un funkcijām, un tās nepārsniedz 500 metru rādiusu, kuru mēra no katra tās ārējās malas punkta, izņemot gadījumus, kad to atļauj vispārpieņemtie starptautiskie standarti vai to rekomendē kompetenta starptautiskā organizācija. Par drošības zonas apmēriem ir sniedzama pienācīga informācija.

6. Visi kuģi respektē šīs drošības zonas un ievēro vispārpieņemtos starptautiskos standartus attiecībā uz kuģošanu mākslīgo salu, iekārtu, būvju un drošības zonu tuvumā.

7. Mākslīgās salas, iekārtas un būves un drošības zonas ap tām nevar tikt veidotas, kur tas var radīt šķēršļus atzīto jūras ceļu izmantošanai, kuriem ir liela nozīme starptautiskajā kuģošanā.

8. Mākslīgajām salām, iekārtām un būvēm nav salu statuss. Tām nav sava teritoriālā jūra un viņu esamība neietekmē teritoriālās jūras, ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas vai kontinentālā šelfa robežu noteikšanu.

61. pants. Dzīvo resursu saglabāšana

1. Piekrastes valsts savā ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā nosaka pieļaujamo dzīvo resursu nozveju.

2. Piekrastes valsts, ņemot vērā tās rīcībā esošos labākos zinātniskos pētījumus, ar atbilstošiem saglabāšanas un vadības pasākumiem nodrošina, ka dzīvo resursu saglabāšana ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā nav apdraudēta pārmērīgas ekspluatācijas rezultātā. Piekrastes valsts un kompetentas starptautiskās organizācijas, vai tās ir subreģionālas, reģionālas vai globālas, savstarpēji sadarbojas, lai sasniegtu šo mērķi.

3. Šādi pasākumi tāpat ir piemērojami, lai saglabātu vai atjaunotu zvejojamo sugu populācijas tādā līmenī, lai nodrošinātu maksimāli noturīgu nozveju, ko nosaka, ņemot vērā atbilstošus ekoloģiskos un ekonomiskos faktorus, ieskaitot piekrastes zvejnieku ekonomiskās vajadzības un attīstības valstu īpašās prasības, un ņemot vērā zvejniecības metodes, rezervju savstarpējo atkarību, un jebkādus vispārēji rekomendētus starptautiskos minimālos standartus, vai tie ir subreģionāli, reģionāli, vai globāli.

4. Piekrastes valsts, veicot šādus pasākumus, ņem vērā ietekmi uz sugām, ko asociē ar nozvejojamām vai no tām atkarīgām sugām, nolūkā saglabāt vai atjaunot šādu asociēto vai no to atkarīgo sugu populāciju virs līmeņa, kurā to atjaunošana var būt nopietni apdraudēta.

5. Rīcībā esošā zinātniskā informācija, nozvejas un zvejniecības statistika un cita informācija attiecībā uz zivju resursu saglabāšanu tiek nodota un veikta tās apmaiņa uz regularitātes pamata ar kompetentu starptautisko organizāciju starpniecību, vai tās ir subreģionālas, reģionālas vai globālas, atkarībā no nepieciešamības, un piedaloties visām ieinteresētajām valstīm, ieskaitot valstis, kuru pilsoņiem ir atļauts zvejot ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā.

62. pants. Dzīvo resursu izmantošana

1. Piekrastes valsts veicina dzīvo resursu optimālu izmantošanu ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā, ja tas negatīvi neietekmē 61.pantā minētos pasākumus un mērķus.

2. Piekrastes valsts nosaka savu limitu dzīvo resursu nozvejai ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā. Ja piekrastes valstij nav iespējas nozvejot visu pieļaujamo limitu, tad tā ar līgumu starpniecību vai cita veida vienošanos atbilstoši 4.punktā paredzētajiem noteikumiem, nosacījumiem, likumiem un noteikumiem piešķir citām valstīm pieeju pieļaujamās nozvejas pārpalikumam, ņemot vērā īpaši 69. un 70.panta noteikumus, it sevišķi attiecībā uz tur minētajām jaunattīstības valstīm.

3. Piekrastes valsts, atļaujot izmantot savu ekskluzīvo ekonomisko zonu citām valstīm saskaņā ar šo pantu, ņem vērā visus ar to saistītos faktorus, ieskaitot rajona dzīvo resursu nozīmi piekrastes valsts ekonomikā un citas tās nacionālās intereses, 69. un 70.panta noteikumus, subreģiona vai reģiona jaunattīstības valstu vajadzības attiecībās uz pārpalikuma nozveju un nepieciešamību līdz minimumam samazināt ekonomiskos sarežģījumus valstīs, kuru pilsoņi parasti ir nodarbojušies ar zvejniecību šajā zonā vai kuras ir devušas nozīmīgu ieguldījumu resursu izpētē un apzināšanā.

4. Citu valstu pilsoņi, kas nodarbojas ar zvejniecību ekskluzīvajās ekonomiskajās zonās, ievēro saglabāšanas noteikumus un citus noteikumus un nosacījumus, kurus noteikusi piekrastes valsts savos likumos un noteikumos. Šiem likumiem un noteikumiem jāatbilst šai Konvencijai un tie var attiekties, cita starpā, uz sekojošo:

a) zvejnieku, zvejas kuģu un aprīkojuma licenzēšana, ietverot nodevu iekasēšanu un citas apmaksas formas, kas jaunattīstības piekrastes valstu gadījumā var būt adekvāta kompensācija finansiālā, aprīkojuma vai tehnoloģijas jomā, kas attiecas uz zvejniecības industriju;

b) sugu, kuras var tikt nozvejotas, un fiksētu nozvejas kvotu noteikšana attiecībā uz konkrētiem resursiem vai resursu grupu, vai arī nozvejas daudzuma noteikšanu katram kuģim kāda laika periodā vai uz jebkādas valsts pilsoņu veikto nozveju, vai katra zvejas kuģa nozveju kādā konkrētā laika periodā;

c) zvejniecības sezonas un rajonu, zvejas rīku veidu, izmēru un daudzuma, un zvejas kuģu, kuri var tikt izmantoti, veidu, izmēru un skaita regulēšana;

d) zivju un citu nozvejojamo sugu vecuma un izmēra noteikšana;

e) no zvejas kuģa pieprasāmās informācijas, tai skaitā nozvejas un zvejniecības statistikas, un ziņojuma par zvejas kuģa atrašanās vietu, noteikšana;

f) noteiktu zivsaimniecības izpētes programmu realizēšana ar piekrastes valsts atļauju un tās kontrolē un šādu pētījumu veikšanas regulēšana, ieskaitot nozvejas paraugu ņemšanu, paraugu izmantošanu un ziņošanu par zinātniskajiem datiem, kas ar to saistīti;

g) novērotāju vai mācekļu izvietošana uz šādiem kuģiem, ko veic piekrastes valsts;

h) visas vai kādas nozvejas daļas izkraušana no šādiem kuģiem piekrastes valsts ostās;

i) noteikumi un nosacījumi attiecībā uz kopuzņēmumiem vai citiem kopīgiem pasākumiem;

j) prasības personāla sagatavošanai un zvejniecības tehnoloģiju nodošanai, ieskaitot prasības par piekrastes valsts iespēju paplašināšanos zivsaimniecības izpētes veikšanai;

k) izpildes nodrošināšanas procedūras.

5. Piekrastes valstis pienācīgā kārtā informē par likumiem un noteikumiem attiecībā uz dzīvo resursu saglabāšanu un to pārvaldīšanu.

63. pants. Divu vai vairāku piekrastes valstu resursi ekskluzīvajās ekonomiskajās zonās vai ekonomiskajās zonās un rajonā, kas atrodas aiz to robežām, vai ir pieguļošs tām

1. Gadījumā, ja savstarpēji saistīto sugu cilts vai ciltis ir sastopamas divu vai vairāku piekrastes valstu ekskluzīvajās ekonomiskajās zonās, šīs valstis cenšas tieši vai ar attiecīgo subreģionālo vai reģionālo organizāciju starpniecību saskaņot pasākumus, kas nepieciešami, lai koordinētu un nodrošinātu šādu resursu veidu saglabāšanu un palielināšanu, nepārkāpjot citus šīs daļas noteikumus.

2. Gadījumā, savstarpēji saistīto sugu cilts vai ciltis ir sastopamas gan ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā, gan arī rajonā, kas atrodas aiz tās robežām un ir pieguļošs tai, piekrastes valsts un valstis, kas veic šādu resursu veidu nozveju pieguļošajā rajonā, cenšas tieši vai caur attiecīgajām subreģionālajām vai reģionālajām organizācijām saskaņot pasākumus, kas veicami, lai saglabātu tos pieguļošajā rajonā.

64. pants. Tālu migrējošas sugas

1. Piekrastes valsts un citas valstis, kuru pilsoņi šajā rajonā nodarbojas ar I pielikumā uzskaitīto tālu migrējošo sugu nozveju, sadarbojas tieši vai ar attiecīgo starptautisko organizāciju starpniecību ar mērķi nodrošināt šādu sugu saglabāšanu un sadarbību to maksimālā izmantošanā visā rajonā — gan ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā, gan ārpus tās. Tajos rajonos, kuros nav attiecīgas starptautiskās organizācijas, piekrastes valstis un valstis, kuru pilsoņi veic šajā reģionā tālu migrējošo sugu nozveju, sadarbojas, lai izveidotu šādu organizāciju un piedalās tās darbā.

2. Šā panta 1.punkta noteikumi piemērojami papildus ar citiem šīs daļas noteikumiem.

65. pants. Jūras zīdītāji

Nekas šajā daļā neierobežo attiecīgas piekrastes valsts tiesības vai starptautiskas organizācijas kompetenci aizliegt, ierobežot vai regulēt jūras zīdītāju nozveju stingrāk, nekā to paredz šī daļa. Valstis sadarbojas, lai aizsargātu jūras zīdītāju resursus, un attiecībā uz vaļu pasugām šo darbību realizē ar atbilstošu starptautisko organizāciju palīdzību, lai tos aizsargātu, pārvaldītu un izpētītu.

66. pants. Anadromās sugas

1. Valstīm, kuru upēs veidojas anadromo sugu krājumi, ir primāra interese un atbildība par šiem krājumiem.

2. Anadromo sugu izcelšanās valsts nodrošina to saglabāšanos, veicot attiecīgus pasākumus zvejniecības regulēšanā visos ūdeņos krasta virzienā no tās ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas ārējām robežām un 3.punkta b) apakšpunktā paredzētās zvejniecības regulēšanā. Izcelsmes valsts drīkst, pēc konsultācijām ar 3. un 4.punktā minētajām citām valstīm, kas nodarbojas ar šo sugu zvejniecību, noteikt kopējo pieļaujamās nozvejas apjomu attiecībā uz sugām, kas veidojas tās upēs.

3. a) Anadromo sugu zvejniecība tiek veikta tikai ūdeņos krasta virzienā no ekskluzīvo ekonomisko zonu ārējām robežām, izņemot gadījumus, kad šis noteikums var būt iemesls kādas citas valsts, nekā izcelsmes valsts, ekonomikas traucējumiem. Attiecībā uz šādu zvejniecību ārpus ekskluzīvo ekonomisko zonu ārējām robežām, ieinteresētās valstis veic konsultācijas, lai panāktu vienošanos par šādas zvejniecības kārtību un nosacījumiem, attiecīgi ievērojot izcelsmes valsts minēto sugu saglabāšanas prasības un izcelsmes valsts intereses attiecībā uz minētajām sugām.

b) izcelsmes valsts sadarbojas šādu citu valstu ekonomikas traucējumu samazināšanas nolūkos, kas nodarbojas ar šo sugu zvejniecību, ņemot vērā parasto nozvejas apjomu un zvejniecības paņēmienus šajās valstīs, un visus rajonus, kuros tiek veikta šāda zvejniecība.

c) b) punktā minētās valstis, kas uz vienošanās pamata ar izcelsmes valsti piedalās pasākumos anadromo sugu krājumu atjaunošanā, it īpaši piedaloties ar šiem mērķiem saistīto izdevumu segšanā, bauda īpašu attieksmi no izcelsmes valsts puses attiecībā uz tādu sugu zvejniecību, kas veidojas tās upēs.

d) noteikumu ievērošana, kas skar anadromo sugu krājumus aiz ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas robežām, tiek nodrošināta uz līguma pamata starp izcelsmes valsti un citām ieinteresētām valstīm.

4. Gadījumos, kad anadromās sugas migrē uz vai caur ūdeņiem krasta virzienā no kādas valsts, citas nekā izcelsmes valsts ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas ārējām robežām, šī valsts sadarbojas ar izcelsmes valsti šādu anadromo sugu krājumu saglabāšanā un pārvaldīšanā.

5. Anadromo sugu izcelsmes valsts un citas valstis, kas nodarbojas ar šo sugu zvejniecību, attiecīgajos gadījumos panāk vienošanās šā panta noteikumu īstenošanas nolūkos ar reģionālo organizāciju starpniecību.

67. pants. Katadromās sugas

1. Piekrastes valsts, kuras ūdeņos katadromās sugas pavada savas dzīvības cikla lielāko daļu, ir atbildīga par šo krājumu pārvaldīšanu un nodrošina migrējošo zivju iekļūšanu šajos ūdeņos un iziešanu no tiem.

2. Katadromo sugu zvejniecība tiek veikta tikai ūdeņos krasta virzienā no ekskluzīvo ekonomisko zonu ārējām robežām. Ja zvejniecība tiek veikta ekskluzīvajās ekonomiskajās zonās, tā pakļaujas šā panta un citiem šīs konvencijas noteikumiem, kas attiecas uz zvejniecību šajās zonās.

3. Gadījumos, kad katadromās sugas migrē caur citas valsts ekskluzīvo ekonomisko zonu, neatkarīgi no tā vai tie ir mazuļi, vai nobriedušās zivis, šo sugu pārvaldīšana, ieskaitot to zvejniecību, tiek regulēta ar vienošanos starp 1.punktā minēto valsti un citu ieinteresēto valsti. Šādai vienošanās jānodrošina šo sugu racionālā pārvaldīšana un jāņem vērā 1.punktā minētās valsts pienākumi attiecībā uz šo sugu saglabāšanu.

68. pants. "Sēdošās sugas"

Šī daļa netiek piemērota attiecībā uz "sēdošām sugām", kas ir definētas 77. panta 4. punktā.

69. pants. Valstu tiesības, kurām nav izejas pie jūras

1. Valstis, kurām nav izejas pie jūras, ir tiesīgas piedalīties uz taisnīguma pamata pieļaujamās dzīvo resursu nozvejas pārpalikuma attiecīgās daļas izmantošanā tā paša subreģiona vai reģiona piekrastes valstu ekskluzīvajās ekonomiskajās zonās, ņemot vērā visu ieinteresēto valstu ekonomiskos un ģeogrāfiskos apstākļus, kas attiecas uz lietas būtību, un saskaņā ar šī panta un 61. un 62. panta noteikumiem.

2. Šādas dalības nosacījumus un kārtību nosaka ieinteresētās valstis, pamatojoties uz divpusējiem, subreģionāliem vai reģionāliem līgumiem, to starpā ņemot vērā:

a) nepieciešamību izvairīties no kaitējuma nodarīšanas zvejnieku saimniecībām vai piekrastes valsts zvejniecībai;

b) pakāpi, kurā valsts, kas atrodas ģeogrāfiski neizdevīgā stāvoklī, saskaņā ar šā panta noteikumiem piedalās vai ir tiesīga piedalīties uz esošo divpusējo, subreģionālo vai reģionālo līgumu pamata citu piekrastes valstu ekskluzīvo ekonomisko zonu dzīvo resursu izmantošanā;

c) pakāpi, kurā citas valstis, kas atrodas ģeogrāfiski nelabvēlīgā stāvoklī un kurām nav izejas pie jūras, piedalās piekrastes valsts ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas dzīvo resursu izmantošanā, un no tā izrietošās nepieciešamības izvairīties no jebkuras atsevišķas piekrastes valsts vai tās daļas īpašas apgrūtināšanas;

d) attiecīgo valstu iedzīvotāju pieprasījumu pēc pārtikas produktiem.

3. Ja piekrastes valsts zvejas iespējas tuvojas tādai pakāpei, ar kādu tā varētu nozvejot visu pieļaujamo dzīvo resursu nozveju tās ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā, tad šī piekrastes valsts un citas ieinteresētās valstis sadarbojas, slēdzot līgumus uz divpusēja, subreģionāla vai reģionāla pamata, kas ļauj šā subreģiona vai reģiona jaunattīstības valstīm, kurām nav izejas pie jūras, piedalīties šā subreģiona vai reģiona piekrastes valstu ekskluzīvo ekonomisko zonu dzīvo resursu izmantošanā tādā veidā, kā tas ir piemērojams šajos apstākļos, un uz tādiem noteikumiem, kas apmierina visas puses. Īstenojot šos noteikumus, tiek ņemti vērā arī 2.punktā minētie faktori.

4. Attīstītās valstis, kurām nav izejas pie jūras, saskaņā ar šā panta noteikumiem ir tiesīgas piedalīties dzīvo resursu ekspluatācijā tikai šā paša apakšreģiona vai reģiona attīstīto piekrastes valstu ekskluzīvajās ekonomiskajās zonās, ņemot vērā pakāpi, kurā piekrastes valsts, piešķirot citām valstīm piekļūšanas tiesības savas ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas dzīvajiem resursiem, ir ņēmusi vērā nepieciešamību samazināt kaitīgo ietekmi uz zvejnieku saimniecībām un traucējumus tādu valstu ekonomikai, kuru pilsoņi parasti nodarbojas ar zvejniecību šajā zonā.

5. Iepriekšminētie noteikumi nav pretrunā ar līgumiem, kas tiek noslēgti subreģionos vai reģionos, kur piekrastes valstis var piešķirt šā paša subreģiona vai reģiona valstīm, kurām nav izejas pie jūras, vienlīdzīgās vai priviliģētās tiesības uz ekskluzīvo ekonomisko zonu dzīvo resursu izmantošanu.

70. pants. Valstu tiesības, kas atrodas ģeogrāfiski nelabvēlīgā stāvoklī

1.Valstis, kas atrodas ģeogrāfiski nelabvēlīgā stāvoklī, ir tiesīgas uz vienlīdzības principa pamata piedalīties pieļaujamās dzīvo resursu nozvejas pārpalikuma attiecīgas daļas izmantošanā šā paša subreģiona vai reģiona piekrastes valstu ekskluzīvajās ekonomiskajās zonās, ņemot vērā visu ieinteresēto valstu attiecīgos ekonomiskos un ģeogrāfiskos apstākļus, saskaņā ar šo pantu un 61. un 62. pantu.

2. Šīs daļas izpratnē termins "valstis, kas atrodas ģeogrāfiski nelabvēlīgā stāvoklī", nozīmē tās piekrastes valstis, ieskaitot valstis, ko apskalo slēgtas vai daļēji slēgtas jūras, kuru ģeogrāfiskais stāvoklis padara tās atkarīgas no šā subreģiona vai reģiona citu valstu ekskluzīvo ekonomisko zonu dzīvo resursu izmantošanas attiecībā uz to iedzīvotāju vai to daļas adekvāto apgādi ar zivīm nolūkā apmierināt uztura vajadzības, kā arī piekrastes valstis, kuras nevar pretendēt uz savām ekskluzīvajām ekonomiskajām zonām.

3. Šādas dalības nosacījumus un kārtību nosaka ieinteresētās valstis ar divpusējiem, subreģionāliem vai reģionāliem līgumiem, to starpā ņemot vērā:

a) nepieciešamību izvairīties no kaitīgām sekām, kas var tikt nodarītas zvejnieku saimniecībām vai piekrastes valsts zvejniecībai;

b) pakāpi, kurā valsts, kas atrodas ģeogrāfiski nelabvēlīgā stāvoklī saskaņā ar šā panta noteikumiem, piedalās vai ir tiesīga piedalīties uz esošo divpusējo, subreģionālo vai reģionālo līgumu pamata citu piekrastes valstu ekskluzīvo ekonomisko zonu dzīvo resursu izmantošanā;

c) pakāpi, kurā citas valstis, kas atrodas ģeogrāfiski nelabvēlīgajā stāvoklī un valstis, kurām nav izejas pie jūras, piedalās piekrastes valsts ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas dzīvo resursu izmantošanā un no tā izrietošās nepieciešamības izvairīties no jebkuras atsevišķas piekrastes valsts vai tās daļas sevišķās apgrūtināšanas;

d) attiecīgo valstu iedzīvotāju pieprasījumu pēc pārtikas produktiem.

4. Ja piekrastes valsts zvejas iespējas tuvojas tādai pakāpei, ar kuru tā varētu nozvejot visu pieļaujamo dzīvo resursu nozveju tās ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā, tad šī piekrastes valsts un citas ieinteresētās valstis sadarbojas, slēdzot līgumus uz divpusēja, subreģionāla vai reģionāla pamata, kas ļauj šā subreģiona vai reģiona jaunattīstības valstīm, kas atrodas ģeogrāfiski nelabvēlīgā stāvoklī, piedalīties šā subreģiona vai reģiona piekrastes valstu ekskluzīvo ekonomisko zonu dzīvo resursu izmantošanā tādā veidā, kā tas ir piemērojams šajos apstākļos un uz tādiem noteikumiem, kas apmierina visas puses. Šā noteikuma īstenošanā jāņem vērā arī 3.punktā minētie faktori.

5. Attīstītās valstis, kas atrodas ģeogrāfiski nelabvēlīgā stāvoklī, saskaņā ar šā panta noteikumiem ir tiesīgas piedalīties dzīvo resursu ekspluatācijā tikai šā paša subreģiona vai reģiona attīstīto piekrastes valstu ekskluzīvajās ekonomiskajās zonās, ņemot vērā pakāpi, kurā piekrastes valsts, piešķirot citām valstīm piekļūšanas tiesības savas ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas dzīvajiem resursiem, ir ņēmusi vērā nepieciešamību samazināt kaitīgo ietekmi uz zvejnieku saimniecībām un traucējumus tādu valstu ekonomikai, kuru pilsoņi parasti nodarbojas ar zvejniecību šajā zonā.

6. Iepriekšminētie noteikumi nav pretrunā ar līgumiem, kas tiek noslēgti subreģionos vai reģionos, kur piekrastes valstis var piešķirt šā paša subreģiona vai reģiona valstīm, kas atrodas ģeogrāfiski nelabvēlīgā stāvoklī, vienlīdzīgas vai priviliģētas tiesības uz ekskluzīvo ekonomisko zonu dzīvo resursu izmantošanu.

71. pants. 69. un 70. panta nepiemērošana

69. un 70.pants netiek piemēroti attiecībā uz piekrastes valstīm, kuru tautsaimniecība galvenokārt ir atkarīga no to ekskluzīvo ekonomisko zonu dzīvo resursu izmantošanas.

72. pants. Ierobežojumi tiesību nodošanā

1. Ja ieinteresētās valstis nevienojas citādi, 69. un 70.pantā paredzētās dzīvo resursu izmantošanas tiesības nedrīkst tikt nodotas, tieši vai netieši, trešajām valstīm vai to pilsoņiem, iznomājot vai nododot licenci, kopuzņēmumu dibināšanas ceļā vai kādā citā veidā, kura rezultāts ir šāda nodošana.

2. Iepriekšminētais noteikums netraucē ieinteresētajām valstīm saņemt tehnisko vai finansiālo palīdzību no trešajām valstīm vai starptautiskajām organizācijām, nolūkā atvieglot 69. un 70.pantā minēto tiesību īstenošanu, ar nosacījumu, ka tas nenoved pie 1.punktā minētā rezultāta.

73. pants. Piekrastes valsts likumu un noteikumu izpildes nodrošināšana

1. Realizējot savas suverēnās tiesības uz dzīvo resursu izpēti, ieguvi, saglabāšanu un pārvaldīšanu ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā, piekrastes valsts var veikt tādus pasākumus, ieskaitot pārbaudi, inspekciju, arestu un iztiesāšanu, kuri var būt nepieciešami likumu un noteikumu ievērošanas nodrošināšanai, kas pieņemti saskaņā ar šo Konvenciju.

2. Arestētie kuģi un to apkalpes tiek nekavējoties atbrīvoti pēc saprātīgas drošības naudas vai citas garantijas piešķiršanas.

3. Sods, ko piekrastes valsts uzliek par zvejniecības likumu un noteikumu pārkāpšanu ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā, nevar būt ieslodzījuma veidā, ja ieinteresētās valstis nav vienojušies par pretējo, vai jebkura cita personīga soda formā.

4. Ārzemju kuģa aresta vai aizturēšanas gadījumā piekrastes valsts nekavējoties paziņo pa attiecīgiem kanāliem karoga valstij par veiktajiem pasākumiem un par katru uzlikto sodu.

74. pants. Ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas delimitācija starp valstīm ar pretējām vai blakus piekrastēm

1. Ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas delimitācija starp valstīm ar pretī esošiem vai blakus esošiem krastiem notiek, vienojoties uz starptautisko tiesību pamata, kā tas ir noteikts Starptautiskās Tiesas Statūtu 38.pantā, ar mērķi sasniegt taisnīgu atrisinājumu.

2. Ja vienošanās nevar tikt panākta saprātīgā laika periodā, ieinteresētās valstis uzsāk procedūras, kuras paredzētas XV daļā.

3. Līdz vienošanās noslēgšanai, kā ir paredzēts 1.punktā, ieinteresētās valstis savstarpējās saprašanās un sadarbības garā dara visu iespējamo, lai panāktu pagaidu praktiska rakstura vienošanos un šā pārejas perioda laikā nepakļautu briesmām vai neaizkavētu galīgās vienošanās sasniegšanu. Šāda pagaidu vienošanās nedrīkst kaitēt galīgajai delimitācijai.

4. Kad starp ieinteresētajām valstīm pastāv spēkā esoša vienošanās, jautājumi, kas attiecas uz ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas delimitāciju, tiek atrisināti saskaņā ar šīs vienošanās noteikumiem.

75. pants. Kartes un ģeogrāfisko koordinātu saraksti

1. Ar noteikumu, ka tiek ievēroti šīs daļas nosacījumi, ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas ārējo robežu līnijas un delimitācijas līnijas, kas tika novilktas saskaņā ar 74.pantu, tiek norādītas uz tāda mēroga vai mērogu kartēm, kas ir piemērotas to atrašanās vietas precīzai noteikšanai. Ja tas ir nepieciešams, šādas ārējo robežu līnijas vai delimitācijas līnijas var tikt aizstātas ar punktu ģeogrāfisko koordinātu sarakstiem, norādot ģeodēziskos pamatdatus.

2. Piekrastes valsts pienācīgā kārtā publicē šādas kartes un ģeogrāfisko koordinātu sarakstus un nodod glabāšanā katras šādas kartes vai katra šāda saraksta kopiju Apvienoto Nāciju Organizācijas Ģenerālsekretāram.

VI daļa. Kontinentālais šelfs

76. pants. Kontinentālā šelfa definīcija

1. Piekrastes valsts kontinentālais šelfs ir jūras dibena virsma un tās dzīles zemūdens rajonos, kas atrodas aiz tās teritoriālās jūras robežām visā tās sauszemes teritorijas dabiskā turpinājuma garumā līdz kontinenta zemūdens nomales arējām robežām vai 200 jūras jūdžu attālumā no bāzes līnijām, no kurām tiek mērīts teritoriālās jūras platums, ja kontinenta zemūdens nomales ārējā robeža nesniedzas līdz tādam attālumam.

2. Piekrastes valsts kontinentālais šelfs nesniedzas tālāk par 4.-6.punktā noteiktajām robežām.

3. Kontinenta zemūdens nomale ir piekrastes valsts kontinentālā masīva zemūdens turpinājums un tā sastāv no šelfa virsmas un dzīlēm, nogāzes un kāpuma. Tā neietver okeāna dibenu lielos dziļumos, tajā skaitā tā okeāniskās kalnu grēdas vai tā dzīles.

4. a) Šīs konvencijas nolūkos piekrastes valsts nosaka kontinenta zemūdens nomales ārējo robežu visos gadījumos, kad šī nomale atrodas vairāk nekā 200 jūras jūdzes no bāzes līnijām, no kurām tiek mērīts teritoriālās jūras platums:

i) ar līniju, kas novilkta saskaņā ar 7.punktu, atskaitot no visvairāk attālinātiem fiksētiem punktiem, katrā no kuriem nogulšņu iežu biezums sastāda vismaz 1% no īsākā attāluma no šāda punkta līdz kontinentālās nogāzes pakājei; vai

ii) ar līniju, kas novilkta saskaņā ar 7.punktu, atskaitot no fiksētajiem punktiem, kas atrodas ne vairāk par 60 jūras jūdžu attālumā no kontinentālās nogāzes pakājes.

b) Ja nav pierādījumu par pretējo, kontinentālās nogāzes pakāje tiek noteikta kā slīpuma maksimālās izmaiņas punkts tās pamatā.

5. Fiksētie punkti, kuri veido kontinentālā šelfa ārējo robežu līniju, kas novilkta saskaņā ar 4.punkta (a) (i) un (ii) apakšpunktiem uz jūras dibena virsmas, nepārsniedz 350 jūras jūdzes no bāzes līnijām, no kurām tiek mērīts teritoriālās jūras platums, vai nepārsniedz 100 jūras jūdzes no 2500 metru izobātes, kas ir līnija, kas savieno 2500 metru dziļumus.

6. Neņemot vērā 5.punkta noteikumus, kontinentālā šelfa ārējās robežas uz zemūdens kalnu grēdām nepārsniedz 350 jūras jūdzes no bāzes līnijām, no kurām tiek mērīts teritoriālās jūras platums. Šis punkts netiek piemērots attiecībā uz zemūdens augstienēm, kas ir kontinenta nomales dabiskās sastāvdaļas, tādām, kā tās plato, paaugstinājumi, sēkļi un atradzes.

7. Piekrastes valsts nosaka sava kontinentāla šelfa ārējās robežas, kad šelfs sniedzas vairāk par 200 jūras jūdzēm no bāzes līnijām, no kurām tiek mērīts teritoriālās jūras platums, ar taisnām līnijām, kuru garums nepārsniedz 60 jūras jūdzes, kas savieno fiksētus punktus, kuri noteikti ar platuma un garuma koordinātēm.

8. Piekrastes valsts nodod informāciju Kontinentālā Šelfa Robežu komisijai, kas dibināta saskaņā ar II pielikumu uz taisnīgas ģeogrāfiskās pārstāvniecības pamata, par kontinentālā šelfa robežām aiz 200 jūras jūdzēm no bāzes līnijām, no kurām tiek mērīts teritoriālās jūras platums. Komisija sniedz rekomendācijas piekrastes valstīm jautājumos, kas skar to kontinentālā šelfa ārējo robežu noteikšanu. Piekrastes valsts uz šo rekomendāciju pamata noteiktas šelfa robežas ir galīgas un saistošas.

9. Piekrastes valsts nodod glabāšanā Apvienoto Nāciju Organizācijas Ģenerālsekretāram kartes un attiecīgo informāciju, ieskaitot ģeodēziskos datus, kas permanenti apraksta tās kontinentālā šelfa ārējās robežas. Ģenerālsekretārs tās publicē pienācīgā kārtā.

10. Šī panta noteikumi neskar jautājumu par kontinentālā šelfa delimitāciju starp valstīm ar pretī esošiem vai blakus esošiem krastiem.

77. pants. Piekrastes valsts tiesības uz kontinentālo šelfu

1. Piekrastes valsts īsteno suverēnās tiesības uz kontinentālo šelfu tā izpētes un tā dabas resursu ieguves nolūkā.

2. Tiesības, kas minētas 1.punktā ir ekskluzīvas tajā nozīmē, ka, ja piekrastes valsts neveic kontinentālā šelfa izpēti vai tā dabas resursu ieguvi, neviens nedrīkst veikt šādas aktivitātes bez piekrastes valsts piekrišanas.

3. Piekrastes valsts tiesības uz kontinentālo šelfu nav atkarīgas no efektīvas vai fiktīvas šelfa okupēšanas vai no jebkāda paziņojuma izteikšanas par to.

4. Šajā daļā minētie dabas resursi ietver minerālos un citus nedzīvos jūras dibena un tā dzīļu resursus kopā ar dzīvajiem organismiem, kas pieder "sēdošajām" sugām, t.i. organismi, kuri periodā, kad ir iespējama to zveja, vai nu atrodas nekustīgā stāvoklī uz jūras dibena virsmas vai zem tās, vai nu nav spējīgi pārvietoties citādi kā tikai atrodoties pastāvīgajā kontaktā ar jūras dibenu vai tā dzīlēm.

78. pants. Ūdeņu un gaisa telpas tiesiskais statuss un citu valstu tiesības un brīvības

1. Piekrastes valsts tiesības uz kontinentālo šelfu neietekmē virs tiem esošo ūdeņu vai gaisa telpas virs šiem ūdeņiem tiesisko statusu.

2. Piekrastes valsts tiesību īstenošana attiecībā uz kontinentālo šelfu nedrīkst traucēt kuģošanu vai aizskart citu valstu tiesības un brīvības, ko paredz šī konvencija, vai radīt jebkādus to īstenošanas traucējumus.

79. pants. Zemūdens kabeļi un cauruļvadi kontinentālajā šelfā

1. Visas valstis ir tiesīgas ierīkot zemūdens kabeļus un cauruļvadus kontinentālajā šelfā saskaņā ar šā panta noteikumiem.

2. Ar noteikumu, ka tiek ievērotas piekrastes valsts tiesības veikt saprātīgus pasākumus kontinentālā šelfa izpētē, tā dabas resursu izstrādē un piesārņošanas no cauruļvadiem novēršanai, samazināšanai un kontrolei, šī valsts nedrīkst traucēt šādu kabeļu un cauruļvadu ierīkošanu vai uzturēšanu kārtībā.

3. Trases noteikšana šādu cauruļvadu ierīkošanai kontinentālajā šelfā tiek veikta ar piekrastes valsts piekrišanu.

4. Šīs daļas noteikumi neietekmē piekrastes valsts tiesības izvirzīt noteikumus kabeļu vai cauruļvadu ierīkošanai, kas šķērso tās teritoriju vai teritoriālo jūru, vai jurisdikciju tajā attiecībā uz kabeļiem un cauruļvadiem, kas ir ielikti vai tiek izmantoti sakarā ar tās kontinentālā šelfa izpēti vai tā resursu izstrādi vai tās jurisdikcijā esošo mākslīgo salu, iekārtu un celtņu ekspluatāciju.

5. Ierīkojot zemūdens kabeļus vai cauruļvadus, valstis pienācīgā kārtā ievēro jau esošos kabeļus un cauruļvadus. It īpaši nedrīkst mazināt esošo kabeļu un cauruļvadu remonta iespējas.

80. pants. Mākslīgās salas, iekārtas un būves kontinentālajā šelfā

60. pants tiek piemērots mutatis mutandis attiecībā uz mākslīgajām salām, iekārtām un būvēm kontinentālajā šelfā.

81. pants. Urbšanas darbi kontinentālajā šelfā

Piekrastes valstij ir ekskluzīvās tiesības atļaut un regulēt visos nolūkos veiktus urbšanas darbus kontinentālajā šelfā.

82. pants. Iemaksas un kontribūcijas sakarā ar kontinentālā šelfa izstrādi aiz 200 jūras jūdžu robežas

1. Piekrastes valsts veic iemaksas vai kontribūcijas sakarā ar kontinentālā šelfa nedzīvo resursu izstrādi aiz 200 jūras jūdzēm no bāzes līnijām, no kurām tiek mērīts teritoriālās jūras platums.

2. Iemaksas vai kontribūcijas tiek veiktas katru gadu attiecībā uz visu produkciju iecirknī pēc pirmo 5 gadu ieguves termiņa beigām šajā iecirknī. Iemaksu vai kontribūciju apmērs par sesto gadu sastāda 1% no produkcijas vērtības vai apjoma šajā iecirknī. Šis apjoms palielinās par 1% katru nākamo gadu līdz divpadsmitajam gadam un pēc tam tiek saglabāts 7% līmenī. Produkcijā neiekļauj resursus, kas tiek izmantoti sakarā ar izstrādi.

3. Jaunattīstības valsts, kura ir kāda tās kontinentālajā šelfā iegūstama derīgā izrakteņa neto importētājs, tiek atbrīvota no šādām iemaksām vai kontribūcijām attiecībā uz šo derīgo izrakteni.

4. Iemaksas vai kontribūcijas tiek veiktas caur Institūciju, kas sadala tās starp šīs konvencijas Dalībvalstīm uz taisnīgu sadales kritēriju pamata, ņemot vērā jaunattīstības valstu intereses un vajadzības, it īpaši tādu jaunattīstības valstu, kuras ir vismazāk attīstītas un kurām nav izejas pie jūras.

83. pants. Kontinentālā šelfa delimitācija starp valstīm ar pretējiem vai līdzās esošiem krastiem

1. Kontinentālā šelfa delimitācija starp valstīm ar pretējiem vai līdzās esošiem krastiem tiek realizēta, panākot vienošanos uz starptautisko tiesību pamata, kā tas ir noteikts Starptautiskās Justīcijas Tiesas Statūtu 38.pantā, ar mērķi panākt taisnīgu atrisinājumu.

2. Ja vienošanās nevar tikt panākta pieņemamā laika periodā, attiecīgās valstis uzsāk procedūras, kas paredzētas XV daļā.

3. Līdz 1.punktā paredzētās vienošanās noslēgšanai attiecīgās valstis savstarpējās saprašanās un sadarbības garā dara visu iespējamo, lai panāktu pagaidu praktiska rakstura vienošanos, un šā pārejas perioda laikā nepakļautu briesmām vai neaizkavētu galīgās vienošanās sasniegšanu. Šāda pagaidu vienošanās nedrīkst kaitēt galīgajai delimitācijai.

4. Kad starp attiecīgajām valstīm pastāv spēkā esoša vienošanās, jautājumi, kas attiecas uz kontinentālā šelfa delimitāciju, tiek atrisināti saskaņā ar šīs vienošanās noteikumiem.

84. pants. Kartes un ģeogrāfisko koordinātu saraksti

1. Ievērojot šīs daļas nosacījumus, kontinentālā šelfa ārējo robežu līnijas un delimitācijas līnijas, kas tika novilktas saskaņā ar 83.pantu, tiek norādītas uz tāda mēroga vai mērogu kartēm, kas ir piemērotas to atrašanās vietas precīzai noteikšanai. Ja tas ir pieļaujams, šādas ārējo robežu līnijas vai delimitācijas līnijas var tikt aizstātas ar punktu ģeogrāfisko koordinātu sarakstiem, norādot ģeodēziskos pamatdatus.

2. Piekrastes valsts pienācīgā kārtā publicē šādas kartes vai ģeogrāfisko koordinātu sarakstus un katras šādas kartes vai saraksta norakstu nodod glabāšanā Apvienoto Nāciju Organizācijas Ģenerālsekretāram, un gadījumā, ja tie norāda kontinentālā šelfa ārējās robežas līnijas, arī Institūcijas ģenerālsekretāram.

85. pants. Tuneļu ierīkošana

Šī daļa neietekmē piekrastes valsts tiesības izmantot dzīles tuneļu ierīkošanai neatkarīgi no jūras ūdeņu dziļuma virs dzīlēm.

VII daļa. Atklātā jūra

1. nodaļa. Vispārīgie noteikumi

86. pants. Šīs daļas noteikumu piemērošana

Šīs daļas noteikumi attiecas uz visām jūras daļām, kuras neietilpst ne ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā, ne kādas valsts teritoriālajos vai iekšējos ūdeņos, ne arhipelāga valsts arhipelāga ūdeņos. Ar šo pantu nevar ierobežot tādas tiesības, kuras izmanto visas valstis ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā atbilstoši 58. pantam.

87. pants. Atklātās jūras brīvība

1. Atklātā jūra ir atvērta visām valstīm, kā piekrastes valstīm, tā arī tām, kurām nav izejas uz jūru. Atklātās jūras brīvība tiek realizēta atbilstoši šīs Konvencijas prasībām un citām starptautisko tiesību normām. Atklātās jūras brīvība gan attiecībā uz piekrastes valstīm, gan valstīm, kurām nav izejas uz jūru, ietver sevī:

a) kuģošanas brīvību;

b) pārlidojumu brīvību;

c) brīvību ierīkot zemūdens kabeļus un cauruļvadus saskaņā ar VI daļu;

d) brīvību veidot mākslīgās salas un citas konstrukcijas, ko atļauj starptautiskās tiesības, saskaņā ar VI daļu;

e) zvejniecības brīvību, saskaņā ar 2.nodaļā noteiktajām prasībām;

f) zinātniskās izpētes brīvību saskaņā ar VI un XIII daļām.

2. Visas valstis izmanto šīs brīvības, pienācīgā kārtā ievērojot citu valstu intereses izmantot atklātās jūras brīvību, kā arī pienācīgā kārtā ievērojot šīs konvencijas paredzētās tiesības attiecībā uz darbību Rajonā.

88. pants. Atklātās jūras rezervēšana miermīlīgiem mērķiem

Atklātā jūra tiek rezervēta miermīlīgiem mērķiem.

89. pants. Pretenziju spēkā neesamība uz suverenitāti pār atklāto jūru

Nevienai valstij nav tiesību pretendēt uz kādas atklātās jūras daļas pakļaušanu savai suverenitātei.

90. pants. Kuģošanas tiesības

Katrai valstij, kā piekrastes valstij, tā arī valstij, kurai nav izejas uz jūru, ir tiesības uz to, lai kuģi ar tās karogu kuģotu atklātā jūrā.

91. pants. Kuģu valstiskā piederība

1. Katra valsts nosaka noteikumus, uz kādiem tā piešķir savu valstisko piederību kuģiem, reģistrē kuģus savā teritorijā un piešķir tiesības kuģot ar savu karogu. Kuģiem ir tās valsts piederība, ar kuras karogu tiem ir tiesības kuģot. Starp valsti un kuģi jāpastāv reālai saiknei.

2. Katra valsts izdod kuģiem, kuriem tā piešķir tiesības kuģot ar savu karogu, atbilstošus dokumentus.

92. pants. Kuģu statuss

1. Kuģis kuģo tikai ar vienas valsts karogu un, izņemot īpašus gadījumus, kuri ir tieši paredzēti starptautiskajos līgumos vai šajā Konvencijā, pakļaujas tās ekskluzīvajai jurisdikcijai atklātajā jūrā. Kuģis nedrīkst mainīt savu karogu kuģojuma laikā vai stāvot pirms ieejas ostā, izņemot gadījumus, kad notiek reāla īpašuma tiesību pāreja vai reģistrācijas izmaiņas.

2. Kuģis, kas kuģo ar divu vai vairāku valstu karogiem, un izmanto tos pēc izvēles, nav tiesīgs prasīt, lai citas valstis atzītu kādu no šīm valstiskajām piederībām, un tas var tikt pielīdzināts kuģim bez valstiskās piederības.

93. pants. Kuģi, kas kuģo ar Apvienoto Nāciju Organizācijas, tās specializēto iestāžu un Starptautiskās Atomenerģijas aģentūras karogu

Iepriekšējie panti neietekmē jautājumus par kuģiem, kuri atrodas oficiālā Apvienoto Nāciju Organizācijas, tās specializēto iestāžu vai Starptautiskās atomenerģijas aģentūras dienestā un kuģo ar to karogu.

94. pants. Karoga valsts pienākumi

1. Katra valsts efektīvi realizē jurisdikciju un kontroli pār kuģiem, kas kuģo ar tās karogu, administratīvajos, tehniskajos un sociālajos jautājumos.

2. Katra valsts, it sevišķi:

a) uztur kuģu reģistru, kas norāda kuģu, kas kuģo ar tās karogu, vārdus un parametrus, izņemot tos, kuri ir izslēgti no vispārpieņemtiem starptautiskiem noteikumiem to nelielā izmēra dēļ; un

b) uzņemas jurisdikciju saskaņā ar saviem iekšējiem likumiem pār katru kuģi, kurš kuģo ar tās karogu, un tā kapteini, virsniekiem un apkalpi attiecībā uz administratīviem, tehniskiem un sociāliem jautājumiem, kas attiecas uz kuģi.

3. Katra valsts attiecībā uz kuģiem, kas kuģo ar tās karogu, veic tādus pasākumus, kas nepieciešami, lai nodrošinātu jūras drošību, it īpaši attiecībā uz:

a) kuģu konstrukciju, aprīkojumu un jūrasspēju;

b) kuģu komplektēšanu, darba noteikumus un apkalpes apmācību, ņemot vērā piemērojamos starptautiskos instrumentus;

c) signālu lietošanu, komunikāciju uzturēšanu un sadursmes novēršanu.

4. Šādi pasākumi ietver tos, kas nepieciešami, lai nodrošinātu:

a) ka katru kuģi pirms reģistrācijas un turpmāk pēc atbilstošiem laika periodiem, pārbauda kvalificēts kuģu inspektors un uz kuģa atrodas tādas kartes, navigācijas izdevumi un navigācijas aprīkojums un ierīces, kas nepieciešamas drošai kuģa navigācijai;

b) ka par katru kuģi ir atbildīgs kapteinis un virsnieki ar atbilstošu kvalifikāciju, it īpaši, kuģu vadīšanas, navigācijas, komunikāciju un jūras tehnikas sfērā, un ka apkalpe pēc kvalifikācijas un skaita atbilst kuģa tipam, izmēriem, iekārtām un aprīkojumam;

c) ka kapteinis, virsnieki un nepieciešamajā apjomā arī apkalpe pilnībā pārzina un izpilda prasību ievērot piemērojamos starptautiskos noteikumus par cilvēka dzīvības aizsardzību uz jūras, sadursmju novēršanu, jūras vides piesārņojuma novēršanu, samazināšanu un kontroli, un sakaru uzturēšanu pa radio.

5. Veicot 3. un 4.punktā nosauktos pasākumus, katra valsts obligāti ņem vērā vispārpieņemtos starptautiskos noteikumus, procedūras un praksi, un veic jebkādus pasākumus, kas nepieciešami to ievērošanas nodrošināšanai.

6. Valstij, kurai ir drošs pamats uzskatīt, ka atbilstoša jurisdikcija un kontrole attiecībā uz kādu kuģi netiek īstenota, drīkst par šādiem faktiem ziņot karoga valstij. Pēc tāda paziņojuma saņemšanas karoga valsts obligāti veic šī jautājuma izmeklēšanu un, kad tas ir nepieciešams, veic jebkurus nepieciešamos pasākumus stāvokļa uzlabošanai.

7. Katra valsts organizē izmeklēšanu, ko veic vai vada pietiekoši kvalificēta persona vai personas katrā jūras avārijas vai navigācijas negadījuma gadījumā atklātā jūrā, kurā ir piedalījies kuģis, kas kuģo ar tās karogu un kas izraisījis citas valsts pilsoņa bojāeju vai nopietnu traumu, vai ir nodarīts būtisks kaitējums citas valsts kuģiem vai iekārtām, vai jūras videi. Karoga valsts un otra valsts sadarbojas, veicot izmeklēšanu, ko vada šī otra valsts, jebkurā šāda veida jūras avārijas vai navigācijas negadījuma gadījumā.

95. pants. Karakuģu imunitāte atklātā jūrā

Karakuģiem atklātā jūrā ir pilnīga imunitāte pret jebkuras citas valsts, izņemot karoga valsti, jurisdikciju.

96. pants. Kuģu imunitāte, kuri veic tikai valsts nekomerciālo dienestu

Kuģi, kuru īpašnieks ir valsts vai kurus nodarbina valsts un kurus izmanto tikai valsts nekomerciālajā dienestā, atklātā jūrā bauda pilnīgu imunitāti pret jebkuras valsts, izņemot karoga valsti, jurisdikciju.

97. pants. Kriminālā jurisdikcija sadursmes vai kāda cita kuģošanas negadījuma gadījumā

1. Sadursmes vai kāda cita kuģošanas negadījuma gadījumā ar kuģi atklātā jūrā, kā rezultātā ir iestājusies kapteiņa vai kādas citas uz kuģa nodarbinātas personas kriminālā vai disciplinārā atbildība, pret šādu personu nedrīkst uzsākt nekādu kriminālo vai disciplināro vajāšanu, izņemot, ko veic karoga valsts vai tās valsts tiesas vai administratīvās iestādes, kuras pilsonis ir šī persona.

2. Disciplinārajos jautājumos tikai valsts, kura izdevusi kapteiņa sertifikātu vai kvalifikācijas sertifikātu, vai licenci, vienīgā ir kompetenta pēc pienācīgas juridiskās procedūras pasludināt šos sertifikātus par anulētiem, pat ja to īpašnieks nav tās valsts pilsonis, kura tos izdevusi.

3. Nevar kuģi arestēt vai aizturēt, pat lai veiktu izmeklēšanu, pēc kādas citas valsts iestāžu kā vien karoga valsts iestāžu rīkojuma.

98. pants. Pienākums sniegt palīdzību

1. Katra valsts pieprasa savas valsts karoga kuģa kapteinim, tādā mērā, ciktāl viņš to var izdarīt, nepakļaujot nopietnām briesmām kuģi, apkalpi vai pasažierus:

a) sniegt palīdzību jebkurai jūrā atrastai personai, kurai draud briesmas vai kura ir pazudusi;

b) steigties ar pilnu iespējamo ātrumu, lai glābtu nelaimē nonākušos cilvēkus, ja ir paziņots, ka viņiem nepieciešama palīdzība, ciktāl šāda darbība no viņa tiek pamatoti sagaidīta;

c) pēc sadursmes sniegt palīdzību citam kuģim, tā apkalpei un tā pasažieriem, un, kad tas ir iespējams, paziņot šim otram kuģim sava kuģa vārdu, reģistrācijas ostu un tuvāko ostu, kurā tas iebrauks.

2. Katra piekrastes valsts veicina atbilstoša un efektīva meklēšanas un glābšanas dienesta izveidošanu, darbību un uzturēšanu, lai nodrošinātu drošību uz jūras un virs tās, un, kad to prasa apstākļi, sadarbojas šajā nolūkā ar kaimiņvalstīm ar savstarpēju reģionālo vienošanos starpniecību.

99. pants. Vergu pārvadāšanas aizliegums

Katra valsts veic efektīvus pasākumus, lai novērstu un sodītu vergu pārvadāšanu kuģos, kuriem ir tiesības kuģot ar tās karogu, un novērstu sava karoga pretlikumīgu izmantošanu šajā nolūkā. Jebkurš vergs, kas atradis patvērumu uz jebkura kuģa, neatkarīgi no tā karoga, ir brīvs ipso facto.

100. pants. Pienākums sadarboties pirātisma novēršanā

Visas valstis sadarbojas maksimāli iespējamā apmērā, lai apspiestu pirātismu atklātā jūrā vai jebkurā citā vietā ārpus jebkuras valsts jurisdikcijas.

101. pants. Pirātisma definīcija

Pirātisms ir jebkura no sekojošām darbībām:

a) jebkurš prettiesisks vardarbības vai aizturēšanas akts, vai jebkāds laupīšanas akts, kuru savtīgos nolūkos veic privātā kuģa vai privātā gaisa kuģa apkalpe vai pasažieri, un kurš ir vērsts:

i) atklātā jūrā pret citu kuģi vai gaisa kuģi, vai pret personām vai īpašumu, kas atrodas uz šā kuģa vai gaisa kuģa;

ii) pret kuģi, gaisa kuģi, personām vai īpašumu vietā, kas atrodas ārpus kādas valsts jurisdikcijas;

b) jebkurš brīvprātīgas piedalīšanās akts kuģa vai gaisa kuģa darbības nodrošināšanā, zinot par faktiem, kas padara to par pirātu kuģi vai gaisa kuģi;

c) jebkura musinoša vai apzināta darbība, kas veicina a) vai b) punktā uzskaitītās darbības.

102. pants. Pirātiskas darbības, ko veic karakuģis, valsts kuģis vai valsts gaisa kuģis, kura apkalpe ir sarīkojusi dumpi

101.pantā noteiktās pirātiskās darbības, kad tās veic karakuģis, valsts kuģis vai valsts gaisa kuģis, kura apkalpe ir sarīkojusi dumpi un pārņēmusi kontroli pār kuģi vai gaisa kuģi, ir pielīdzināmas darbībām, ko veic privātais kuģis vai privātais gaisa kuģis.

103. pants. Pirātu kuģa vai gaisa kuģa definīcija

Kuģis vai gaisa kuģis ir uzskatāms par pirātu kuģi vai gaisa kuģi, ja personas, kuru kontrolē tas atrodas, ir paredzējušas to izmantot, lai veiktu vienu no 101.pantā minētajām darbībām. Tāpat tas attiecas uz kuģi vai gaisa kuģi, kurš ir izmantots jebkādas šādas darbības veikšanā, līdz tam brīdim, kamēr tas atrodas to personu kontrolē, kuras ir vainīgas šajā darbībā.

104. pants. Pirātu kuģa vai gaisa kuģa valstiskās piederības saglabāšana vai zaudēšana

Kuģis vai gaisa kuģis drīkst saglabāt savu valstisko piederību, lai arī tas ir kļuvis par pirātu kuģi vai gaisa kuģi. Valstiskās piederības saglabāšanu vai zaudēšanu nosaka tās valsts likumi, kura šo valstisko piederību bija piešķīrusi.

105. pants. Pirātiska kuģa vai gaisa kuģa notveršana

Atklātā jūrā vai jebkurā vietā ārpus jebkādas valsts jurisdikcijas katra valsts drīkst notvert pirātu kuģi vai gaisa kuģi, vai kuģi vai gaisa kuģi, kas sagrābts pirātisku darbību rezultātā un atrodas pirātu varā, un arestēt personas un konfiscēt īpašumu, kas atrodas uz klāja. Tās valsts tiesu Institūcijas, kura ir veikusi notveršanu, drīkst lemt par uzliekamo sodu, un drīkst arī noteikt, kādi pasākumi ir veicami attiecībā uz kuģiem, gaisa kuģiem vai īpašumu, nepārkāpjot labticīgu trešo personu tiesības.

106. pants. Atbildība par notveršanu bez pietiekama pamata

Ja kuģa vai gaisa kuģa notveršana uz aizdomu pamata par pirātismu ir veikta bez pietiekoša pamata, valsts, kura ir veikusi notveršanu, ir atbildīga valstij, kuras valstiskā piederība kuģim vai gaisa kuģim ir, par jebkādu zaudējumu vai kaitējumu, ko izraisījusi notveršana.

107. pants. Kuģi un gaisa kuģi, kuri ir tiesīgi veikt notveršanu par pirātismu

Aizturēšanu par pirātismu drīkst veikt tikai karakuģi vai kara gaisa kuģi, vai citi kuģi vai gaisa kuģi, kas ir skaidri marķēti un atpazīstami kā tādi, kas atrodas valdības dienestā un ir pilnvaroti šādu mērķu veikšanai.

108. pants. Nelikumīga narkotisko vai psihotropo vielu tirdzniecība

1. Visas valstis sadarbojas, lai novērstu nelikumīgu tirdzniecību ar narkotikām vai psihotropajām vielām, kuru veic kuģi atklātā jūrā, pārkāpjot starptautiskās konvencijas.

2. Jebkura valsts, kurai ir pietiekošs pamats uzskatīt, ka kuģis, kas kuģo ar tās karogu, nodarbojas ar nelikumīgu narkotiku vai psihotropo vielu tirdzniecību, drīkst prasīt citām valstīm sadarboties šādas nelikumīgas tirdzniecības novēršanā.

109. pants. Nesankcionēta raidīšana no atklātās jūras

1. Visas valstis sadarbojas, lai novērstu nesankcionētu raidīšanu no atklātās jūras.

2. Šīs Konvencijas izpratnē "nesankcionēta raidīšana" nozīmē skaņas radio vai televīzijas programmu raidīšanu no kuģa vai iekārtām atklātā jūrā, kas domātas iedzīvotāju uztveršanai, pārkāpjot starptautiskos noteikumus, bet izņemot nelaimes signālu pārraidi.

3. Jebkuru persona, kas nodarbojas ar nesankcionētu raidīšanu, var saukt pie atbildības tiesā:

a) kuģa karoga valstī;

b) iekārtas reģistrācijas valstī;

c) valstī, kuras pilsonis ir šī persona;

d) jebkurā valstī, kur šīs pārraides ir uztveramas;

e) jebkurā valstī, kuras sankcionētiem radiosakariem tiek radīti traucējumi.

4. Atklātā jūrā, valsts, kurai ir jurisdikcija saskaņā ar 3.punktu, atbilstoši 110.pantam, drīkst arestēt jebkuru personu vai kuģi, kas nodarbojas ar nesankcionētu raidīšanu, un konfiscēt raidošo aparatūru.

110. pants. Tiesības uz apmeklējumu

1. Izņemot gadījumus, kad iejaukšanās akti izriet no tiesībām, ko piešķir starptautisks līgums, karakuģis, kas atklātā jūrā sastop ārvalstu kuģi, citādu nekā to, kas bauda pilnu imunitāti saskaņā ar 95. un 96.pantu, nav tiesīgs veikt tā apskati, ja nav pietiekošs pamats uzskatīt, ka:

a) kuģis nodarbojas ar pirātismu;

b) kuģis nodarbojas ar vergu tirdzniecību;

c) kuģis nodarbojas ar nesankcionētu raidīšanu un karoga valsts karakuģim piemīt jurisdikcija atbilstoši 109.pantam;

d) kuģim nav valstiskās piederības; vai

e) kaut arī uz tā ir pacelts ārvalsts karogs vai tas atsakās pacelt karogu, šim kuģim patiesībā ir tāda pati valstiskā piederība kā karakuģim.

2. Gadījumos, kas paredzēti 1.punktā, karakuģis drīkst pārbaudīt kuģa tiesības uz tā karogu. Šim nolūkam tas var sūtīt laivu, kuru komandē virsnieks, uz aizdomās turēto kuģi. Ja pēc dokumentu pārbaudes aizdomas nemazinās, karakuģis var veikt tālāku šī kuģa apskati, kas veicama ar maksimāli iespējamo uzmanību.

3. Ja aizdomas izrādās nepamatotas, un ar nosacījumu, ka apskatītais kuģis nav veicis jebkādu darbību, kas pamatotu šīs aizdomas, šim kuģim ir jāatlīdzina jebkāds zaudējums vai kaitējums, kas var tikt apstiprināts.

4. Šie noteikumi ir piemērojami mutatis mutandis kara gaisa kuģiem.

5. Šie noteikumi ir piemērojami arī attiecībā uz jebkādiem citiem pienācīgā kārtā pilnvarotiem kuģiem vai gaisa kuģiem, kuriem ir skaidrs marķējums un kuri ir atpazīstami kā esoši valsts dienestā.

111. pants. Tiesības uz vajāšanu

1. Ārvalstu kuģa vajāšanu drīkst uzsākt, ja piekrastes valsts kompetentajām iestādēm ir pietiekošs pamats uzskatīt, ka kuģis ir pārkāpis šīs valsts likumus un noteikumus. Šādai vajāšanai jāsākas tad, kad ārvalstu kuģis vai viena no tā laivām atrodas valsts, kura veic vajāšanu, iekšējos ūdeņos, arhipelāga ūdeņos, teritoriālajā jūrā vai pieguļošajā zonā, un var turpināties aiz teritoriālās jūras vai pieguļošās zonas tad, ja vajāšana nav tikusi pārtraukta. Nav nepieciešams, lai tajā laikā, kad ārvalstu kuģis teritoriālajā jūrā vai pieguļošajā zonā saņem pavēli apstāties, kuģis, kas dod šādu pavēli, arī atrastos teritoriālajā jūrā vai pieguļošajā zonā. Ja ārvalsts kuģis atrodas pieguļošajā zonā, kas noteikta 33.pantā, vajāšana drīkst sākties tikai, ja ir pārkāpti noteikumi, kuru aizsardzībai zona tika noteikta.

2. Tiesības vajāt ir piemērojamas mutatis mutandis par piekrastes valsts likumu un noteikumu pārkāpumiem ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā vai kontinentālajā šelfā, ieskaitot drošības zonas ap iekārtām kontinentālajā šelfā, kas tiek piemēroti saskaņā ar šo Konvenciju attiecībā uz ekskluzīvo ekonomisko zonu vai kontinentālo šelfu, ieskaitot šādas drošības zonas.

3. Tiesības vajāt tiek izbeigtas, kolīdz vajātais kuģis ieiet savas valsts teritoriālajos ūdeņos vai kādas trešās valsts teritoriālajos ūdeņos.

4. Vajāšana netiek uzskatīta par uzsāktu, ja vien vajātais kuģis ar savā rīcībā esošajām iekārtām un to praktisku pielietošanu ir pārliecinājies, ka vajātais kuģis vai viena no tā laivām, vai citi peldlīdzekļi, kuri darbojas kopā un izmanto vajāto kuģi kā bāzes kuģi, atrodas teritoriālajā jūrā, vai, atkarībā no apstākļiem, pieguļošajā zonā, vai ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā, vai virs kontinentālā šelfa. Vajāšanu var uzsākt tikai pēc tam, kad ir dots redzams vai dzirdams signāls apstāties no tāda attāluma, kas vajātajam kuģim dod iespēju redzēt vai dzirdēt šo signālu.

5. Tiesības uz vajāšanu var realizēt tikai kara kuģi vai militāri gaisa kuģi, vai citi kuģi vai gaisa kuģi, kas ir skaidri marķēti un atpazīstami kā tādi, kas atrodas valdības dienestā un ir pilnvaroti šādu mērķu veikšanai.

6. Gadījumā, ja vajāšanu veic gaisa kuģis:

a) ir piemērojami mutatis mutandis 1.- 4.punkta noteikumi;

b) gaisa kuģis, kurš dod pavēli apstāties, pats aktīvi vajā kuģi, kamēr kāds piekrastes valsts kuģis vai cits gaisa kuģis, kuru izsaucis šis gaisa kuģis, ierodas, lai pārņemtu vajāšanu, ja gaisa kuģis pats nav spējīgs aizturēt kuģi. Lai attaisnotu kuģa aizturēšanu ārpus teritoriālās jūras, nepietiek ar to, ka no gaisa kuģa tas bija ievērots kā pārkāpējs vai turēts aizdomās kā pārkāpējs, ja tas nebija saņēmis rīkojumu apstāties un vienlaikus to nesāka vajāt pats gaisa kuģis vai cits gaisa kuģis vai kuģi, kuri turpina nepārtrauktu vajāšanu.

7. Kuģa atbrīvošanu, kas tika aizturēts kādas valsts jurisdikcijas robežās un pavadīts uz šīs valsts ostu, lai kompetentās iestādes veiktu izmeklēšanu, nevar pieprasīt tikai uz tā pamata, ka kuģis tika pavadīts caur ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas vai atklātās jūras daļu, ja apstākļi izraisīja šādu nepieciešamību.

8. Ja kuģis ticis apturēts vai aizturēts ārpus teritoriālās jūras apstākļos, kuri neattaisno realizētās tiesības uz vajāšanu, ir jāatlīdzina jebkāds tā rezultātā ciestais zaudējums vai kaitējums.

112. pants. Tiesības likt zemūdens kabeļus un cauruļvadus

1. Visām valstīm ir tiesības ierīkot kabeļus un cauruļvadus atklātās jūras dibenā aiz kontinentālā šelfa robežām.

2. Attiecībā uz šādiem kabeļiem un cauruļvadiem ir piemērojams 79.panta 5.punkts.

113. pants. Zemūdens kabeļu vai cauruļvadu pārraušana vai bojāšana

Katra valsts pieņem nepieciešamos likumus un noteikumus, kuri paredz, ka zemūdens kabeļa pārraušana vai bojāšana atklātā jūrā, kuru izdarījis kuģis, kas kuģo ar tās karogu, vai tās jurisdikcijā esoša persona, kas izdarīts tīšām vai noziedzīgas nevērības rezultātā tādā veidā, ka tas var pārtraukt vai apgrūtināt telegrāfa vai telefona sakarus, un tāpat zemūdens cauruļvadu vai augstsprieguma kabeļu pārraušana vai bojāšana, ir uzskatāma par sodāmu nodarījumu. Šis noteikums ir piemērojams arī uz darbībām, kas vērstas uz to, vai var novest pie tā, lai notiktu šāds pārrāvums vai bojājums. Tomēr tas nav piemērojams uz jebkādu pārraušanu vai bojāšanu, kuru izraisījušas personas, kas darbojās vienīgi ar likumīgu mērķi glābt savu dzīvību vai savu kuģi, pēc tam, kad ir veikti visi nepieciešamie piesardzības pasākumi, lai izvairītos no šādas pārraušanas vai bojāšanas.

114. pants. Zemūdens kabeļa vai cauruļvada bojāšana, ko nodarījis cita zemūdens kabeļa vai cauruļvada īpašnieks

Katra valsts pieņem nepieciešamos likumus un noteikumus, kuri paredz, ka, ja tās jurisdikcijā esošajām personām pieder zemūdens kabelis vai cauruļvads atklātā jūrā, un ierīkojot vai remontējot šo kabeli vai cauruļvadu, tiek izraisīts cita kabeļa vai cauruļvada pārrāvums vai bojājums, tās segs remonta izdevumus.

115. pants. Zaudējuma atlīdzināšana, kurš radies, lai izvairītos no zemūdens kabeļa vai cauruļvada bojāšanas

Katra valsts pieņem nepieciešamos likumus un noteikumus, lai nodrošinātu, ka kuģu īpašnieki, kuri var pierādīt, ka viņi ir zaudējuši enkuru, tīklu vai kādu citu zvejniecības iekārtu, lai izvairītos no zemūdens kabeļa vai cauruļvada bojāšanas, var saņemt kompensāciju no kabeļa vai cauruļvada īpašnieka, ar nosacījumu, ka kuģa īpašnieks ir veicis visus saprātīgos piesardzības pasākumus.

2. nodaļa. Atklātās jūras dzīvo resursu saglabāšana un to pārvaldīšana

116. pants. Zvejas tiesības atklātajā jūrā

Visam valstīm ir tiesības uz to pilsoņu nodarbošanos ar zvejniecību atklātajā jūrā, ievērojot:

a) to līgumsaistības;

b) tiesības un pienākumus, kā arī piekrastes valstu intereses, kas paredzētas, cita starpā, 63. panta 2.punktā un no 64 līdz 67.pantam;

c) šīs nodaļas noteikumus.

117. pants. Valsts pienākums veikt attiecībā uz saviem pilsoņiem pasākumus atklātās jūras dzīvo resursu saglabāšanai

Visām valstīm ir pienākums veikt pasākumus vai sadarboties ar citām valstīm tādu pasākumu veikšanā attiecībā uz saviem pilsoņiem, kas var būt nepieciešami, lai saglabātu atklātās jūras dzīvos resursus.

118. pants. Valstu sadarbība dzīvo resursu saglabāšanā un to pārvaldīšanā

Valstis savstarpēji sadarbojas dzīvo resursu saglabāšanā un pārvaldīšanā atklātās jūras rajonos. Valstīm, kuru pilsoņi izmantotos tos pašus dzīvos resursus vai atšķirīgus dzīvos resursus tajā pašā rajonā, jāiesaistās sarunās ar mērķi veikt pasākumus šo attiecīgo dzīvo resursu saglabāšanai. Tās atbilstošos gadījumos sadarbojas, lai izveidotu subreģionālas vai reģionālas zvejniecības organizācijas.

119. pants. Atklātās jūras dzīvo resursu saglabāšana

1. Nosakot pieļaujamo nozveju un pasākumus, ko nepieciešams veikt atklātās jūras dzīvo resursu saglabāšanai, valstis:

a) veic pasākumus, pamatojoties uz attiecīgās valsts rīcībā esošo labāko zinātnisko informāciju, kas domāta, lai uzturētu vai atjaunotu izķeramo veidu populācijas līmeņos, kuri var nodrošināt maksimāli noturīgu nozveju, ko aprēķina, ievērojot attiecīgos vides un ekonomiskos faktorus, tajā skaitā jaunattīstības valstu īpašās vajadzības, un ņemot vērā zvejniecības metodes, atkarību no krājumiem un jebkurus vispārēji rekomendētus starptautiskos minimālos standartus, vai tie ir subreģionāli, reģionāli vai globāli;

b) ņem vērā iedarbību uz sugām, ko asociē ar nozvejojamajām vai no tām atkarīgajām sugām, nolūkā uzturēt vai atjaunot šādas asociētās vai no tām atkarīgās populācijas virs līmeņa, kurā to atjaunošana var būt nopietni apdraudēta.

2. Tiek nodota rīcībā esošā zinātniskā informācija, nozvejas un zvejniecības statistika un cita informācija attiecībā uz zivju resursu saglabāšanu un veikta tās apmaiņa uz regularitātes pamata ar kompetento starptautisko organizāciju starpniecību, vai tās ir apakšreģionālas, reģionālas vai globālas, atkarībā no nepieciešamības un piedaloties visām ieinteresētajām valstīm.

3. Ieinteresētās valstis nodrošina, lai saglabāšanas pasākumi un to realizēšana ne pēc formas, ne pēc būtības nebūtu diskriminējoši attiecībā pret jebkuras valsts jūrniekiem.

120. pants. Jūras zīdītāji

65.pantu piemēro arī attiecībā uz jūras zīdītāju saglabāšanu un pārvaldīšanu atklātā jūrā.

VIII daļa. Salu režīms

121. pants. Salu režīms

1. Sala ir dabiskā ceļā izveidojusies sauszemes platība, kas atrodas virs ūdens līmeņa paisuma laikā.

2. Izņemot 3.punktā paredzētos gadījumus, salas teritoriālā jūra, pieguļošā zona, ekskluzīvā ekonomiskā zona un kontinentālais šelfs tiek noteikts saskaņā ar šīs konvencijas noteikumiem, kas tiek piemēroti citām sauszemes teritorijām.

3. Klintīm, kas nav piemērotas cilvēku dzīvošanai vai patstāvīgai ekonomiskai darbībai, nav ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas vai kontinentālā šelfa.

IX daļa. Slēgtās un daļēji slēgtās jūras

122. pants. Definīcija

Šīs Konvencijas nolūkā "slēgtā vai daļēji slēgtā jūra" nozīmē līci, baseinu vai jūru, ko ieskauj divas vai vairākas valstis, un kas ir saistīts ar citu jūru vai okeānu ar šauru eju, vai arī, kas pilnībā vai galvenokārt sastāv no divu vai vairāku piekrastes valstu teritoriālajām jūrām un ekskluzīvajām ekonomiskajām zonām.

123. pants. Valstu, kuras robežojas ar slēgto vai daļēji slēgto jūru, sadarbība

Valstis, kas robežojas ar slēgtu vai daļēji slēgtu jūru, savstarpēji sadarbojas savu tiesību realizēšanā un šajā konvencijā noteikto pienākumu pildīšanā. Šajā nolūkā tās tieši vai ar atbilstošu reģionālo organizāciju starpniecību tiecas:

a) koordinēt jūras dzīvo resursu pārvaldīšanu, saglabāšanu, izpēti un ieguvi;

b) koordinēt savu tiesību un pienākumu realizēšanu attiecībā uz jūras vides aizsardzību un saglabāšanu;

c) koordinēt savu zinātniskās izpētes politiku un realizēt, kur tas ir lietderīgi, kopējās zinātniskās izpētes rajonā;

d) pieaicināt, kad tas ir lietderīgi, citas ieinteresētās valstis vai starptautiskās organizācijas sadarbībai ar tām šī panta noteikumu piemērošanas sekmēšanai.

X daļa. Valstu, kurām nav izejas uz jūru, tiesības piekļūt jūrai un no tās un uz tranzīta brīvību

124. pants. Lietotie termini

1. Šīs Konvencijas nolūkā:

a) "valsts, kurai nav izejas uz jūru" ir valsts, kurai nav jūras piekrastes;

b) "tranzīta valsts" ir valsts ar jūras piekrasti vai bez tās, kas atrodas starp valsti,

kurai nav izejas uz jūru, un jūru, un caur kuras teritoriju notiek tranzīta kustība;

c) "tranzīta satiksme" ir cilvēku, bagāžas, preču un transporta līdzekļu tranzīts caur vienu vai vairākām tranzīta valstīm, kad šādas teritorijas šķērsošana, ar vai bez pārkraušanas, uzglabāšanas noliktavā, kravu partiju sadalīšanas vai transporta veida maiņas, ir tikai kopējā ceļa daļa, kas sākas vai beidzas valsts, kurai nav izejas uz jūru, teritorijā;

d) "transporta līdzekļi" ir:

i) dzelzceļa ritošais sastāvs, jūras, ezeru un upju kuģi un autotransports;

ii) nesēji un nastu nesēji dzīvnieki, ja to prasa vietējie apstākļi.

2. Valstis, kurām nav izejas uz jūru, un tranzītvalstis pēc savstarpējās vienošanās transporta līdzekļu skaitā var iekļaut cauruļvadus, gāzesvadus un citus transporta līdzekļus, kādi nav uzskaitīti 1.punktā.

125. pants. Tiesības uz pieeju jūrai un no tās un tranzīta brīvība

1. Valstīm, kurām nav izejas uz jūru, ir tiesības uz pieeju jūrai un no tās, lai realizētu šajā konvencijā paredzētās tiesības, tajā skaitā tiesības, kas attiecas uz atklātās jūras brīvību un cilvēces kopējo mantojumu. Šajā nolūkā valstis, kurām nav izejas uz jūru, bauda tranzīta brīvību caur tranzītvalstu teritorijām, izmantojot visus transporta līdzekļu veidus.

2. Tranzīta brīvības realizēšanas nosacījumi un kārtība tiek saskaņota starp ieinteresētajām valstīm, kurām nav izejas uz jūru, un tranzītvalstīm, slēdzot divpusējas, apakšreģionālas vai reģionālas vienošanās.

3. Tranzītvalstij, realizējot pilnīgu suverenitāti savā teritorijā, ir tiesības veikt visus nepieciešamos pasākumus, lai valstu, kurām nav izejas uz jūru, šajā daļā paredzētās tiesības un iespējas neaizskartu tranzītvalstu likumīgās intereses.

126. pants. Izņēmumi vislielāko labvēlību baudošās nācijas statusa piemērošanas sfērā

Šīs Konvencijas noteikumi, kā arī īpašie tiesību realizēšanas līgumi par piekļūšanu jūrai un no tās, kas nosaka tiesības un iespējas, ņemot vērā valstu, kurām nav izejas uz jūru, īpašo ģeogrāfisko stāvokli, ir izslēgti no vislielāko labvēlību baudošās nācijas statusa piemērošanas.

127. pants. Muitas nodevas, nodokļi un citi maksājumi

1. Tranzīta satiksme netiek aplikta ne ar kādām muitas nodevām, nodokļiem un citiem maksājumiem, izņemot nodevas, ko iekasē par konkrētiem pakalpojumiem, kas tiek sniegti saistībā ar šo satiksmi.

2. Tranzīta transporta līdzekļi un cits aprīkojums, kas paredzēts valstīm, kurām nav izejas uz jūru, un ko tās izmanto, netiek pakļautas aplikšanai ar augstākiem nodokļiem un nodevām nekā tie, ko iekasē par tranzīta valsts transporta līdzekļu izmantošanu.

128. pants. Brīvās muitas zonas un citi muitas atvieglojumi

Tranzīta satiksmes ērtībai tranzīta valstu ieejas un izejas ostās var noteikt beznodokļu zonas vai citus muitas atvieglojumus, vienojoties tranzīta valstīm un valstīm, kurām nav izejas uz jūru.

129. pants. Sadarbība transporta līdzekļu būvē un uzlabošanā

Ja tranzīta valstīs nav transporta līdzekļu, kas nepieciešami, lai realizētu tranzīta kustības brīvību, vai, ja esošie līdzekļi, tajā skaitā, ostas būves un aprīkojums, ir jebkādā veidā nepietiekami, ieinteresētās tranzītvalstis un valstis, kurām nav izejas uz jūru, var sadarboties to būvē vai uzlabošanā.

130. pants. Pasākumi, lai izvairītos vai novērstu aizkavēšanos vai citas tehniska rakstura grūtības tranzīta satiksmē

1. Tranzīta valstis veic visus atbilstošos pasākumus, lai izvairītos no aizkavēšanās vai citām tehniska rakstura grūtībām tranzīta satiksmē.

2. Šādu aizkavēšanos vai grūtību gadījumā ieinteresēto tranzīta valstu vai valstu, kurām nav izejas uz jūru, kompetentās iestādes sadarbojas to ātrai novēršanai.

131. pants. Vienāda attieksme jūras ostās

Pret valstu, kurām nav izejas uz jūru, kuģiem jūras ostās attiecas tāpat kā pret citiem ārvalstu kuģiem.

132. pants. Plašāku tranzīta iespēju nodrošināšana

Šī Konvencija nekādā veidā neatceļ tranzīta iespējas, kas ir plašākas nekā šajā konvencijā paredzētās, un kuras ir saskaņotas starp konvencijas Dalībvalstīm, vai kuras piešķir Dalībvalsts. Šī konvencija nav arī šķērslis šādu plašāku iespēju piešķiršanai nākotnē.

XI daļa. RAJONS

1. nodaļa. Vispārējie noteikumi

133. pants. Lietotie termini

Šajā daļā:

a) "resursi" nozīmē visus cietos, šķidros vai gāzveida minerālos resursus, kas atrodas in situ Rajonā jūras dibenā vai tā dzīlēs, ieskaitot polimetālu sacietējumus;

b) Rajonā iegūtie resursi tiek apzīmēti kā "derīgie izrakteņi".

134. pants. Šīs daļas darbības sfēra

1. Šī daļa tiek piemērota attiecībā uz Rajonu.

2. Darbību Rajonā regulē šīs daļas noteikumi.

3. Prasības, kas attiecas uz karšu vai ģeogrāfisko koordināšu sarakstu, kas norāda 1.panta 1.punkta (1) apakšpunktā noteiktās robežas, nodošanu un publikāciju, ir izklāstītas VI daļā.

4. Nekas šajā pantā neietekmē kontinentālā šelfa ārējo robežu noteikšanu saskaņā ar VI daļu vai vienošanos spēkā esamību attiecībā uz delimitāciju starp valstīm ar pretējām vai līdzās esošām piekrastēm.

135. pants. Ūdeņu un gaisa telpas tiesiskais statuss

Nekas šajā daļā, ne arī citas ar šo daļu piešķirtās vai realizētās tiesības neietekmē ūdeņu, kas sedz Rajonu, vai gaisa telpas, kas atrodas virs šiem ūdeņiem, tiesisko statusu.

2. nodaļa. Rajonu pārvaldīšanas principi

136. pants. Cilvēces kopējais mantojums

Rajons un tā resursi ir cilvēces kopējais mantojums.

137. pants. Rajona un tā resursu tiesiskais statuss

1. Neviena valsts nevar pieprasīt vai realizēt suverenitāti vai suverēnas tiesības pār kādu Rajona daļu vai tā resursiem, ne arī jebkāda valsts vai fiziska vai juridiska persona var piesavināt kādu tā daļu. Netiek atzītas ne šāda veida pretenzijas vai suverenitāte vai suverēnu tiesību realizēšana, ne šāda piesavināšana.

2. Visas tiesības uz Rajona resursiem pieder visai cilvēcei kopumā, kuras vārdā Institūcija darbojas. Šie resursi netiek pakļauti atsavināšanai, tomēr derīgie izrakteņi, kas tiek iegūti Rajonā, var tikt atsavināti vienīgi saskaņā ar šo daļu un Institūcijas likumiem, noteikumiem un procedūrām.

3. Neviena valsts, fiziska vai juridiska persona nevar pretendēt, iegādāties vai realizēt tiesības attiecībā uz Rajonā iegūstamajiem derīgajiem izrakteņiem savādāk kā tikai saskaņā ar šo daļu. Pretējā gadījumā tāda veida pretenzijas uz šādām tiesībām, to iegādāšanās vai realizēšana netiek atzītas.

138. pants. Valstu vispārējā attieksme pret Rajonu

Valstu vispārējā rīcība attiecībā uz Rajonu tiek noteikta saskaņā ar šīs daļas noteikumiem, Apvienoto Nāciju Organizācijas Statūtos ietvertajiem principiem un citām starptautisko tiesību normām, kas ir miera un drošības saglabāšanas un starptautiskās sadarbības un savstarpējās sapratnes interesēs.

139. pants. Pienākums nodrošināt atbilstību likumam un zaudējumu atlīdzināšanu

1. Dalībvalstu pienākums ir nodrošināt, lai Rajonā veicamās darbības, ko realizē Dalībvalstis vai valsts uzņēmumi, vai fiziskas vai juridiskas personas, kurām ir Dalībvalsts valstiskā piederība vai kuras efektīvi kontrolē Dalībvalstis vai to pilsoņi, tiktu veiktas saskaņā ar šo daļu. Tāds pats pienākums ir piemērojams uz starptautiskajām organizācijām attiecībā uz darbībām Rajonā, ko šādas organizācijas veic.

2. Neierobežojot starptautisko tiesību un III pielikuma 22.panta normas, zaudējumi, ko nodarījusi kāda Dalībvalsts vai starptautiskā organizācija, ja tai nav izdevies izpildīt šajā daļā paredzētos pienākumus, izraisa atbildību; Dalībvalstīm vai starptautiskajām organizācijām, kuras darbojas kopīgi, ir kopēja un individuāla atbildība. Tomēr Dalībvalsts nav atbildīga par zaudējumiem, ko izraisījusi personas, par kuru tā ir galvojusi, pamatojoties uz 153.panta 2.punkta (b) apakšpunktu, šīs daļas noteikumu neievērošana, ja šī Dalībvalsts ir veikusi visus nepieciešamos un atbilstošos pasākumus, lai nodrošinātu efektīvu atbilstību 153.panta 4.punktam un III pielikuma 4.panta 4.punktam.

3. Dalībvalstis, kuras ir starptautisko organizāciju dalībnieces, veic atbilstošus pasākumus, lai nodrošinātu šī panta piemērošanu attiecībā uz šādām starptautiskajām organizācijām.

140. pants. Cilvēces labklājība

1. Aktivitātes Rajonā tiek realizētas, kā tas sevišķi ir paredzēts šajā daļā, visas cilvēces labā, neatkarīgi no valstu ģeogrāfiskās atrašanās vietas, vai tās atrodas pie jūras, vai tām nav izejas uz jūru, un īpaši ievērojot jaunattīstības valstu un tautu, kas nav ieguvušas pilnīgu neatkarību vai kādu citu pašpārvaldes statusu, ko atzinusi Apvienoto Nāciju organizācija saskaņā ar Ģenerālās Asamblejas 1514. (XV) rezolūciju un citām atbilstošajām Ģenerālās Asamblejas rezolūcijām, intereses un vajadzības.

2. Institūcija nodrošina finansu un citu ekonomisko labumu, kas tiek gūti no darbības Rajonā, vienlīdzīgu sadali ar jebkāda atbilstoša mehānisma starpniecību uz nediskriminējoša pamata, saskaņā ar 160.panta 2.punkta (f) (i) apakšpunktu.

141. pants. Rajona izmantošana tikai miermīlīgiem mērķiem

Rajons ir pieejams izmantošanai vienīgi miermīlīgiem mērķiem visām valstīm, gan piejūras, gan tām, kurām nav izejas uz jūru, bez diskriminācijas un neierobežojot citus šīs daļas noteikumus.

142. pants. Piekrastes valstu tiesības un likumīgās intereses

1. Rajonā veicamās darbības attiecībā uz resursu atradnēm Rajonā, kas atrodas arī vietējās jurisdikcijas ietvaros, tiek veiktas, pienācīgi ievērojot jebkuras piekrastes valsts, kuras jurisdikcijā šādas atradnes atrodas, tiesības un leģitīmās intereses.

2. Ar ieinteresēto valsti notiek konsultācijas, ieskaitot iepriekšēju paziņojumu sistēmu, ar mērķi novērst šo tiesību un interešu aizskaršanu. Gadījumos, kad Rajonā veiktās darbības var izraisīt resursu izmantošanu, kas atrodas nacionālajā jurisdikcijā, nepieciešama ieinteresētās piekrastes valsts iepriekšēja piekrišana.

3. Nekas šajā daļā, ne arī jebkādas tiesības, ko paredz vai kas realizējamas saskaņā ar to, neietekmē piejūras valstu tiesības veikt tādus ar XII daļas atbilstošajiem noteikumiem saskaņotus pasākumus, kas var būt nepieciešami, lai novērstu, samazinātu vai likvidētu nopietnus un nenovēršamus draudus to piekrastei vai ar to saistītajām interesēm, kas radušies piesārņošanas vai tās draudu vai citu bīstamu parādību, ko izsauc jebkura darbība Rajonā, rezultātā.

143. pants. Jūras zinātniskā izpēte

1. Jūras zinātniskā izpēte Rajonā tiek veikta tikai miermīlīgiem mērķiem un cilvēces labklājībai, saskaņā ar XIII daļu.

2. Institūcijai ir tiesības veikt jūras zinātnisko izpēti attiecībā uz Rajonu un tā resursiem, un slēgt līgumus šajā nolūkā. Institūcija veicina un atbalsta jūras zinātniskās izpētes veikšanu rajonā, un koordinē un izplata šādas izpētes un analīzes rezultātus, kad tie ir pieejami.

3. Dalībvalstis drīkst veikt jūras zinātnisko izpēti rajonā. Dalībvalstis veicina starptautisko sadarbību jūras zinātniskajā izpētē Rajonā sekojoši:

a) piedaloties starptautiskajās programmās un sekmējot dažādu valstu un Institūcijas personāla sadarbību jūras zinātniskās izpētes veikšanā;

b) nodrošinot, ka ar Institūcijas un citu starptautisko organizāciju starpniecību atkarībā no apstākļiem tiek izstrādātas programmas jaunattīstības valstu un tehniskajā ziņā mazāk attīstīto valstu labā;

i) nostiprinot to pētniecisko potenciālu;

ii) apmācot to personālu un Institūcijas personālu izpētes tehnoloģijās un piemērošanā;

iii) veicinot to kvalificētā personāla nodarbināšanu izpētē Rajonā.

c) efektīvi izplatot izpētes un analīzes rezultātus, kad tie ir pieejami, ar Institūcijas vai citu starptautisko kanālu starpniecību atkarībā no apstākļiem.

144. pants. Tehnoloģijas nodošana

1. Institūcija veic sekojošus pasākumus saskaņā ar šo Konvenciju:

a) iegūst tehnoloģijas un zinātniskās zināšanas attiecībā uz aktivitātēm Rajonā;

b) veicina un atbalsta tādu tehnoloģiju un zinātnisko zināšanu nodošanu jaunattīstības valstīm, lai visas Dalībvalstis gūtu no tām labumu.

2. Šajā nolūkā Institūcija un Dalībvalstis sadarbojas tehnoloģijas un zinātnisko zināšanu, kas attiecas uz aktivitātēm Rajonā, nodošanā, lai uzņēmums un visas Dalībvalstis gūtu no tā labumu. Pamatā tās ierosina un veicina:

a) programmas tehnoloģiju nodošanai uzņēmumam un jaunattīstības valstīm attiecībā uz aktivitātēm Rajonā, ieskaitot, cita starpā, uzņēmuma un jaunattīstības valstu atvieglotu piekļūšanu atbilstošajām tehnoloģijām uz taisnīgiem un saprātīgiem noteikumiem un nosacījumiem;

b) pasākumus, kas vērsti uz uzņēmuma un jaunattīstības valstu vietējo tehnoloģiju attīstību, īpaši uzņēmuma un jaunattīstības valstu personālam nodrošinot iespēju iziet apmācību jūras zinātnes un tehnoloģijas jomā un to pilnai līdzdalībai darbībā rajonā.

145. pants. Jūras vides aizsardzība

Saskaņā ar šo konvenciju ir veicami nepieciešamie pasākumi attiecībā uz aktivitātēm Rajonā, lai nodrošinātu jūras vides efektīvu aizsardzību no kaitīgām sekām, kas var rasties šo aktivitāšu rezultātā. Šajā nolūkā Institūcija pieņem attiecīgas normas, noteikumus un procedūras, tajā skaitā,:

a) jūras vides, tajā skaitā piekrastes, piesārņojuma vai cita tās apdraudējuma novēršanai, samazināšanai vai kontrolēšanai, un jūras vides ekoloģiskā līdzsvara izjaukšanas novēršanai, īpašu uzmanību pievēršot jūras vides aizsardzībai pret tādu darbības veidu kaitīgas ietekmes kā urbšana, zemes padziļināšana, grunts izņemšana, atkritumu pārstrāde, iekārtu, cauruļvadu un citu ar šādu darbību saistītu ierīču celtniecība un ekspluatācija vai tehniskā apkope;

b) rajona dabas resursu aizsargāšanai un saglabāšanai un jūras vides floras un faunas kaitējuma novēršanai.

146. pants. Cilvēka dzīvības aizsardzība

Attiecībā uz aktivitātēm rajonā tiek veikti nepieciešamie pasākumi, lai nodrošinātu cilvēka dzīvības efektīvu aizsardzību. Šajā nolūkā Institūcija pieņem atbilstošas normas, noteikumus un procedūras papildus jau esošajām starptautisko tiesību normām, ko satur attiecīgās vienošanās.

147. pants. Darbību saskaņošana rajonā un jūras vidē

1. Darbības rajonā tiek veiktas, saprātīgi ievērojot citas darbības jūras vidē.

2. Iekārtām, ko izmantot darbību veikšanai Rajonā, jāatbilst šādām prasībām:

a) šādas iekārtas montē, uzstāda un novāc tikai saskaņā ar šīs daļas noteikumiem un ievērojot Institūcijas normas, noteikumus un procedūras. Par šādu iekārtu montāžu, uzstādīšanu un novākšanu pienācīgā kārtā jāpaziņo, un jābūt pastāvīgiem līdzekļiem, kas brīdina par iekārtu esamību;

b) šādas iekārtas nedrīkst uzstādīt vietās, kur tās var radīt traucējumus atzītu jūras ceļu izmantošanā, kas ir svarīgi starptautiskajā kuģošanā, vai intensīvas zvejniecības rajonos;

c) ap šādām iekārtām tiek izveidotas drošības zonas ar attiecīgām zīmēm, lai nodrošinātu gan kuģošanas, gan iekārtu drošību. Šādu drošības zonu konfigurācijai un izvietojumam jābūt tādiem, lai tie neveidotu joslu, kas traucētu kuģu likumīgai pieejai konkrētām jūras zonām vai kuģošanai pa starptautiskajiem jūras ceļiem;

d) šīs iekārtas tiek izmantotas vienīgi miermīlīgiem mērķiem;

e) šīm iekārtām nav salu statuss. Tām nav savas teritoriālās jūras, un to esamība neietekmē teritoriālās jūras, ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas vai kontinentālā šelfa delimitāciju.

3. Citas darbības jūras vidē tiek veiktas, saprātīgi ievērojot darbības Rajonā.

148. pants. Jaunattīstības valstu līdzdalība darbībās rajonā

Jaunattīstības valstu efektīva līdzdalība darbībās Rajonā tiek sekmēta, kā tas konkrēti noteikts šajā daļā, pienācīgi ņemot vērā to īpašās intereses un vajadzības, it īpaši ņemot vērā to valstu vajadzības, kurām nav izejas uz jūru un kuras atrodas ģeogrāfiski neizdevīgā stāvoklī, lai pārvarētu šķēršļus, kas rodas to neizdevīgā stāvokļa dēļ, tajā skaitā atrautību no rajonu un pieejas jūrai un no tās.

149. pants. Arheoloģiskie un vēsturiskie objekti

Visi rajonā atrastie arheoloģiskie un vēsturiskie objekti tiek aizsargāti vai izmantoti visas cilvēces labā, īpašu uzmanību pievēršot izcelsmes valsts vai kultūras izcelsmes valsts, vai vēsturiskās un arheoloģiskās izcelsmes valsts priekšrocības tiesībām.

3. nodaļa. Rajona resursu apgūšana

150. pants. Politika attiecībā uz darbību Rajonā

Darbība Rajonā tiek veikta, kā to paredz šī daļa, tādā veidā, lai veicinātu pasaules ekonomikas veselīgu attīstību, starptautiskās tirdzniecības sabalansētu pieaugumu un stimulētu starptautisku sadarbību visu valstu, sevišķi jaunattīstības valstu vispusīgās interesēs, lai nodrošinātu:

a) Rajona resursu apgūšanu;

b) Rajona resursu sakārtotu, drošu un racionālu izmantošanu, ieskaitot efektīvu darbību Rajonā, un saskaņā ar saprātīgiem resursu saglabāšanas principiem nevajadzīgu zudumu novēršanu;

c) tādu darbību paplašināšanu, kuras atbilst 144. un 148.pantam;

d) Institūcijas piedalīšanos ienākumos un tehnoloģijas nodošanā uzņēmumam un jaunattīstības valstīm, kā to paredz šī konvencija;

e) Rajonā iegūstamo derīgo izrakteņu iegūšanas iespēju paplašināšanu pēc vajadzības, kopā ar derīgiem izrakteņiem, kurus iegūst no citiem avotiem, lai nodrošinātu patērētāju apgādi ar šiem derīgiem izrakteņiem;

f) taisnīgu un stabilu, ražotājiem izdevīgu un patērētājiem taisnīgu cenu derīgiem izrakteņiem, kurus iegūst kā Rajonā, tā arī no citiem avotiem, un sadarbību ilgtermiņa līdzsvarota pieprasījuma un piedāvājuma nodrošināšanai;

g) visu Dalībvalstu piedalīšanās iespēju paplašināšanu Rajona resursu apgūšanā neatkarīgi no to sociāli-ekonomiskās sistēmas vai ģeogrāfiskā stāvokļa, darbības monopolizācijas novēršanu Rajonā;

h) jaunattīstības valstu ekonomikas un eksportienākumu aizsargāšanu pret negatīvām sekām, kuras rodas attiecīgo derīgo izrakteņu veidu cenu pazemināšanās vai šāda veida derīgo izrakteņu eksporta apjoma samazināšanās rezultātā, tādā mērā, kādā šādu pazemināšanos vai samazināšanos izraisījusi darbība Rajonā, kā to paredz 151.pants;

i) kopējā mantojuma attīstīšanu visas cilvēces interesēs; un

j) tirgus pieejamības tādus noteikumus no Rajona resursiem iegūstamo derīgo izrakteņu importam un no šiem derīgiem izrakteņiem iegūstamo izejvielu importam, kuri nedrīkst būt labvēlīgāki par vislabvēlīgākajiem noteikumiem, kādus pielieto citu izejvielu importam.

151. pants. Ieguves politika

1. a) Neietekmējot 150.pantā izklāstītos mērķus un īstenojot šā panta (h) punktā noteikto, Institūcija ar esošo forumu vai citu jaunu vienošanos vai līgumu palīdzību, kas būtu piemēroti un kuros piedalās visas ieinteresētās puses, ieskaitot gan ražotājus, gan patērētājus, veic pasākumus, kas nepieciešami, lai veicinātu efektīvu un stabilu tādu izejvielu preču tirgu, kuras ražo no rajonā iegūstamiem derīgiem izrakteņiem, par cenām, kas izdevīgas ražotājam un taisnīgas patērētājam. Visas Dalībvalstis sadarbojas šo mērķu sasniegšanai.

b) Institūcijai ir tiesības piedalīties visās konferencēs, kas skar šādas preces un kurās piedalās visas ieinteresētās puses, ieskaitot gan ražotāju, gan patērētāju. Institūcijai ir tiesības kļūt par šādu konferenču rezultātā panāktas vienošanās vai līguma dalībnieci. Institūcijas piedalīšanās jebkurās iestādēs, kuras izveidotas saskaņā ar vienošanos vai līgumiem, attiecas uz ieguvi Rajonā un tiek īstenota saskaņā ar Institūciju attiecīgiem noteikumiem.

c) Institūcija veic savus pienākumus saskaņā ar šajā punktā minēto vienošanos vai līgumiem tādā veidā, lai nodrošinātu vienādu un nediskriminējošu izturēšanos pret visu attiecīgo derīgo izrakteņu ieguvi rajonā. Pie tam Institūcija darbojas tādā veidā, lai ievērotu uzņēmuma spēkā esošo līgumu un apstiprināto darba plānu noteikumus.

2. a) Starpperioda laikā, kas noteikts 3.punktā, komerciālā ieguve nesākas saskaņā ar apstiprināto darba plānu tik ilgi, kamēr darbu veicējs neiesniedz Institūcijai pieprasījumu un nesaņem no tās ieguves atļauju. Šādu ieguves atļauju nevar pieprasīt vai izsniegt vairāk nekā 5 gadus iepriekš pirms plānotās komerciālās ieguves sākuma saskaņā ar darba plānu, ja vien, ņemot vērā projekta izstrādāšanas raksturu un laiku, Institūcijas normas, noteikumi un procedūra nenosaka citu periodu.

b) Pieprasījumā izsniegt ieguves atļauju darbu veicējs norāda niķeļa gada apjomu, kuru paredzēts iegūt saskaņā ar apstiprināto darba plānu. Pieprasījumā iekļauj to izmaksu grafiku, kuras darbu veicējs sedz pēc šādas atļaujas saņemšanas, un kuru aprēķins balstās uz saprātīgu pamatojumu, lai ļautu viņam uzsākt komerciālo ieguvi paredzētajā laikā.

c) Lai nodrošinātu (a) un (b) punktu izpildi, Institūcija nosaka atbilstošas prasības darbu veikšanai saskaņā ar III pielikuma 17.pantu.

d) Institūcija izsniedz ieguves atļauju pieprasītajam ieguves apjomam, ja vien šā apjoma un agrāk apstiprināto apjomu summa nepārsniedz niķeļa ieguves galējās robežas, kas noteiktas saskaņā ar 4.punktu šīs atļaujas izdošanas gadā vai jebkurā plānotā ieguves gadā, kas ietilpst starpperiodā.

e) Pēc izsniegšanas ieguves atļauja un apstiprinātais iesniegums kļūst par apstiprinātā darba plāna daļu.

f) Ja darba veicēja pieprasījums piešķirt ieguves atļauju tiek noraidīts saskaņā ar (d) punktu, viņš jebkurā laikā no jauna var Institūcijai iesniegt šādu pieprasījumu.

3. Starpperiods sākas 5 gadus pirms tā gada pirmā janvāra, kurā saskaņā ar apstiprināto darba plānu paredzēts uzsākt pirmo komerciālo ieguvi. Ja pirmā komerciālā ieguve tiek atlikta uz kādu termiņu pēc sākotnēji ieplānotā gada, tad starpperioda sākums un sākotnēji aprēķinātais ieguves galējais apjoms tiek attiecīgi koriģēts. Starpperiods turpinās 25 gadus vai līdz 155.pantā minētās Pārskata konferences beigām, vai tik ilgi, kamēr stājas spēkā tādas jaunas vienošanās vai līgumi, kas minēti 1.punktā, atkarībā no tā, kurš no šiem termiņiem iestājas pirmais. Institūcija atkal iegūst pilnvaras, kuras paredz šis pants, uz atlikušo starpperiodu, ja beidzies doto vienošanos vai līgumu darbības laiks, vai ja tie kaut kādu iemeslu dēļ zaudējuši spēku.

4. a) Galējās ieguves robežas jebkuram starpperioda gadam ir summa, kuru veido:

i) starpība starp niķeļa patēriņa tendenču līkņu lielumiem, kuri aprēķināti saskaņā ar (b) apakšpunktu pirmā komerciālās ieguves gada iepriekšējam gadam un starpperioda sākuma gada iepriekšējam gadam; un

ii) sešdesmit procentu liela starpība starp niķeļa patēriņa tendenču līkņu lielumiem, kas aprēķināti saskaņā ar (b) apakšpunktu gadam, kuram tiek piemērota ieguves atļauja, un pirmā komerciālās ieguves gada iepriekšējam gadam.

b) Lai nodrošinātu (a) punktu:

i) tendences līknes lielumi, kuri izmantoti, lai aprēķinātu niķeļa ieguves galējās robežas, ir niķeļa gada patēriņa tendenču līknes tie lielumi, kas aprēķināti gadā, kad izdota ieguves atļauja. Tendences līkne tiek zīmēta, pamatojoties uz niķeļa faktiskā patēriņa logaritmu līnijveida regresiju pēdējo 15 gadu laikā, par kuriem ir šādi dati, pie kam laiks ir neatkarīgi mainīgs lielums. Šādu tendenču līkne jāuzskata par tendences sākotnējo līkni;

ii) ja tendences sākotnējās līknes gadskārtējais pieaugums ir mazāks par trim procentiem, tad tendenču līknes, kas izmantota, lai noteiktu (a) punktā minētos daudzumus, vietā būs līkne, kas iet caur sākotnējās tendences līkni, kura izsaka attiecīgā 15 gadu perioda pirmā gada lielumu un katru gadu pieaug par trīs procentiem; ar nosacījumu, ka ieguves galējā robeža, kas noteikta jebkuram starpperioda gadam, nekādā gadījumā nedrīkst pārsniegt starpību starp tendences sākotnējās līknes lielumu šim gadam un tendences sākotnējās līknes lielumu starpperioda sākuma gada iepriekšējam gadam.

5. Institūcija rezervē uzņēmuma sākotnējai ieguvei 38 000 metriskās tonnas niķeļa no pieejamās galējās ieguves lieluma, kas aprēķināts saskaņā ar 4.punktu.

6. a) Darbu veicējs jebkurā gadā var saražot mazāk par viņam izsniegtajā atļaujā par derīgo izrakteņu ikgadējo ieguvi no polimetāliskajām konkrēcijām noteikto līmeni vai līdz 8 % virs šī līmeņa ar nosacījumu, ka kopējais ieguves apjoms nepārsniedz atļaujā norādīto apjomu. Attiecībā uz jebkādu pārsniegumu virs 8% un līdz 20% gadā vai jebkādu pārsniegumu pirmajā gadā un turpmākajos gados, kas seko diviem pēc kārtas sekojošiem gadiem, kad notiek pārsniegums, tiek vestas sarunas ar Institūciju, kura var pieprasīt, lai darbu veicējs iegūst atļauju papildus ieguvei.

b) Institūcija izskata pieprasījumu par atļaujas izsniegšanu papildus ieguvei tikai pēc tam, kad pieņemti lēmumi par visiem darbu veicēju pieprasījumiem, kuri vēl nav saņēmuši ieguves atļaujas, un ņemot vērā citus iespējamos prasītājus. Institūcija vadās no tā, lai netiktu pārsniegts kopējais ieguve apjoms, kas atļauts, pamatojoties uz ieguves galējo robežu jebkurā starpperioda gadā. Tā neizsniedz ieguves atļaujas nevienam darba plānam, kurš pārsniedz 46 500 metrisko tonnu niķeļa gadā.

7. Citu metālu, tādu kā vara, kobalta, mangāna, kurus iegūst no polimetāliskām konkrēcijām, ieguves līmeņi, kurus apgūst saskaņā ar ieguves atļaujām, nedrīkst pārsniegt tos līmeņus, kas tiktu sasniegti, ja darbu veicējs būtu ieguvis no šīm konkrēcijām maksimālo daudzumu saskaņā ar šo pantu. Saskaņā ar III pielikuma 17.pantu Institūcija nosaka normas, noteikumus un procedūru, lai nodrošinātu šī punkta izpildi.

8. Tiesības un pienākumi netaisnīgas ekonomiskas prakses sakarā, kas izriet no attiecīgiem daudzpusīgiem tirdzniecības līgumiem, piemērojamas derīgo izrakteņu izpētei un ieguvei Rajonā. Lai noregulētu strīdus, kas rodas šo noteikumu sakarā, Dalībvalstis, kas ir šādu daudzpusīgu tirdzniecības līgumu puses, izmanto tādas strīdu izšķiršanas procedūras, kuras paredz attiecīgie līgumi.

9. Institūcijai ir tiesības ierobežot derīgo izrakteņu ieguves līmeni Rajonā, neskaitot derīgos izrakteņus, kurus iegūst no polimetāliskā konkrēcijām, saskaņā ar tādiem nosacījumiem un pielietojot tādas metodes, kuras varētu būt piemērojamas, paredzot noteikumus saskaņā ar 161.panta 8.punktu.

10. Pēc Padomes rekomendācijas, kura balstīta uz Ekonomiskās plānu komisijas piedāvājuma, Asambleja nosaka kompensācijas sistēmu vai veic citus pasākumus, kas veicinātu to jaunattīstības valstu ekonomikas pielāgošanu, kuru eksporta ienākumi vai ekonomika sastapusies ar nopietnām negatīvām sekām, kuru iemesls ir attiecīgo derīgo izrakteņu cenu pazemināšanās vai to eksporta apjoma samazināšanās tādā apmērā, kādā to izraisījusi darbība Rajonā, ieskaitot tādu sadarbību ar specializētiem uzņēmumiem un citām starptautiskām organizācijām, kas virzīta uz šiem mērķiem. Pēc attiecīga lūguma Institūcija sāk pētīt to valstu problēmas, kuras, domājams, varētu vissmagāk ciest, lai līdz minimumam samazinātu to grūtības un sniegtu tām palīdzību ekonomikas pielāgošanā.

152. pants. Institūcijas pilnvaru un funkciju īstenošana

1. Institūcija nepieļauj diskrimināciju, realizējot savas pilnvaras un funkcijas, tai skaitā piešķirot darbības iespējas Rajonā.

2. Tomēr ir pieļaujams, ka jaunattīstības valstīm, tai skaitā tām, kurām nav izejas uz jūru vai kuras atrodas ģeogrāfiski neizdevīgā stāvoklī, tiek pievērsta sevišķa uzmanība, kas speciāli paredzēts šajā daļā.

153. pants. Izpētes un ieguves sistēma

1.I nstitūcija organizē, veic un kontrolē darbību Rajonā visas cilvēces vārdā saskaņā ar šo pantu, kā arī citiem šīs daļas noteikumiem un attiecīgiem pielikumiem un Institūcijas normām, noteikumiem un procedūru.

2. Darbību Rajonā veic saskaņā ar 3.punktu:

a) uzņēmums un

b) Dalībvalstis kopā ar Institūciju vai attiecīgiem uzņēmumiem vai, gadījumā, ja Dalībvalstis galvojušas par tām, fiziskām un juridiskām personām, kurām ir Dalībvalstu pilsonība vai, kuras atrodas šo valstu vai to pilsoņu efektīvā kontrolē, vai ar jebkuru grupu, kas atbilst šīs daļas un III pielikuma prasībām.

3. Darbība Rajonā tiek veikta saskaņā ar oficiālu rakstisku darba plānu, kas sastādīts saskaņā ar III pielikumu un kuru apstiprinājusi Padome pēc tā izskatīšanas Juridiskajā un Ekonomikas komisijā. Gadījumā, ja darbību Rajonā veic Institūcijas pilnvarotas personas, kas noteiktas 2.punkta (b) apakšpunktā, darba plāns, saskaņā ar III pielikuma 3.pantu tiek sastādīts līguma formā. Šādi līgumi var paredzēt kopēju pasākumu veikšanu saskaņā ar III pielikuma 11.pantu.

4. Institūcija veic tādu darbības kontroli Rajonā, kas nepieciešama šīs daļas noteikumu un uz to attiecošos pielikumu un Institūcijas normu un procedūru, kā arī saskaņā ar 3.punktu apstiprināto darba plānu izpildīšanai. Dalībvalstis palīdz Institūcijai, veicot visus nepieciešamos pasākumus, nodrošināt šādu atbilstību saskaņā ar 139.pantu.

5. Institūcijai ir tiesības jebkurā laikā veikt jebkādus pasākumus, kurus paredz šī daļa, lai nodrošinātu tās noteikumu ievērošanu un veiktu kontroles un regulēšanas funkcijas, kas tai uzliktas saskaņā ar šo daļu vai ar jebkuru līgumu. Institūcijai ir tiesības veikt visu Rajonā esošo iekārtu, kuras tiek izmantotas sakarā ar darbību Rajonā, inspekciju.

6. Līgumā, kas noslēgts saskaņā ar 3.punktu, jāparedz līguma slēdzēja tiesību garantijas. Attiecīgi, līgumu nevar pārskatīt, apturēt vai atcelt citādi, kā vien saskaņā ar III pielikuma 18. un 19.pantu.

154. pants. Periodisks pārskats

Ik pēc pieciem gadiem pēc šīs Konvencijas stāšanās spēkā Asambleja veic vispārēju un sistemātisku pārskatu par to, kā Rajona starptautiskais režīms, kuru nosaka šī Konvencija, tiek īstenots praksē. Šī pārskata gaismā Asambleja var pieņemt un rekomendēt citām Institūcijām veikt pasākumus saskaņā ar šīs daļas un tās pielikumu, kas ļauj uzlabot šī režīma darbu, noteikumiem un procedūru.

155. pants. Pārskata konference

1. Kad beidzas 15 gadu periods, kas sākas no tā gada 1.janvāra, kad sākas pirmā komerciālā ieguve atbilstoši apstiprinātam darba plānam, Asambleja sasauc konferenci, lai apskatītu šīs daļas un uz to attiecošos pielikumu tos noteikumus, kas regulē Rajona resursu izpētes un ieguves sistēmu. Pārskata konference, ņemot vērā šajā periodā uzkrāto pieredzi, detalizēti apskata:

a) vai šīs daļas noteikumi, kuri regulē resursu izpētes un ieguves sistēmu Rajonā, sasnieguši savus mērķus visās jomās, ieskaitot to, vai tie nesuši labumu visai cilvēcei;

b) vai šajā 15 gadu laikā rezervētie Rajoni ir izstrādāti efektīvi un sabalansēti salīdzinājumā ar nerezervētiem rajoniem;

c) vai Rajona un resursu izstrāde un izmantošana notikusi tādā veidā, kas veicina pasaules ekonomikas veselīgu attīstību un starptautiskās tirdzniecības sabalansētu pieaugumu;

d) vai ir novērsta darbības monopolizācija Rajonā;

e) vai īstenota 150. un 151.pantā izklāstītā politika;

f) vai šī sistēma novedusi pie labumu taisnīgas sadales, kuri iegūti no darbības Rajonā, sevišķi ņemot vērā jaunattīstības valstu intereses un vajadzības.

2. Pārskata konference nodrošina vispārējā cilvēces mantojuma saglabāšanas principu, starptautisko režīmu, kas virzīts uz taisnīgu rajona resursu izstrādi par labu visām valstīm, it sevišķi jaunattīstības valstīm, un Institūciju, kas organizē un veic un kontrolē darbību Rajonā. Tā arī nodrošina tādu principu ievērošanu, kas noteikti šajā daļā attiecībā uz pretenziju nepieļaušanu vai suverenitātes realizēšanu pār jebkuru rajona daļu, valstu tiesībām un to vispārējo rīcību attiecībā pret Rajonu, un to piedalīšanos darbībās, kas tiek veiktas Rajonā saskaņā ar šo Konvenciju, darbības monopolizācijas nepieļaušanu rajonā, Rajona izmantošanu vienīgi mierlaika vajadzībām, Rajona darbības ekonomiskos aspektus, jūras pētījumus, tehnoloģiju nodošanu, jūras vides aizsardzību, cilvēka dzīvības aizsardzību, piejūras valstu tiesības, Rajonā esošo ūdeņu tiesisko statusu, kā arī virs šiem ūdeņiem esošās gaisa telpas tiesisko statusu un Rajonā veicamo darbību un citu darbību jūras vidē saskaņošanu.

3. Pārskata konferencē piemērojamā lēmumu pieņemšanas procedūra ir tāda pati, kā Apvienoto Nāciju Organizācijas trešajā konferencē par jūras tiesībām izmantotā. Konference velta visas pūles, lai jebkurā jautājumā par grozījumiem panāktu vienprātību, un balsošana nav jāpiedāvā tik ilgi, kamēr nav izsmeltas visas iespējas sasniegt vienprātību.

4. Ja piecu gadu laikā pēc Pārskata konferences sākuma tā nav panākusi vienošanos par Rajona resursu izpētes un ieguves sistēmu, Konference var turpmāko divpadsmit mēnešu laikā ar trīs ceturtdaļu Dalībvalstu balsīm pieņemt un iesniegt Dalībvalstīm ratificēšanai vai pieņemšanai šādus grozījumus, kas maina vai labo sistēmu, kā tā uzskata par nepieciešamu un atbilstošu. Šādi grozījumi stājas spēkā attiecībā uz visām Dalībvalstīm pēc divpadsmit mēnešiem no dienas, kad trīs ceturtdaļas Dalībvalstu deponējušas savus ratificēšanas vai pievienošanās instrumentus.

5. Grozījumi, kurus pieņēmusi Pārskata konference saskaņā ar šo pantu, neiespaido tiesības, kuras iegūtas saskaņā ar esošiem līgumiem.

4. nodaļa. Institūcija

A. Apakšnodaļa. Vispārīgie noteikumi

156. pants. Institūcijas nodibināšana

1.Ar šo tiek dibināta Starptautiska Institūcija par jūras dzīlēm, kura darbosies saskaņā ar šo daļu.

2. Visas Dalībvalstis ir Institūcijas biedri ipso facto.

3. Apvienoto Nāciju Organizācijas trešās konferences par jūras tiesībām novērotājiem, kuri parakstījuši Noslēguma aktu un kuri nav minēti 305.panta 1.punkta (c), (d), (e) vai (f) apakšpunktā, ir tiesības piedalīties Institūcijas darbā novērotāja statusā saskaņā ar tās normām, noteikumiem un procedūru.

4. Institūcijas atrašanās vieta ir Jamaika.

5. Institūcija var izveidot tādus reģionālos centrus vai nodaļas, kādus tā uzskata par nepieciešamiem savu funkciju veikšanai.

157. pants. Institūcijas būtība un pamatprincipi

1. Institūcija ir organizācija, ar kuras starpniecību Dalībvalstis saskaņā ar šo daļu organizē un kontrolē darbību Rajonā, sevišķi, lai vadītu tā resursus.

2. Institūcijai ir pilnvaras un funkcijas, kuras tai skaidri noteiktas saskaņā ar šo Konvenciju. Institūcijai ir tādas saprotamas, šai Konvencijai atbilstošas pilnvaras, kuras izriet no pilnvarām un funkcijām, kas saistītas ar darbību Rajonā, un ir nepieciešamas to īstenošanai.

3. Institūcija ir dibināta uz visu tās biedru suverenitātes principa.

4. Institūcijas visi biedri godprātīgi veic pienākumus, kurus tie uzņēmušies saskaņā ar šo daļu, lai katram no tiem nodrošinātu tiesības un priekšrocības, kas izriet no to dalības.

158. pants. Institūcijas iestādes

1. Ar šo tiek dibināta Asambleja, Padome un Sekretariāts kā Institūcijas galvenās iestādes.

2. Ar šo tiek dibināts uzņēmums, tā ir iestāde, ar kuras, starpniecību Institūcija veic 170. panta 1.punktā minētās funkcijas.

3. Saskaņā ar šo daļu var tikt nodibinātas nepieciešamās papildinstitūcijas.

4. Katras Institūcijas galvenā iestāde un uzņēmums atbild par tam piešķirto pilnvaru un funkciju veikšanu. Realizējot šādas pilnvaras un funkcijas, katra iestāde izvairās no tādu darbību veikšanas, kas varētu apgrūtināt citai iestādei piešķirto speciālo pilnvaru vai funkciju realizēšanu.

B. Apakšnodaļa. Asambleja

159. pants. Sastāvs, procedūra un balsošana

1. Asambleju veido visi Institūcijas biedri. Katram biedram Asamblejā ir viens pārstāvis, kam var būt vietnieki un padomnieki.

2. Asambleja sanāk uz kārtējām gada sesijām un uz speciālām sesijām, par kurām lēmumu pieņem Asambleja vai kuras sasauc Ģenerālsekretārs pēc Padomes vai Institūcijas biedru lielākās daļas lūguma.

3. Sesijas notiek Institūcijas atrašanās vietā, ja vien Asambleja nav pieņēmusi citu lēmumu.

4. Asambleja pieņem savus noteikumus par procedūru. Katras kārtējās sesijas sākumā tā ievēl prezidentu un citas atbildīgas personas, kas var izrādīties vajadzīgas. Viņi ieņem savus amatus tik ilgi, kamēr nākošās kārtējās sesijas laikā tiek ievēlēts jauns prezidents un citas amatpersonas.

5. Kvorumu veido Asamblejas biedru lielākā daļa.

6. Katram Asamblejas biedram ir viena balss.

7. Lēmumus procedūras jautājumos, ieskaitot lēmumus par Asamblejas speciālo sesiju sasaukšanu, pieņem ar balsošanā piedalījušos un balsojušo biedru balsu vairākumu.

8. Lēmumus par jautājumiem pēc būtības pieņem ar balsošanā piedalījušos biedru divu trešdaļu balsu vairākumu, ar nosacījumu, ka šis vairākums ietver šajā sesijā piedalījušos biedru vairākumu. Kad rodas jautājums par to, vai viens vai otrs jautājums ir jautājums pēc būtības, šāds jautājums tiek izskatīts pēc būtības, ja vien Asambleja ar balsu vairākumu, kas nepieciešams, lai izlemtu jautājumus pēc būtības, nepieņem citu lēmumu.

9. Kad jautājums pēc būtības tiek likts uz balsošanu pirmo reizi, priekšsēdētājs var, bet ja to prasa ne mazāk kā viena piektā daļa Asamblejas biedru, viņam jāatliek balsošana šajā jautājumā uz laiku, kas nav ilgāks par piecām kalendāra dienām. Attiecībā uz vienu jautājumu šo noteikumu var izmantot tikai vienu reizi, un to nevar izmantot tādā veidā, lai šī jautājuma izskatīšana tiktu atlikta uz laiku pēc sesijas beigām.

10. Saņemot rakstisku lūgumu, kas adresēts prezidentam un kuru iesniegusi vismaz viena ceturtā daļa Institūcijas biedru, konsultatīvu slēdzienu par to, vai Asamblejā izskatītais jautājums atbilst šai Konvencijai, Asambleja lūdz Starptautiskā tribunāla jūras tiesību jautājumos Jūras dibena Strīdu izšķiršanas palātu sniegt konsultatīvu slēdzienu šajā jautājumā un atliek balsošanu par šo priekšlikumu līdz konsultatīvā slēdziena saņemšanai no palātas. Ja konsultatīvais slēdziens netiek saņemts līdz tās sesijas pēdējai nedēļai, kuras laikā tas pieprasīts, Asambleja nolemj, kad tā sapulcēsies, lai balsotu par atlikto priekšlikumu.

160. pants. Pilnvaras un funkcijas

1. Asambleja, kas ir Institūcijas vienīgā iestāde, kura sastāv no visiem tās biedriem, tiek uzskatīta par Institūcijas augstāko iestādi, kurai atskaitās visas pārējās galvenās iestādes, kā to speciāli paredz šī Konvencija. Asamblejai ir pilnvaras saskaņā ar šās Konvencijas noteikumiem noteikt vispārēju politiku attiecībā uz jebkuru jautājumu vai problēmu Institūcijas kompetences ietvaros.

2. Bez tam Asamblejai ir šādas pilnvaras un funkcijas:

a) ievēlēt Padomes locekļus saskaņā ar 161.pantu;

b) ievēlēt Ģenerālsekretāru no Padomes ieteiktajiem kandidātiem;

c) ievēlēt uzņēmuma valdes locekļus un ģenerāldirektoru pēc Padomes ieteikumiem;

d) nodibināt tādas papildinstitūcijas, kādas tā uzskata par nepieciešamām savu funkciju veikšanai saskaņā ar šo daļu. Nosakot šādu papildinstitūciju sastāvu, tiek ievērots taisnīga ģeogrāfiskā sadalījuma princips, kā arī nepieciešamība pēc dalībniekiem ar augstu kvalifikāciju un zināšanām attiecīgos tehniskos jautājumos, ar kuriem nodarbojas šīs iestādes;

e) noteikt Dalībvalstu iemaksas Institūcijas administratīvajā budžetā atbilstoši saskaņotam iemaksu līmenim, kas pamatojas uz līmeni, kurš tiek izmantots Apvienoto Nāciju Organizācijas regulārajā budžetā, tik ilgi, kamēr Institūcija nesaņem pienācīgus ienākumus no citiem avotiem savu administratīvo izdevumu segšanai;

f) i) pēc Padomes ieteikuma, izskatīt un apstiprināt normas, noteikumus un procedūru finansu un citu no Rajonā veicamo darbību iegūto ekonomisko labumu sadalījumam, kā arī iemaksu atskaitījumiem, kuri tiek veikti saskaņā ar 82.pantu, sevišķi ņemot vērā jaunattīstības valstu un tautu, kuras vēl nav panākušas pilnīgu neatkarību vai kādu citu pašnoteikšanās statusu, intereses un vajadzības. Ja Asambleja neapstiprina Padomes ieteikumus, tā nosūta ieteikumus atpakaļ Padomei atkārtotai izskatīšanai, ņemot vērā Asamblejā izteiktos viedokļus;

ii) izskatīt un apstiprināt Institūcijas normas, noteikumus un procedūru, kā arī jebkādus to grozījumus, kurus Padome pieņēmusi uz laiku saskaņā ar 162.panta 2.punkta (o) (ii) apakšpunktu. Šīs normas, noteikumi un procedūra attiecas uz meklējumiem, izpēti un ieguvi Rajonā, finansu pārvaldīšanu un Institūcijas iekšējo administratīvo vadīšanu un pēc uzņēmuma valdes ieteikuma uz fondu nodošanu no uzņēmuma Institūcijai;

g) pieņemt lēmumus attiecībā uz finansu un citu no rajonā veicamās darbības iegūto ekonomisko labumu taisnīgu sadali, kas ir saskaņā ar šo Konvenciju, kā arī Institūcijas normām, noteikumiem un procedūru;

h) izskatīt un apstiprināt Padomes iesniegto paredzamo gada budžetu;

i) periodiski izskatīt Padomes un uzņēmuma ziņojumus un speciālus ziņojumus, kurus pieprasa no Padomes vai kāda cita Institūcijas iestāde;

j) organizēt pētījumus un sniegt rekomendācijas, lai veicinātu starptautisku sadarbību attiecībā uz darbību rajonā un starptautisko tiesību progresīvu attīstību šajā nozarē un tās kodificēšanu;

k) izskatīt vispārēja rakstura problēmas sakarā ar darbību Rajonā, ar kurām jāsastopas jaunattīstības valstīm, kā arī problēmas, kas saistītas ar darbību Rajonā, ar kurām valstīm jāsastopas ģeogrāfiskā stāvokļa dēļ, sevišķi tādām valstīm, kurām nav izejas uz jūru un kuras atrodas ģeogrāfiski neizdevīgā stāvoklī;

l) pēc Padomes rekomendācijas, kas pamatojas uz Ekonomikas plānošanas komisijas ieteikumu, izveidot kompensācijas vai citu ekonomiskas pielāgošanas sekmēšanas pasākumu sistēmu, kā to paredz 151.panta 10.punkts;

m) apturēt biedru tiesības un privilēģijas saskaņā ar 185.pantu;

n) apspriest jebkuru jautājumu vai problēmu, kas ir Institūcijas kompetencē, un pieņemt lēmumus par to, kura Institūcijas iestāde nodarbosies ar katra tāda jautājuma vai problēmas izskatīšanu, kas nav nodots konkrēti kādai noteiktai iestādei, saskaņā ar pilnvaru un funkciju sadalījumu Institūcijas iestāžu starpā.

C. Apakšnodaļa. Padome

161. pants. Sastāvs, procedūra un balsošanas kārtība

1. Padome sastāv no 36 Institūcijas locekļiem, kurus ievēl Asambleja šādā kārtībā:

a) četri pārstāvji no tām Dalībvalstīm, kuras pēdējo piecu gadu laikā saskaņā ar statistikas datiem attiecībā uz precēm, kas saražotas no Rajonā iegūstamo derīgo izrakteņu kategorijām vai nu patērēja vairāk nekā 2 procentus no kopējā pasaules patēriņa, vai kurām bija vairāk par 2 procentiem tīra importa no visa pasaules importa; jebkurā gadījumā viens pārstāvis ir no Austrumeiropas (sociālistiskā) reģiona, un viens vislielākais patērētājs;

b) četri pārstāvji no astoņām Dalībvalstīm, kuras ir izdarījušas vislielākos ieguldījumus kādu pasākumu sagatavošanā un īstenošanā Rajona ietvaros (tieši vai caur iedzīvotājiem), ieskaitot vismaz vienu pārstāvi no Austrumeiropas (sociālistiskā) reģiona;

c) četri pārstāvji no Dalībvalstīm, kuras, pateicoties ieguvei, kas atrodas viņu pakļautajās teritorijās, ir lielākie neto eksportētāji Rajonā iegūstamo derīgu izrakteņu kategorijām, ieskaitot vismaz divus pārstāvjus no jaunattīstības valstīm, kurām tādu izrakteņu eksports ir nozīmīgs valsts ekonomikai;

d) seši pārstāvji no īpašas intereses pārstāvošām jaunattīstības Dalībvalstīm. Īpašas intereses, kurām jābūt pārstāvētām ietver sevī valstu ar lielu iedzīvotāju skaitu, valstu, kurām nav brīvas izejas uz jūru vai ar neizdevīgu ģeogrāfisku izvietojumu, valstu, kuras ir vislielākie importētāji rajonā iegūstamo derīgo izrakteņu kategorijām, valstu šo derīgo izrakteņu potenciālo ražotāju un mazāk attīstīto valstu intereses;

e) astoņpadsmit pārstāvji tiek ievēlēti atbilstoši ģeogrāfiski taisnīgai vietu sadalei Padomē kopumā ar noteikumu, kas paredz, ka vismaz vienam pārstāvim no katra ģeogrāfiskā reģiona jābūt ievēlētam saskaņā ar šo apakšpunktu. Šim nolūkam tiek izdalīti: Āfrikas, Āzijas, Austrumeiropas (sociālistiskais), Latīņamerikas, Rietumeiropas un citu valstu ģeogrāfiskie reģioni.

2. Ievēlot Padomes locekļus saskaņā ar 1.punkta noteikumiem, Asambleja nodrošina, ka:

a) valstis, kurām nav brīvas izejas uz jūru un ģeogrāfiski neizdevīgi izvietotās valstis ir pārstāvētas proporcionāli viņu pārstāvniecībai Asamblejā;

b) piekrastes valstis, īpaši jaunattīstības valstis, kuras neatbilst 1.punkta (a), (b), (c) vai (d) apakšpunktu prasībām, ir saprātīgi pārstāvētas proporcionāli viņu pārstāvniecībai Asamblejā;

c) katra Dalībvalstu grupa ir pārstāvēta Padomē ar tiem locekļiem, kuru kandidatūras, ja tādas ir, ir izvirzījusi šī grupa;

3. Vēlēšanas notiek Asamblejas kārtējās sesijās. Katrs Padomes loceklis tiek ievēlēts uz četriem gadiem. Tomēr, ievēlot pirmo reizi, puse Padomes locekļu katrā 1.punktā minētajā grupā tiek ievēlēta uz diviem gadiem.

4. Padomes locekļi var tikt ievēlēti atkārtoti, bet jāņem vērā arī ievēlamo pārstāvju rotācija.

5. Padome strādā Institūcijas atrašanās vietā un sanāk tik bieži, cik to prasa Institūcijas vajadzības, bet ne retāk par trim reizēm gadā.

6. Kvorumu veido Padomes locekļu vairākums.

7. Katram Padomes loceklim ir viena balss.

8. a) Lēmumi par procedūras jautājumiem tiek pieņemti ar klātesošo un balsstiesīgo locekļu balsu vairākumu.

b) Lēmumi jautājumos pēc būtības, kuri rodas sakarā ar 162.panta 2.punkta (f), (g), (h), (i), (n), (p), (v) apakšpunktiem, 191.pantu, tiek pieņemti ar klātesošo un balsstiesīgo locekļu divu trešdaļu balsu vairākumu ar nosacījumu, ja tāds vairākums ietver sevī Padomes locekļu vairākumu.

c) Lēmumi jautājumos pēc būtības, kas rodas sakarā ar sekojošām normām, tiek pieņemti ar klātesošo un balsstiesīgo locekļu triju ceturtdaļu balsu vairākumu ar nosacījumu, ka tāds vairākums ietver sevī Padomes locekļu vairākumu: 162.panta 1.punkts, 162.panta 2.punkta (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (l), (q), (r), (s), (t) apakšpunkti; 162.panta 2.punkta (u) apakšpunkts līgumslēdzējas puses vai sponsora nepiekrišanas gadījumā; (w) apakšpunkta gadījumā, ja saskaņā ar to izdotās pavēles ir saistošas ne ilgāk par 30 dienām, kamēr tās nav apstiprinātas saskaņā ar apakšpunktu (d) pieņemtu lēmumu; 162.panta 2.punkta apakšpunkti x), y), z); 163.panta 2.punkts; 174.panta 3.punkts; IV pielikuma 11.pants.

d) Lēmumi jautājumos pēc būtības, kas attiecas uz sekojošiem noteikumiem: 162.panta 2.punkta (m) un (o) apakšpunkti; XI daļas grozījumi, var tikt pieņemti vienlaicīgi.

e) "Vienbalsīgi" (d), (f) un (g) apakšpunktu izpratnē nozīmē jebkādu oficiālu iebildumu neesamību. 14 dienu laikā no ierosinājuma iesniegšanas brīža Padomei, Padomes priekšsēdētājs noskaidro, vai varētu būt iebildumi ierosinājuma pieņemšanai Padomē. Ja priekšsēdētājs noskaidro, ka tādi iebildumi varētu būt, triju dienu laikā no tāda secinājuma izdarīšanas, priekšsēdētājs nozīmē un sasauc saskaņošanas komiteju, kas sastāv no ne vairāk kā deviņiem Padomes locekļiem priekšsēdētāja vadībā strīdīgu punktu pārstrādāšanai un tādu ierosinājumu izstrādāšanai, kas varētu tikt pieņemti vienbalsīgi. Komitejai jāstrādā ātri un jāatskaitās Padomei 14 dienu laikā no sasaukšanas brīža. Ja komiteja nevar piedāvāt ierosinājuma projektu, kas varētu tikt pieņemts vienbalsīgi, savā atskaitē komitejai jānorāda pamatojums, kāpēc ierosinājumiem var būt iebildumi.

f) Lēmumi jautājumos, kas nav norādīti augstāk, bet kurus Padome ir tiesīga lemt saskaņā ar Institūcijas normām, noteikumiem un procedūrām vai uz citiem pamatiem, tiek pieņemti saskaņā ar normās, noteikumos un procedūrās norādītiem šī punkta apakšpunktiem, vai, ja nav norādes, saskaņā ar apakšpunktu, kuru pēc iespējas iepriekš vienbalsīgi nosaka Padome.

g) Ja rodas šaubas, vai jautājums ir piekritīgs (a), (b), (c) vai (d) apakšpunktiem, uzskatāms, ka šis jautājums jārisina tā punkta kārtībā, kas prasa pārstāvju piekrišanu ar lielāku vairākumu vai vislielāko vairākumu vai vienbalsīgu lēmuma pieņemšanu, kamēr Padomes locekļu vairākums vai Padomes locekļi vienbalsīgi nenoteiks citādi.

9. Padome nosaka kārtību, saskaņā ar kuru Padomē nepārstāvēta Institūcija var atsūtīt savu pārstāvi uz Padomes sēdi, ja tāda Institūcija pieprasa to vai izskatāmais jautājums tieši skar šīs Institūcijas intereses. Tāds pārstāvis var piedalīties apspriedē, bet nevar balsot.

162. pants. Pilnvaras un funkcijas

1. Padome ir Institūcijas izpildorgāns. Padomei ir pilnvaras izstrādāt īpašas rīcības programmas saskaņā ar šo Konvenciju un Asamblejas izstrādātu vispārējo politiku, kas atbilst Institūcijas darbību virzieniem jautājumos, kas piekrīt Institūcijas kompetencei.

2. Bez tam Padome ir tiesīga:

(a) uzraudzīt un koordinēt šīs daļas noteikumu realizāciju visos jautājumos, kas piekrīt institūcijas kompetencei, un pievērst Asamblejas uzmanību neievērošanas gadījumos;

(b) iesniegt Asamblejai kandidātu sarakstu ievēlēšanai Ģenerālsekretāra amatā;

(c) rekomendēt Asamblejai kandidātus ievēlēšanai uzņēmuma pārvaldes locekļu un uzņēmuma Ģenerāldirektora amatos;

(d) nepieciešamības gadījumos un ievērojot ekonomiskuma un efektivitātes prasības, dibināt papildus Institūcijas, ja tas ir nepieciešams Padomes funkciju veikšanai saskaņā ar šo daļu. Nozīmējot papildus Institūcijas locekļus, akcents tiek likts uz to, ka ir nepieciešamība pēc kvalificētiem un kompetentiem locekļiem tehniskos jautājumos, ar kuriem ir jānodarbojas šai Institūcijai, ņemot vērā taisnīgas ģeogrāfiskās sadales un speciālu interešu principu;

(e) pieņemt noteikumus par darbības kārtību, tai skaitā, noteikt sava priekšsēdētāja ievēlēšanas kārtību;

(f) Institūcijas vārdā un savas kompetences ietvaros parakstīt ar Apvienoto Nāciju Organizāciju vai citām starptautiskajām organizācijām vienošanās, kuras jāapstiprina Asamblejā;

(g) izskatīt uzņēmuma pārskatus un nodot tos ar savām rekomendācijām Asamblejai;

(h) iesniegt Asamblejai ikgadējos pārskatus, kā arī tādas speciālas pārskatus, kādus var pieprasīt Asambleja;

(i) izdot norādījumus uzņēmumam saskaņā ar 170.pantu;

(j) apstiprināt darba plānus atbilstoši III pielikuma 6.pantam. Padome izskata katru darba plānu 60 dienu laikā no tā iesniegšanas dienas Juridiskajai un tehniskajai komisijai Padomes sesijas laikā šādā kārtībā:

(i) ja Komisija iesaka darbības plāna apstiprināšanu, tas uzskatāms par Padomē apstiprinātu, ja neviens no Padomes locekļiem 14 dienu laikā neiesniedz priekšsēdētājam īpašus rakstiskus iebildumus, kas pierāda plāna neatbilstību III pielikuma 6.panta prasībām. Ja ir iebildumi, ir piemērojama 161.panta 8.daļas (e) punktā norādītā saskaņošanas procedūra. Ja saskaņošanas procedūras beigās iebildumi ir saglabājušies, darbības plāns uzskatāms par Padomē apstiprinātu, kamēr Padome neatcels to ar Padomes locekļu vienbalsīgi pieņemtu lēmumu, neieskaitot valstis, kas iesniedza iebildumus vai finansēja iesniedzēju;

(ii) ja Komisija rekomendē neapstiprināt darba plānu vai nedod nekādas rekomendācijas, Padome var apstiprināt darba plānu, ja par to nobalso triju ceturtdaļu klātesošo un balsstiesīgo locekļu vairākums, ja tāds vairākums ietver sevī sesijā piedalījušos locekļu vairākumu;

(k) apstiprināt uzņēmuma iesniegtos darba plānus saskaņā ar IV pielikuma 12.pantu, piemērojot mutatis mutandis (j) apakšpunktā noteikto kārtību:

(l) īstenot kontroli pār Rajonā veicamām darbībām saskaņā ar 153.panta 4.punktu un Institūcijas normām, noteikumiem un procedūrām;

(m) veikt pēc Ekonomiskās Plānošanas komisijas rekomendācijas saņemšanas nepieciešamos un atbilstošus pasākumus saskaņā ar 150.panta h) punktu, lai nodrošinātu aizsardzību pret tajā norādītām nelabvēlīgām ekonomiskām sekām;

(n) Pamatojoties uz Ekonomiskās plānošanas komisijas ieteikumiem, iesniegt Asamblejai rekomendācijas, kuras nosaka kompensācijas sistēmu vai citus ekonomiskās pielāgošanās sekmēšanas pasākumus, kā tas ir noteikts 151.panta 10.punktā;

(o) (i) rekomendēt Asamblejai normas, noteikumus un procedūras par finansiālu un citu ekonomisku labumu taisnīgu sadali attiecībā pret tiem labumiem, kas ir iegūti no Rajonā veiktām darbībām un no 82.pantā noteiktā kārtībā iegūtiem maksājumiem un kontribūcijām, ņemot vērā jaunattīstības valstu un tautu, kas nav atguvušas pilnīgu neatkarību vai citu pašpārvaldes statusu, intereses un vajadzības;

(ii) apstiprināt un piemērot līdz Asamblejas apstiprinājuma saņemšanai pagaidu noteikumus, instrukcijas un procedūras attiecībā uz pārvaldes Institūciju un jebkādus to grozījumus, ņemot vērā Juridiskās un Tehniskās komisijas vai cita kompetentas padotās Institūcijas rekomendācijas. Šīs normas noteikumi un procedūras jāattiecina uz perspektīvu meklēšanu Rajonā, Rajona izpēti un ieguvi un Institūcijas finansiālu pārvaldi un iekšējo administrāciju. Prioritāte tiek dota normu, noteikumu un procedūru pieņemšanai, kas reglamentē polimetālu atradņu izpēti un ieguvi. Normas, noteikumi un procedūras, kas nosaka citu, nepolimetālu avotu izpēti un ieguvi, jāpieņem triju gadu laikā no Institūcijas jebkura locekļa pieprasījuma saņemšanas dienas par tādu normu noteikumu un procedūru apstiprināšanu attiecībā uz šo avotu. Visas normas noteikumi un procedūras paliek spēkā pagaidu līmenī, kamēr nav apstiprināti Asamblejā vai grozīti Padomē, pamatojoties uz viedokļiem, kas tika izteikti Asamblejā;

(p) uzraudzīt maksājumu iekasēšanu, kam ir jābūt izdarītiem no Institūcijas puses vai sakarā ar darbībām, paredzētām šajā daļā;

(q) veikt izvēli no pieteicēju skaita uz atļauju veikt ieguvi saskaņā ar III pielikuma 7.pantu, ja šāda izvēle ir paredzēta šajā normā;

(r) iesniegt Asamblejai apstiprināšanai Institūcijas gada budžetu;

(s) sniegt Asamblejai rekomendācijas par politikas jautājumiem vai citām politikas problēmām, kas ir Institūcijas kompetences ietvaros;

(t) sniegt Asamblejai rekomendācijas par tiesību un privilēģiju baudīšanas ierobežojumiem saskaņā ar 185.pantu, kas ir piešķirtas sakarā ar līdzdalību;

(u) Institūcijas vārdā iesniegt prasības pieteikumus Jūras dibena Strīdu izskatīšanas palātai neatbilstības gadījumos;

(v) ziņot Asamblejai par Jūras dibena Strīdu izskatīšanas palātas nolēmumiem prasības pieteikumos, kas iesniegti saskaņā ar (u) apakšpunktu, un dot jebkādas rekomendācijas, kādas tiek uzskatītas par nepieciešamām attiecībā uz veicamajiem pasākumiem;

(w) dot ārkārtējos apstākļos rīkojumus, kas var būt rīkojums par operāciju ierobežošanu vai regulēšanu nolūkā novērst nopietnu kaitējumu jūras videi, kuru var izraisīt darbības rajonā;

(x) neapstiprināt teritorijas izmantošanu no kontrahenta vai uzņēmuma puses gadījumā, ja reālie pierādījumi liecina par risku nodarīt nopietnu kaitējumu jūras videi;

(y) nozīmēt papildus Institūcijas finansu normu, noteikumu un procedūru projektu izstrādāšanai šādos jautājumos:

(i) finansiālā pārvaldīšana saskaņā ar 171.-175.panatu; un

(ii) finansu plānošana atbilstoši III pielikuma 13.pantam un 17.panta 1.punkta (c) apakšpunktam;

(z) izveidot atbilstošus mehānismus inspektoru štatu vadīšanai un uzraudzīšanai, kuri kontrolē darbības Rajona robežās nolūkā noteikt, vai ar Institūciju noslēgto līgumu noteikumi atbilst šīs daļas prasībām, Institūcijas normām, noteikumiem un procedūrām.

163. pants. Padomes Institūcijas

1. Tiek noteiktas šādas Padomes Institūcijas:

a) Ekonomiskās plānošanas komisija;

b) Juridiskā un Tehniskā komisija.

2. Katra komisija sastāv no 15 locekļiem, kurus ievēl Padome no Dalībvalstu izvirzītu kandidātu skaita.

3. Komisijas locekļiem jābūt nepieciešamai kvalifikācijai komisijas kompetences robežās. Dalībvalstīm jānozīmē visaugstākās kvalifikācijas un visgodīgākie kandidāti ar kvalifikāciju noteiktā jautājumā nolūkā nodrošināt efektīvu komisiju funkciju izpildi.

4. Ievēlot komisijai locekļus, pietiekoša uzmanība jāvelta taisnīgas ģeogrāfiskās sadales un speciālu interešu pārstāvības nepieciešamībai.

5. Katra Dalībvalsts var izvirzīt tikai vienu kandidātu katrai komisijai. Neviena persona nevar tikt ievēlēta vairākās komisijās.

6. Komisiju locekļi ieņem savus amatus uz pieciem gadiem. Viņi var tikt pārvēlēti arī turpmākajam termiņam.

7. Komisijas locekļa nāves, saslimšanas vai pirmstermiņa atlaišanas no amata pienākumu pildīšanas gadījumā, Padome ievēl locekli uz paliekošo laiku no tā paša ģeogrāfiskā reģiona vai pārstāvamo interešu sfēras.

8. Komisiju locekļiem nevar būt materiālās ieinteresētības jebkādās darbībās, kas saistītas ar Rajona izpēti un ieguvi. Attiecībā uz komisijas uzdevumiem, kuru veikšanai tā tika izveidota, locekļi nedrīkst izpaust, pat pēc funkciju izpildīšanas jebkādus industriālus noslēpumus, īpašuma datus, kas tika nodoti Institūcijai saskaņā ar III pielikuma 14.pantu, vai jebkādu citu konfidenciālu informāciju, kura kļuvusi viņiem zināma, pildot dienesta pienākumus Institūcijā.

9. Katra komisija veic savas funkcijas saskaņā ar norādījumiem un direktīvām, kuras var pieņemt Padome.

10. Katra komisija izstrādā un iesniedz Padomei apstiprināšanai tādas normas un noteikumus, kas var būt nepieciešamas komisijas funkciju efektīvai veikšanai.

11. Komisiju lēmumu pieņemšanas procedūru nosaka Institūcijas normas noteikumi un procedūras. Rekomendācijas Padomei, nepieciešamības gadījumā jāpapildina ar komisijas atšķirīgo viedokļu apkopojumu.

12. Parasti komisijas strādā Institūcijas atrašanās vietā un sanāk tik bieži, cik to pieprasa to funkciju normāla veikšana.

13. Veicot savas funkcijas, katra komisija var nepieciešamības gadījumos konsultēties ar citu komisiju, ANO kompetentu Institūciju vai tās īpašo aģentūru vai citu starptautisku organizāciju, kas ir kompetenta konsultējamā jautājumā.

164. pants. Ekonomiskās plānošanas komisija

1. Ekonomiskās plānošanas komisijas locekļiem jābūt atbilstošai kvalifikācijai jautājumos par izrakteņu avotu iestrādi, darbību ar tās vadīšanu, starptautisko tirgu vai starptautisko ekonomiku. Padomei jācenšas nodrošināt, lai visiem komisijas locekļiem būtu atbilstošā kvalifikācija. Komisijā darbojas vismaz 2 locekļi no jaunattīstības valstīm, kurās Rajonā iegūstamu izrakteņu kategoriju eksports ir nozīmīgs valsts ekonomikai.

2. Komisija ir tiesīga:

(a) pēc Padomes lūguma piedāvāt pasākumus lēmumu realizācijai, kas attiecas uz Rajonā veicamām darbībām saskaņā ar šo Konvenciju;

(b) izskatīt piedāvājuma un pieprasījuma attīstības tendences un to ietekmējošus faktorus un cenas uz Rajonā ražoto produkciju, kas tiek, ņemot vērā gan importētāju valstu, gan eksportētāju valstu intereses un īpaši tādu jaunattīstības valstu intereses;

(c) pārbaudīt jebkādas situācijas, kas var novest pie 150.panta (h) apakšpunktā norādītām nelabvēlīgām sekām, uz kurām komisijas uzmanību pievērš ieinteresētā Dalībvalsts vai Dalībvalstis, un dot attiecīgas rekomendācijas Padomei;

(d) kā ir noteikts 151.panta 10.punktā piedāvāt Padomei iesniegšanai Asamblejā kompensācijas sistēmu vai citus ekonomiskās regulēšanas palīdzības pasākumus jaunattīstības valstīm, kas cieš no sekām, kas rodas sakarā ar darbībām Rajonā. Komisija sniedz Padomei rekomendācijas, kas ir nepieciešamas atsevišķos gadījumos Asamblejas apstiprinātās sistēmas vai citu pasākumu piemērošanai.

165. pants. Juridiskā un Tehniskā komisija

1. Juridiskās un Tehniskās komisijas locekļiem jābūt atbilstošai kvalifikācijai jautājumos, kas ir saistīti ar izrakteņu atradņu izpēti, ieguvi un pārstrādi, okeanoloģiju, jūras vides aizsardzību vai ekonomiskos vai juridiskos jautājumos, kas ir saistīti ar okeāna dibena izstrādi un ekspertīzi. Padomei jācenšas nodrošināt, lai komisijā piedalījušiem locekļiem būtu atbilstoša kvalifikācija.

2. Komisija ir tiesīga:

(a) pēc Padomes pieprasījuma sniegt tai rekomendācijas, ņemot vērā Institūcijas veicamās funkcijas;

(b) saskaņā ar 153.panta 3.punktu izskatīt oficiālus rakstiskus darba plānus par darbības veikšanu Rajonā un iesniegt Padomei attiecīgas rekomendācijas. Komisija pamato savas rekomendācijas vienīgi uz III pielikumā norādītiem pamatojumiem un pēc tam pilnībā atskaitās Padomei;

(c) pēc Padomes pieprasījuma uzraudzīt darbības Rajonā, nepieciešamības gadījumos konsultējoties un strādājot kopā ar citām Institūcijām, kas nodarbojas ar tādām darbībām vai ar ieinteresēto valsti vai ieinteresētajām valstīm, un ziņot par to Padomei;

(d) sagatavot Rajonā veicamu darbību ietekmes novērtējumu uz ekoloģiju;

(e) sniegt rekomendācijas Padomei par jūras vides aizsardzību, ņemot vērā atzītu ekspertu viedokli šajā jautājumā;

(f) izstrādāt un iesniegt Padomei normas, noteikumus un procedūras, kas minētas 162.panta 2.punkta o) apakšpunktā, ņemot vērā visus nozīmīgos faktorus, ieskaitot Rajonā veicamu darbību ietekmi uz ekoloģiju;

(g) izskatīt šīs normas, noteikumus un procedūras no jauna un laiku pa laikam rekomendēt Padomei to grozījumus, ja tas ir vēlams vai nepieciešams;

(h) sniegt rekomendācijas Padomei par monitoringa programmu nozīmēšanu nolūkā oficiālā līmenī apskatīt, izmērīt, novērtēt un analizēt, izmantojot atzītas zinātnes metodes, jūras vides piesārņošanas risku vai sekas, ko ir izraisījušas darbības Rajonā, kā arī garantēt, ka esošie noteikumi ir adekvāti un nav pretrunā, un koordinēt Padomes apstiprinātās monitoringa programmas īstenošanu;

(i) rekomendēt Padomei, kādiem prasības pieteikumiem jābūt iesniegtiem Institūcijas vārdā Jūras dibena strīdu izskatīšanas palātai, saskaņā ar šo daļu un attiecīgiem pielikumiem, īpaši ņemot vērā 187.pantu.

(j) rekomendēt Padomei pasākumus, kurus jāveic atbilstoši Jūras dibena strīdu izskatīšanas palātas nolēmumiem, sakarā ar (i) apakšpunktā noteiktā kārtībā iesniegtiem prasības pieteikumiem;

(k) rekomendēt Padomei izdot ārkārtas apstākļos pavēles, kas var būt rīkojumi par rīcības ierobežošanu vai regulēšanu nolūkā novērst nopietnu kaitējumu jūras videi, kuru izraisa darbības Rajonā. Tādas rekomendācijas Padome pieņem uz prioritāra pamata;

(l) rekomendēt Padomei neapstiprināt teritorijas izmantošanu no kontrahenta vai uzņēmuma puses gadījumā, ja reālie pierādījumi liecina par risku nodarīt nopietnu kaitējumu jūras videi;

(m) rekomendēt Padomei inspektoru štata vadīšanu un uzraudzīšanu, kuri kontrolē darbības rajona robežās nolūkā noteikt vai līgumu ar Institūciju noteikumi atbilst šīs daļas prasībām, Institūcijas noteikumiem, instrukcijām un procedūrām;

(n) aprēķināt ieguves griestus un Institūcijas vārdā saskaņā ar 151.panta 2.-7.punktu izsniegt atļaujas veikt ieguvi pēc III pielikuma 7.panta prasībām atbilstošās nepieciešamās izvēles no pieteicēju skaita Padomes atļaujas saņemšanai.

3. Komisijas locekļu skaits jāpapildina sakarā ar jebkuras Dalībvalsts vai citas ieinteresētās puses pārstāvja lūgumu, ja tiek veiktas uzraudzības un inspekcijas funkcija.

D. Apakšnodaļa. Sekretariāts

166. pants. Sekretariāts

1. Institūcijas sekretariāta sastāvā ietilpst Ģenerālsekretārs un tādu darbinieku štats, kas Institūcijai varētu būt nepieciešams.

2. Asambleja ievēl Ģenerālsekretāru uz četriem gadiem no Padomes piedāvāto kandidātu skaita, un viņš var tikt ievēlēts no jauna.

3. Ģenerālsekretārs ir Institūcijas galvenā administratīvā amatpersona, un tādā lomā uzstājas visās Asamblejas, Padomes un citu papildinstitūciju sanāksmēs, kā arī veic citas administratīvās funkcijas, kuras viņam uztic augstāk norādītās Institūcijas.

4. Ģenerālsekretārs sagatavo Asamblejai gada atskaiti par Institūcijas darbību.

167. pants. Institūcijas personālsastāvs

1. Institūcijas personāls sastāv no kvalificētiem zinātniskajiem, tehniskajiem un citiem darbiniekiem, kas ir nepieciešams Institūcijas administratīvo funkciju veikšanai.

2. Galvenie noteikumi, pieņemot un nodarbinot personālu un nosakot tā darba apstākļus, ir nepieciešamība nodrošināt ražīguma, kompetences un godīguma augstāko pakāpi. Pietiekama uzmanība jāvelta nepieciešamībai nolīgt personālu no tik plašas ģeogrāfiskās teritorijas, cik tas iespējams.

3. Ģenerālsekretārs ieceļ personāla darbiniekus. Iecelšanas, darba apmaksas un atlaišanas noteikumus nosaka saskaņā ar Institūcijas normām, noteikumiem un procedūrām.

168. pants. Sekretariāta starptautiskais raksturs

1. Pildot savus pienākumus, ģenerālsekretāram un personālam nav jāmeklē vai jāsaņem norādījumi no kādas valdības vai citiem avotiem ārpus Institūcijas. Viņiem jāatturas no darbības, kas varētu ietekmēt viņu starptautisko amatpersonu stāvokli, kas ir atbildīgas tikai Institūcijas priekšā. Katra Dalībvalsts apņemas respektēt Ģenerālsekretāra un personāla pienākumu stingri starptautisko raksturu un nemēģināt ietekmēt viņus, pildot tiem savus dienesta pienākumus. Personāla jautājuma pienākumu pārkāpšana ir iesniedzama izskatīšanai attiecīgā administratīvā tribunālā atbilstoši Institūcijas noteikumiem, instrukcijām un procedūrām.

2. Ģenerālsekretāram un personālam nevar būt materiālās ieinteresētības jebkādās darbībās Rajonā, kas saistītas ar tā izpēti un ieguvi. Viņi nevar atklāt pat pēc savu pilnvaru laika izbeigšanas jebkādus industriālus noslēpumus, īpašuma datus, kuri tika nodoti Institūcijai saskaņā ar III pielikuma 14.pantu, vai jebkuru citu konfidenciālu informāciju, kura kļuvusi viņiem zināma sakarā ar darba pienākumu pildīšanu Institūcijā; par to viņi ir atbildīgi Institūcijas priekšā.

3. Gadījumā, ja Institūcijas darbinieks pārkāpj savas, 2.punktā norādītās saistības, viņa pārkāpums tiek iesniegts izskatīšanai Institūcijas normās, noteikumos un procedūrās noteiktajam tribunālam; to var pieprasīt Dalībvalsts, kuru skar šis pārkāpums, vai fiziskā vai juridiskā persona, kuru finansē Dalībvalsts 153.panta 2.punkta (b) apakšpunktā noteiktā kārtībā un kuru skar šis pārkāpums. Aizskartajai pusei ir tiesības piedalīties lietas izskatīšanā. Ģenerālsekretārs atlaiž darbinieku, ja to rekomendē tribunāls.

4. Institūcijas normām, noteikumiem un procedūrām ir jāietver nosacījumi, kas nepieciešami šī panta piemērošanai.

169. pants. Konsultēšanās un sadarbība ar starptautiskajām un nevalstiskajām organizācijām

1. Jautājumos, kas ir Institūcijas kompetencē, Ģenerālsekretārs paraksta attiecīgas vienošanās, kuras apstiprina Padome, par konsultēšanos un sadarbību ar ANO Ekonomisko un Sociālās Padomes atzītām starptautiskajām un nevalstiskajām organizācijām.

2. Organizācijas, ar kurām Ģenerālsekretārs ir parakstījis vienošanās saskaņā ar 1.punktu, var nozīmēt pārstāvjus, kuri var piedalīties Institūcijas iestāžu sanāksmēs kā novērotāji saskaņā ar šīs Institūcijas procedūras noteikumiem.

3. Ģenerālsekretārs var nosūtīt Dalībvalstīm rakstiskus 1.punktā minēto nevalstisko organizāciju ziņojumus par jautājumiem, kuros viņiem ir īpaša kompetence un kuri attiecās uz Institūcijas darbību.

E. Apakšnodaļa. Uzņēmums

170. pants. Uzņēmums

1. Uzņēmums ir Institūcijas iestāde, kas saskaņā ar 153.panta 2.punktu tieši veic darbības Rajonā, kā arī nodarbojas ar Rajonā iegūto derīgo izrakteņu transportēšanu, apstrādi un izplatīšanu.

2. Institūcijas starptautiskās tiesībsubjektības ietvaros uzņēmumam ir tāds juridisks statuss, kāds norādīts IV pielikumā. Uzņēmums darbojas saskaņā ar šo Konvenciju un Institūcijas izstrādātajām normām, noteikumiem un procedūru, ka arī Asamblejas izstrādāto vispārējo politiku, un ir pakļauts Padomes direktīvām un kontrolei.

3. Uzņēmuma galvenā mītne izvietota Institūcijas rezidencē.

4. Uzņēmums saskaņā ar 173.punkta 2.punktu un IV pielikumu tiek nodrošināts ar līdzekļiem, kas nepieciešami, lai pildītu savas funkcijas, un ar tādu tehnoloģiju, kā noteikts 144.pantā un Konvencijas citos noteikumos.

F. Apakšnodaļa. Finanses

171. pants. Pārvaldes fondi

Pārvaldes fondos ietilpst:

a) noteiktas Institūcijas dalībnieku iemaksas saskaņā ar 160.panta 2.punkta e) apakšpunktu

b) līdzekļi, ko Institūcija saņēmusi saskaņā ar III pielikumu, 13.pantu sakarā ar tās darbībām teritorijā;

c) līdzekļi, ko uzņēmums nodevis saskaņā ar IV pielikuma, 10.pantu;

d) aizņemtie līdzekļi saskaņā ar 174.pantu;

e) brīvprātīgās iemaksas, ko veikuši biedri vai citas personas;

f) maksājumi kompensāciju fondam saskaņā ar 151.panta 10.punktu, kura avotus rekomendē Ekonomikas plānošanas komisija.

172. pants. Institūcijas ikgadējais budžets

Ģenerālsekretārs izstrādā Institūcijas ikgadējo budžetu un iesniedz to Padomei. Padome izskata izstrādāto ikgadējo budžetu un iesniedz to Asamblejā kopā ar rekomendācijām. Asambleja izskata un apstiprina izstrādāto budžetu saskaņā ar 160. panta 2.punktu.

173. pants. Institūcijas izdevumi

1. Iemaksas, kas minētas 171.panta a) punktā, ir jāiemaksā speciālā kontā, lai segtu Institūcijas administratīvos izdevumus līdz brīdim, kad Institūcijai ir pietiekami līdzekļi no citiem avotiem šo izmaksu segšanai.

2. No Institūcijas fondiem pirmās tiek segtas administratīvās izmaksas. Izņemot noteiktās iemaksas, kas minētas 171.panta a) punktā, līdzekļi, kas paliek pēc administratīvo izmaksu segšanas, var, tai skaitā:

a) tikt sadalīti saskaņā ar 140.pantu un 160.panta 2.punkta (g) apakšpunktu;

b) tikt izlietoti, lai sniegtu uzņēmumam līdzekļus saskaņā ar 170.panta 2.punkta (g) apakšpunktu;

c) tikt izlietoti, lai izmaksātu kompensācijas jaunattīstības valstīm saskaņā ar 151.panta 10.punktu un 160.panta 2.punkta (1) apakšpunktu.

174. pants. Institūcijas aizņemšanās tiesības

1. Institūcijai ir tiesības aizņemties līdzekļus.

2. Asamblejai ir jānosaka limiti Institūcijas aizņemšanās tiesībām finansu noteikumos, kas pieņemti saskaņā ar 160.panta 2.punkta f) apakšpunktu.

3. Padome realizē Institūcijas aizņemšanās tiesības.

4. Dalībvalstis nav atbildīgas par Institūcijas parādiem.

175. pants. Ikgadējais audits

Institūcijas dokumenti, grāmatas un rēķini, tai skaitā tās ikgadējie finansiālie pārskati, ik gadu tiek pakļauti Asamblejas ieceltu neatkarīgu auditoru auditam.

G. Apakšnodaļa. Tiesiskais statuss, privilēģijas un imunitātes

176. pants. Juridiskais statuss

Institūcijai piemīt starptautiska tiesībsubjektība un tā bauda tādu tiesisko statusu, kas nepieciešams, lai izpildītu tās funkcijas un sasniegtu tās mērķus.

177. pants. Privilēģijas un imunitātes

Lai Institūcija izpildītu tās funkcijas, tai katras Dalībvalsts teritorijā jābauda tās privilēģijas un imunitātes, ko nosaka šī apakšnodaļa. Imunitātes un privilēģijas attiecībā uz uzņēmumu nosaka IV pielikuma 13. pants.

178. pants. Imunitāte pret jurisdikciju

Institūcija, tās īpašums un līdzekļi, bauda imunitāti pret jurisdikciju, izņemot, ja konkrētā gadījumā Institūcija atsakās no imunitātes.

179. pants. Imunitāte pret pārmeklēšanu un jebkura veida izņemšanu

Institūcijai, tās īpašumam un līdzekļiem neatkarīgi no tā, kur tie atrodas un kas to glabā, piemīt imunitāte pret pārmeklēšana, rekvizīciju, konfiskāciju, ekspropriāciju vai jebkuru cita veida izņemšanu, kas tiek veikta uz tiesu vai izpildvaras iestāžu lēmuma pamata.

180. pants. Atbrīvojumi no ierobežojumiem, priekšrakstiem, kontroles un moratorijiem

Institūcijas īpašums un līdzekļi nepakļaujas nekāda rakstura ierobežojumiem, noteikumiem, kontrolei un moratorijiem.

181. pants. Institūcijas arhīvi un oficiālie sakaru līdzekļi

1. Institūcijas arhīvi, neatkarīgi no tā, kur tie izvietoti, ir neaizskarami.

2. Dati, kas raksturo īpašumu, ieguves komercnoslēpumi un līdzīga informācija, kā arī personāllietas netiek ievietotas arhīvā, kas pakļauts sabiedriskai apskatei.

3. Attiecībā uz oficiāliem sakaru līdzekļiem, katra Dalībvalsts nodrošina Institūcijai ne mazāk labvēlīgu stāvokli, kā noteikts attiecībā uz citām starptautiskām organizācijām.

182. pants. Privilēģijas un imunitāte noteiktām personām, kas saistītas ar Institūciju

Dalībvalstu pārstāvji, kas piedalās Asamblejas, Padomes vai Asamblejas un Padomes Institūcijas tikšanās, kā arī Ģenerālsekretārs vai pārvaldes darbinieki, katras Dalībvalsts teritorijā bauda:

(a) imunitāti no juridiskā procesa attiecībā uz darbībām, ko tie veic, pildot to funkcijas, izņemot gadījumus, kad attiecīgi Dalībvalsts, ko tie pārstāv, vai Institūcija konkrētā gadījumā atceļ imunitāti;

(b) ja tie nav attiecīgo Dalībvalstu pilsoņi, tiem piemēro tādus pašus izņēmumus attiecībā uz imigrācijas ierobežojumiem, ārvalstnieku reģistrācijas noteikumiem un vietējo palīdzību, tādas pašas iespējas valūtas apmaiņai un tādu pašu regulējumu saistībā ar pārvietošanās noteikumiem, kādu valsts noteikusi attiecībā uz citu Dalībvalstu pārstāvjiem, amatpersonām vai atbilstoša līmeņa darbiniekiem.

183. pants. Atbrīvojumi no nodokļiem un muitas nodevām

1. Savu pilnvaru ietvaros, Institūcija, tās īpašumi un līdzekļi, tās ienākumi, un tās darbības un darījumi, uz ko pilnvaro šī Konvencija, netiek aplikti ar tiešajiem nodokļiem un preces, kas importētas vai eksportētas tās oficiālai lietošanai netiek apliktas ne ar kādām muitas nodevām. Institūcijai nav tiesību pieprasīt atbrīvojumu no nodokļiem, kas izpaužas kā samaksa par sniegtajiem pakalpojumiem.

2. Kad Institūcija pati vai tās vārdā iegādājas preces vai veic pakalpojumus ievērojamā vērtībā tās oficiālo darbību veikšanai un kad šādu preču vai pakalpojumu cenā ietilpst nodokļu un nodevu vērtība, Dalībvalstis veic praktiskus pasākumus, lai piemērotu atbrīvošanu no nodokļiem un nodevām vai paredz to atlīdzināšanu. Preces, kas importētas vai nopirktas, piemērojot šajā pantā paredzēto atbrīvošanu no nodokļiem, nedrīkst tikt pārdotas vai citādā veidā izlietotas Dalībvalsts teritorijā, kas atbrīvojusi no nodokļiem, izņemot gadījumus, par ko panākta vienošanās ar Dalībvalsti.

3. Dalībvalstis neapliek ne ar kādiem nodokļiem izmaksātās algas un ienākumus vai jebkādus citus maksājumus, ko Institūcijas izmaksā Ģenerālsekretāram un Institūcijas darbiniekiem, kā arī ekspertiem, kas veic Institūcijas uzdevumus un nav attiecīgo Dalībvalstu pilsoņi.

H. Apakšnodaļa. Dalībnieku tiesību un privilēģiju izlietošanas pārtraukšana

184. pants. Vēlēšanu tiesību īstenošanas pārtraukšana

Dalībvalstij, kas nav veikusi finansiālas iemaksas, tiek atņemtas balss tiesības, ja parāda summa sasniedz vai pārsniedz pienākošos maksājumus par diviem iepriekšējiem gadiem. Tomēr Asambleja var atļaut šādam dalībniekam balsot, ja pierādīts, ka maksājumi nav veikti no dalībnieka gribas neatkarīgu iemeslu dēļ.

185. pants. Dalības tiesību un privilēģiju īstenošanas pārtraukšana

1. Dalībvalstij, kas rupji un sistemātiski pārkāpj šīs daļas noteikumus, pēc Padomes ierosinājuma var tikt atņemtas tās tiesības un privilēģijas.

2. Nekāda darbība pamatojoties uz šā panta (1) punktu nevar tikt uzsākta kamēr Jūras dibena strīdu izskatīšanas palāta nav konstatējusi, ka Dalībvalsts pārkāpusi šīs daļas noteikumus.

5. nodaļa. Strīdu noregulēšana un konsultatīvie slēdzieni

186. pants. Jūras tiesību Jūras dibena strīdu izskatīšanas palāta

Jūras dibena strīdu izskatīšanas palātas dibināšanas kārtību un tās kompetenci nosaka šīs nodaļas noteikumi, XV daļa un VI pielikums.

187. pants. Jūras dibena strīdu izskatīšanas palātas kompetence

Saskaņā ar šo daļu un attiecīgiem Pielikumiem Jūras dibena strīdu izskatīšanas palātas kompetencē ietilpst risināt strīdus saistībā ar darbībām Rajonā šādās kategorijās:

(a) strīdi starp Dalībvalstīm sakarā ar šīs daļas un attiecīgu Pielikumu interpretāciju un piemērošanu;

(b) strīdi starp Dalībvalsti un Institūciju sakarā ar:

(i) Institūcijas vai Dalībvalsts darbību vai bezdarbību, kas, kā liecināts, ir pretrunā ar šo daļu vai Pielikumiem vai Institūcijas izstrādātajām normām, noteikumiem un procedūru; vai

(ii) Institūcijas darbību, kas kā liecināts, neietilpst tās kompetencē vai norāda uz pilnvaru ļaunprātīgu izmantošanu;

(c) strīdi starp līguma pusēm, esošajām Dalībvalstīm, Institūciju vai uzņēmumu, valsts uzņēmumiem un fiziskām vai juridiskām personām, kas minētas 153.panta 2.punkta b) apakšpunktā, sakarā ar:

(i) attiecīgā līguma vai darba plāna interpretāciju vai pielietošanu; vai

(ii) līguma pušu darbībām vai neizdarību saistībā ar darbībām Rajonā, kas vērstas pret otru pusi vai tieši skar tās likumīgās intereses;

(d) strīdi starp Institūciju un iespējamo kontrahentu, par ko galvojusi valsts, kā norādīts 153.panta 2.punkta (b) apakšpunktā un kas pilnībā izpildījis noteikumus, kas minēti III pielikumā, 4.panta 6.punktā un 13. panta 2.punktā, kas attiecas uz līguma noraidīšanu vai juridiska rakstura jautājumu, kas rodas līguma sarunu ceļā;

(e) strīdi starp Institūciju un Dalībvalsti, valsts uzņēmumu vai fizisku vai juridisku personu, par ko galvojusi Dalībvalsts kā noteikts 153.panta 2.punkta (b) apakšpunktā, kur norādīts, ka Institūcija uzņemas atbildību saskaņā ar III pielikuma 22.pantu;

(f) un citi strīdi, kas ietilpst Palātas kompetencē saskaņā ar Konvenciju.

188. pants. Strīdu nodošana speciālai Jūras tiesību starptautiskā tribunāla palātai vai ad hoc palātai Jūras dibena strīdu izskatīšanas palātā vai obligātajai komerciālai arbitrāžai

1. Strīdi starp Dalībvalstīm, kas minēti 187.panta (a) apakšpunktā, var tikt iesniegti:

(a) pēc strīda pušu lūguma speciālā Starptautiskā tribunāla jūras tiesību palātā, kura tiek izveidota saskaņā ar VI pielikumu 15. un 17.pantu; vai

(b) pēc jebkuras strīda puses lūguma, uz ad hoc Jūras dibena strīdu izskatīšanas palātu, kura tiek izveidota saskaņā ar VI pielikuma, 36.pantu.

2.(a) Strīdi, kas saistīti ar līguma interpretēšanu vai piemērošanu, kas minēti 187.panta (c) punkta (i) apakšpunktā pēc jebkuras strīda puses pieprasījuma, jāiesniedz obligātajai komerciālai šķīrējtiesai, ja vien puses nevienojas citādi. Komercšķīrējtiesas tribunālam, kuram strīds tiek iesniegts, nav tiesību izspriest jautājumu par šīs Konvencijas interpretēšanu. Gadījumos, kad strīds iekļauj jautājumu par XI daļas un pielikumu interpretēšanu attiecībā uz darbībām teritorijā, šis jautājums tiek nodots Jūras dibena strīdu izskatīšanas palātas izlemšanai.

(b) Ja šķīrējtiesai sākoties vai tās laikā, tā, vai nu pēc jebkuras strīda puses vai pēc pašas ieskatiem nolemj, ka tās lēmums būs balstīts uz Jūras dibena strīdu izskatīšanas palātas slēdzienu, šķīrējtiesai šāds jautājums jānodod Jūras dibena strīdu palātai. Pēc tā šķīrējtiesa pieņem lēmumu saskaņā ar Jūras dibena strīdu izskatīšanas palātas slēdzienu.

(c) Ja līgumā nav iekļauts noteikums par pieņemamo procedūru strīda gadījumā, šķīrējtiesai jānotiek saskaņā ar UNCITRAL šķīrējtiesas noteikumiem vai arī tādas šķīrējtiesas noteikumiem, kas balstītos uz Institūcijas normām, noteikumiem un procedūrām, ja vien puses nevienojas citādi.

189. pants. Kompetences ierobežojumi attiecībā uz Institūcijas lēmumiem

Jūras dibena strīdu izskatīšanas palātas kompetencē neietilpst jautājumi attiecībā uz Institūcijas pilnvaru izlietošanu saskaņā ar šo daļu. Neņemot vērā 191.pantu, veicot tās pilnvaras saskaņā ar 187.pantu, Jūras dibena strīdu izskatīšanas palāta nedrīkst lemt par to, vai kāda Institūcijas norma, noteikumi vai procedūra atsevišķos gadījumos ir saskaņā ar šo Konvenciju, ne arī pasludināt šādus noteikumus par spēkā neesošiem. Tās kompetence šādā gadījumā aprobežojas ar sūdzību izskatīšanu par to, ka kāda Institūcijas norma, noteikumi vai procedūra atsevišķos gadījumos ir pretrunā ar pušu līguma noteikumiem vai to pienākumiem saskaņā ar šo Konvenciju, sūdzību izskatīšanu sakarā ar kompetences pārkāpšanu vai pilnvaru ļaunprātīgu izmantošanu, un sūdzību izskatīšanu par nodarījumiem, kas jāatlīdzina, vai citu atlīdzību par līguma noteikumu vai Konvencijas noteikumu pārkāpšanu.

190. pants. Galvotāju Dalībvalstu piedalīšanās un iestāšanās procesā

1. Ja fiziska vai juridiska persona ir puse strīdam, kas minēts 187.pantā, par to jāinformē galvojošā valsts un tai ir tiesības piedalīties procesā, iesniedzot rakstiskus vai mutiskus ziņojumus.

2. Ja lietu ir uzsākusi fiziska vai juridiska persona pret Dalībvalsti, par ko galvojusi cita Dalībvalsts strīdā, kas minēts 187.panta (c) punktā, atbildētāja valsts var pieprasīt valstij, kas galvojusi par personu, arī piedalīties procesā šīs personas vārdā. Atteikuma gadījumā atbildētāja valsts var pieprasīt nodrošināt, ka to pārstāv šīs valsts juridiska persona.

191. pants. Konsultatīvās rekomendācijas

Jūras dibena strīdu izskatīšanas palātai ir jāsniedz konsultatīvas rekomendācijas pēc Asamblejas vai Padomes pieprasījuma par juridiskiem jautājumiem, kas rodas to darbības ietvaros. Šādas rekomendācijas jāsniedz steidzamā kārtā.

XII daļa. Jūras vides aizsardzība un saglabāšana

1. nodaļa. Vispārīgie noteikumi

192. pants. Vispārīgās saistības

Valstīm ir pienākums aizsargāt un saglabāt jūras vidi.

193. pants. Valstu suverēnās tiesības izmantot savus dabas resursus

Valstīm ir suverēnas tiesības lietot to dabas resursus saskaņā ar savu vides politiku un pienākumu aizsargāt un saglabāt jūras vidi.

194. pants. Pasākumi, kas vērsti uz jūras dabas vides piesārņojuma samazināšanu un kontroli

1. Valstīm, individuāli vai kopīgi, jāveic visi pasākumi saskaņā ar šo Konvenciju, kas nepieciešami, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu jūras vides piesārņojumu no jebkura avota, lietojot šim iemeslam vislabākos praktiskos līdzekļus, kas ir to rīcībā un saskaņā ar to iespējām, un tām ir jāpieliek visas pūles, lai harmonizētu to politika šajā sakarā.

2. Valstīm jāveic visi pasākumi, kas nepieciešami, lai pārliecinātos, ka to darbības saskaņā ar to kompetenci ir tā veiktas, ka nenodara kaitējumu citām valstīm un to videi, un, ka piesārņojums, kas rodas no negadījumiem vai darbībām saskaņā ar to kompetenci, vai, kas to kontrolē neizplatīsies ārpus teritorijas, kur tās realizē savas suverēnas tiesības saskaņā ar šo Konvenciju.

3. Saskaņā ar šo daļu pasākumi ir piemērojami jebkuriem jūras vides piesārņojuma avotiem. Šie pasākumi ietver, tai skaitā, tos, kas veikti, lai samazinātu lielāko iespējamo risku:

4. (a) toksisko, indīgo vai kaitīgo vielu izplūdei, it īpaši tām, kurām ir pastāvīgs raksturs, no zemes avotiem vai caur atmosfēru vai izgāztuvēm;

(b) piesārņojumam no kuģiem, veicot praktiskos pasākumus, lai novērstu negadījumus un katastrofas, nodrošinātu drošību darbībām jūrā, novērstu tīšu vai netīšu izplūšanu, kā arī regulētu kuģu dizainu, konstrukciju, ekipējumu, darbību un nodrošināšanu ar personālu;

(c) piesārņojumam no iekārtām un ierīcēm, kas lietotas jūras dibena un zemaugsnes kārtas dabīgo resursu pētniecībai un izmatošanai, veicot praktiskos pasākumus, lai novērstu negadījumus un katastrofas, nodrošinātu drošību darbībām jūrā, novērstu tīšu vai netīšu izplūšanu, kā arī regulētu šādu ierīču un iekārtu dizainu, konstrukciju, ekipējumu, darbību un nodrošināšanu ar personālu;

(d) piesārņojumiem no citām iekārtām un ierīcēm, kas darbojas jūras vidē, veicot praktiskus pasākumus, lai novērstu negadījumus un regulējot šādu iekārtu un ierīču dizainu, konstrukciju, ekipējumu, darbību un nodrošināšanu ar personālu.

4. Veicot pasākumus, lai novērstu, samazinātu vai kontrolētu jūras vides piesārņojumu, valstīm ir jāatturas iejaukšanās citu valstu darbībās, kas realizē savas tiesības un pienākumu saskaņā ar šo Konvenciju.

5. Pasākumi, kas veikti saskaņā ar šo daļu iekļauj tos, kas nepieciešami, lai aizsargātu un saglabātu retas un trauslas ekosistēmas, kā arī zivju sugu un cita veida jūras dzīvnieku, kuriem draud iznīcība, kuri ir iebaidīti vai kā citādi apdraudēti, dzīves vietas.

195. pants. Pienākums nepārvietot kaitējumu vai piesārņojumu un nepārvērst viena veida piesārņojumu citā

Veicot pasākumus, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu jūras vides piesārņojumu, valstīm ir jādarbojas tā, lai nepārvietotu, tieši vai netieši, kaitējumu vai postījumu no vienas telpas uz citu vai nepārveidotu vienu piesārņojuma veidu citā.

196. pants. Tehnoloģiju pielietošana vai jaunu veidu ieviešana

1. Valstīm jāveic visi pasākumi, kas nepieciešami, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu jūras vides piesārņojumu, ko izraisa tehnoloģiju pielietojums saskaņā ar to kompetenci vai kas ir to kontrolē vai, tiešu vai nejaušu, ārvalstu vai jaunu tehnoloģiju ieviešanu uz noteiktu jūras vides daļu, kas var izraisīt tai ievērojamas un kaitīgas pārmaiņas.

2. Šis pants neietekmē šīs Konvencijas pielietojumu attiecībā uz jūras vides piesārņojuma novēršanu, mazināšanu vai kontroli.

2. nodaļa. Globālā un reģionālā sadarbība

197. pants. Sadarbība reģionālā un globālā mērogā

Valstīm jāsadarbojas globālā mērogā un, cik nepieciešams, reģionālā mērogā, tieši vai ar kompetentu starptautisko organizāciju starpniecību, formulējot un izstrādājot starptautiskos noteikumus, standartus un ieteicamo praksi un procedūru saskaņā ar šo Konvenciju, lai aizsargātu un saglabātu jūras vidi, ņemot vērā raksturīgās reģionālās iezīmes.

198. pants. Paziņojums par draudošu vai notikušu negadījumu

Kad valsts atklāj gadījumus, kad jūras videi draud piesārņojuma briesmas vai tā ir piesārņota, tai nekavējoties jāpaziņo par to citām valstīm, kuras var skart šāds nodarījums, kā arī kompetentām starptautiskām organizācijām.

199. pants. Plāni piesārņojuma novēršanai

198.pantā minētajos gadījumos, valstis saskaņā ar tās iespējām, un kompetentās starptautiskās organizācijas sadarbojas piesārņojuma skartajā teritorija līdz zināmam līmenim, lai mazinātu piesārņojuma ietekmi un novērstu vai mazinātu nodarījumu. Šajā sakarā valstīm kopēji jāizstrādā un jāizvirza plāni, lai reaģētu uz piesārņojuma gadījumiem juras vidē.

200. pants. Pētnieciskais darbs, zinātniskās programmas, kā arī datu un informācijas apmaiņa

Valstīm ir jāsadarbojas, tieši vai ar kompetentu starptautisko organizāciju starpniecību ar nolūku veicināt pētniecisko darbu, veikt zinātnisku pētījumu programmas un veicināt informācijas un datu apmaiņu, kas iegūta par jūras vides piesārņojumu. Tām ir aktīvi jāpiedalās reģionālās un globālas programmās, lai iegūtu zināšanas, kas nepieciešamas dabas un tās piesārņojuma pakāpes, ietekmes uz to un tās attīstības, risku un līdzekļu novērtēšanai.

201. pants. Zinātniskie kritēriji attiecībā uz noteikumiem

Datu un informācijas iegūšanā saskaņā ar 200.pantu, valstīm jāsadarbojas, tieši vai ar kompetentu starptautisko organizāciju starpniecību, izstrādājot attiecīgus zinātniskus kritērijus, lai formulētu un izstrādātu noteikumus, standartus un ieteicamo praksi un procedūras jūras vides piesārņojuma novēršanai, mazināšanai un kontrolei.

3. nodaļa. Tehniskā palīdzība

202. pants. Zinātniskā un tehniskā palīdzība jaunattīstības valstīm

Valstīm tieši vai ar kompetentu starptautisko organizāciju palīdzību :

a) jāveicina palīdzības programmas jaunattīstības valstīm zinātnes, izglītības, tehnikas un citās sfērās, ar nolūku aizsargāt un saglabāt jūras vidi un novērst, mazināt un kontrolēt jūras vides piesārņošanu. Šāda palīdzība ietver:

i) to zinātniskā un tehniskā personāla apmācību;

ii) to piedalīšanās atbilstošo starptautisko programmu veicināšanu;

iii) to apgādāšanu ar nepieciešamo aprīkojumu;

iv) to spēju palielināšanu ražot šādu aprīkojumu;

v) konsultāciju sniegšanu un līdzekļu attīstīšanu, lai realizētu zinātnisko pētījumu, monitoringa, izglītības un citas programmas;

b) jāsniedz atbilstošu palīdzību, īpaši jaunattīstības valstīm, lai novērstu līdz minimumam lielu incidentu sekas, kuras var izraisīt pamatīgu jūras vides piesārņošanu;

c) jāsniedz atbilstoša palīdzība, īpaši jaunattīstības valstīm, attiecībā uz ekoloģisko novērtējumu sagatavošanu.

203. pants. Priekšrocības jaunattīstības valstīm

Jaunattīstības valstīm nolūkā novērst, mazināt un kontrolēt jūras vides piesārņošanu vai, lai novērstu līdz minimumam tās sekas, starptautiskās organizācijas piešķir priekšrocības:

a) atbilstošo fondu un tehniskās palīdzības sadalē; un

b) to speciālo pakalpojumu lietošanā.

4. nodaļa. Monitorings un ekoloģiskais novērtējums

204. pants. Piesārņojuma riska vai seku monitorings

1. Valstīm, rīkojoties saskaņā ar citu valstu tiesībām, jātiecas, cik vien tas praktiski iespējams, tieši vai ar starptautisko organizāciju palīdzību, ar atzītu zinātnisku metožu palīdzību veikt jūras vides piesārņošanas riska un seku novērošanu, mērīšanu, novērtēšanu un analīzi.

2. Valstīm, jo īpaši pastāvīgi jāseko jebkādu to veikto vai atļauto darbību sekām, lai noteiktu, vai šīs aktivitātes var novest pie jūras vides piesārņošanas.

205. pants. Ziņojumu publicēšana

Valstīm jāpublicē ziņojumi par saņemtajiem rezultātiem, izpildot 204.panta prasības vai jāiesniedz tādi ziņojumi noteiktā termiņā kompetentām starptautiskajām organizācijām, kurus tās padarīs pieejamus visām Dalībvalstīm.

206. pants. Darbības potenciālo seku novērtēšana

Kad valstīm ir pietiekams pamats uzskatīt, ka iecerētā darbība, kas ir to jurisdikcijā vai kontrolē, var izsaukt būtisku jūras vides piesārņojumu vai novest pie būtiskām kaitīgām izmaiņām tajā, tām, cik vien tas praktiski iespējams, jānovērtē šādas darbības potenciālās sekas attiecībā uz jūras vidi un jāziņo par šāda novērtējuma rezultātiem 205.pantā paredzētajā kārtībā.

5. nodaļa. Starptautiskās normas un nacionālā likumdošana par jūras vides piesārņošanas novēršanu, samazināšanu un kontroles nodrošināšanu

207. pants. Piesārņojums no sauszemes avotiem

1. Valstīm jāpieņem likumi un noteikumi, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu jūras vides piesārņojumu no sauszemes avotiem, tajā skaitā no upēm, upes grīvām, cauruļvadiem un ūdens vadīšanas ierīcēm, ņemot vērā starptautiskās normas, standartus un ieteicamās prakses un procedūras.

2. Valstīm jālieto citi pasākumi, kuri var būt nepieciešami, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu šādu piesārņojumu.

3. Valstīm jācenšas saskaņot savu politiku šajā izpratnē attiecīgajā reģionālajā līmenī.

4. Valstīm, pirmām kārtām, izmantojot kompetentas starptautiskas organizācijas vai diplomātisku konferenču starpniecību, jācenšas izveidot globālas un reģionālas normas, standartus un rekomendējošu praksi, un procedūras, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu jūras vides piesārņojumu no sauszemes avotiem, ņemot vērā raksturīgās reģionālās īpatnības, jaunattīstības valstu ekonomiskās iespējas un to nepieciešamību ekonomiski attīstīties. Šādas normas, standarti un rekomendējošā prakse un procedūras pēc nepieciešamības ir periodiski jāpārskata.

5. Likumiem, noteikumiem, pasākumiem, normām, standartiem, rekomendējošām praksēm un procedūrām, kas ir minētas 1., 2. un 4.punktā, jāietver norādījumi, kuri ir paredzēti, lai maksimāli samazinātu toksisko, kaitīgo un indīgo vielu, it īpaši nešķīstošo, noplūdes iespējamību jūras vidē.

208. pants. Piesārņojums no darbībām, kas tiek veiktas jūras dibenā saskaņā ar nacionālo likumdošanu

1. Piekrastes valstīm jāpieņem likumi un noteikumi, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu jūras vides piesārņojumu, kas izriet no vai ir saistīti ar darbībām jūras dibenā, kas ir to jurisdikcijā, un no mākslīgām salām, ierīcēm un celtnēm, kas ir to jurisdikcijā saskaņā ar 60.un 80.pantu.

2. Valstīm jāpielieto citi pasākumi, kuri var būt nepieciešami, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu šādu piesārņojumu.

3. Šādiem likumiem, noteikumiem, pasākumiem jābūt ne mazāk efektīgiem, kā starptautiskās normas, standarti un ieteicamā prakse, un procedūras.

4. Valstīm jācenšas harmonizēt savu politiku šādā izpratnē attiecīgajā reģionālajā līmenī.

5. Valstīm, pirmām kārtām, izmantojot kompetentas starptautiskas organizācijas vai diplomātiskās konferences starpniecību, jāizveido globālas un reģionālas normas, standarti un ieteicamā prakse un procedūras, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu jūras vides piesārņojumu, kas minēts 1.punktā. Šādas normas, standarti, ieteicamā prakse un procedūras pēc nepieciešamības periodiski ir jāpārskata.

209. pants. Piesārņojums no darbībām rajonā

1. Lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu jūras vides piesārņojumu, kas izriet no darbības Rajonā saskaņā ar XI daļu, jāizveido starptautiskās normas, noteikumi un procedūras. Šādas normas, noteikumi un procedūras pēc nepieciešamības periodiski jāpārskata.

2. Saskaņā ar šīs nodaļas nosacījumiem valstīm jāpieņem likumi un noteikumi, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu jūras vides piesārņojumu, kas izriet no darbības Rajonā, ko veic kuģi, ierīces, celtnes un citi mehānismi, kas kuģo ar to karogu vai ir reģistrēti tajās, vai izejot no apstākļiem darbojas to pakļautībā. Šādu likumu un noteikumu prasībām jābūt ne mazāk efektīgām, kā 1.daļā minētas starptautiskās normas, noteikumi un procedūras.

210. pants. Piesārņojums, kas rodas no atkritumu izgāšanas

1. Valstīm jāpieņem likumi un noteikumi, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu jūras vides piesārņojumu, kas rodas atkritumu izgāšanas rezultātā.

2. Valstīm jāpiemēro citi pasākumi, kuri varētu būt nepieciešami, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu šādu piesārņojumu.

3. Šādiem likumiem, noteikumiem un pasākumiem jānodrošina, lai atkritumu izgāšana netiktu veikta bez kompetentu valsts varas iestāžu atļaujas.

4. Valstīm, pirmām kārtām, izmantojot kompetentas starptautiskas organizācijas vai diplomātiskās konferences starpniecību, jācenšas izveidot globālas un reģionālas normas, standartus un ieteicamo praksi, un procedūras, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu šādu piesārņojumu. Šādas normas, standarti un ieteicamā prakse, un procedūras pēc nepieciešamības periodiski jāpārskata.

5. Atkritumu izgāšana teritoriālās jūras un ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas robežās vai kontinentālajā šelfā nedrīkst tikt veikta bez īpaši izteiktas piekrišanas no piekrastes valsts puses, kurai ir tiesības atļaut, regulēt un kontrolēt šādu atkritumu izgāšanu pēc pienācīgas šī jautājuma apspriešanas ar citām valstīm, uz kurām šāda atkritumu izgāšana var atstāt negatīvu iespaidu, sakarā ar to ģeogrāfisko stāvokli.

6. Nacionālajiem likumiem, noteikumiem un pasākumiem, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu šādu piesārņojumu, jābūt ne mazāk efektīgiem, kā globālajām normām un standartiem.

211. pants. Piesārņošana no kuģiem

1. Valstīm, pirmām kārtām, izmantojot kompetentas starptautiskas organizācijas vai diplomātiskās konferences starpniecību, jāizveido starptautiskas normas un standarti, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu jūras vides piesārņošanu no kuģiem un jāsadarbojas, lai tādā pašā veidā, pēc nepieciešamības, izveidotu ceļu sistēmu, lai līdz minimumam novērstu avāriju briesmas, kuras var izsaukt jūras vides piesārņošanu, ieskaitot piekrasti, un kaitējumu no piesārņošanas, kas saistīts ar piekrastu valstu interesēm. Šādas normas un standarti līdzīgā veidā, pēc nepieciešamības, ir periodiski jāpārskata.

2. Valstīm jāpieņem likumi un noteikumi, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu jūras vides piesārņošanu no kuģiem, kas kuģo ar to karogu vai reģistrēti tajās. Šādiem likumiem un noteikumiem jābūt vismaz tādam pašam efektam, kā vispārēji pieņemtām starptautiskām normām un standartiem, kas pieņemti kompetentā starptautiskā organizācijā vai vispārējā diplomātiskā konferencē.

3. Valstīm, kuras nosaka īpašas prasības, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu jūras vides piesārņošanu, kā nosacījumu ārvalstu kuģu ienākšanai to ostās vai iekšējos ūdeņos un, lai apstātos pie to piekrastes termināliem, sekojošā kārtībā jāpublicē šādas prasības un jāpaziņo tās kompetentai starptautiskai organizācijai. Gadījumos, kad divas vai vairākas piekrastes valstis, cenšoties harmonizēt savu politiku, nosaka šādas prasības identiskā formā, ziņojumos tiek norādīts, kuras valstis piedalās šādās kopējās vienošanās. Katra valsts pieprasa, lai kuģa, kas brauc ar tās karogu vai reģistrēts tajā, kapteinis, kad kuģis atrodas valsts, kas piedalās šādās kopējās vienošanās, teritoriālajā jūrā, sniedz pēc šīs valsts pieprasījuma informāciju par to, vai kuģis dodas uz tā paša reģiona valsti, kas piedalās šādās kopējās vienošanās, un, ja tas tā ir, jānorāda vai šis kuģis ievēro šīs valsts prasības, lai iebrauktu ostā. Šis pants neietekmē jautājumu par nepārtraukto kuģa caurbraukšanas tiesību izmantošanu vai 25.panta 2.punkta piemērošanu.

4. Piekrastes valstis, izmantojot savu suverenitāti savā teritoriālajā jūrā, drīkst pieņemt likumus un noteikumus, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu jūras vides piesārņošanu no ārvalstu kuģiem, ieskaitot kuģus, kuri izmanto mierīgās caurbraukšanas tiesības. Šādi likumi un noteikumi saskaņā ar II daļas 3.nodaļu nedrīkst traucēt mierīgu caurbraukšanu ārvalstu kuģiem.

5. Piekrastes valstis, lai īstenotu 6.nodaļā noteikto, drīkst pieņemt attiecībā uz savām ekskluzīvajām ekonomiskajām zonām likumus un noteikumus, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu piesārņošanu no kuģiem, kas atbilst vispārēji pieņemtām starptautiskām normām un standartiem, kurus pieņēmusi kompetenta starptautiskā organizācija vai vispārējā diplomātiskā konference, kas iedzīvina šādas normas un standartus.

6.(a) Kad 1.punktā minētās starptautiskās normas un standarti neatbilst īpašajiem apstākļiem, un piekrastes valstij ir pietiekams pamats ticēt, ka noteikts, skaidri iezīmēts tās ekskluzīvās ekonomiskās zonas rajons ir rajons, kur īpašu obligātu pasākumu pieņemšana ir nepieciešama, lai novērstu piesārņošanu no kuģiem pēc atzītiem tehniskiem iemesliem, kas ir saistīti ar tās okeonogrāfiskiem un ekoloģiskiem nosacījumiem, tāpat kā tā izmantošana vai tā resursu aizsardzība un tā īpašais kuģu kustības raksturs, piekrastes valsts pēc atbilstošām konsultācijām kompetentā starptautiskā organizācijā ar jebkuru citu ieinteresēto valsti, var attiecībā uz šo rajonu nosūtīt vēstījumu šai organizācijai, iesniedzot zinātniskus un tehniskus pierādījumus par labu tam, kā arī informāciju par nepieciešamajiem pasākumiem. 12 mēnešu laikā pēc šāda vēstījuma saņemšanas, organizācijai jānosaka, vai pastāv apstākļi šajā teritorijā atbilstoši augstāk minētajām prasībām. Ja organizācija tā nosaka, piekrastes valsts var pieņemt attiecībā uz šo rajonu likumus un noteikumus, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu piesārņošanu no kuģiem, īstenojot tādas starptautiskās normas un standartus vai kuģošanas praksi, kuru atzīst šī organizācija attiecībā uz speciālajām teritorijām. Šie likumi un noteikumi kļūst piemērojami ārvalstu kuģiem tikai pēc 15 mēnešiem no vēstījuma iesniegšanas organizācijai.

b) Piekrastes valstīm jāpublicē robežas jebkuram tādam noteiktam, skaidri iezīmētam rajonam.

c) Ja piekrastes valstis gatavojas pieņemt attiecībā uz šo rajonu papildus likumus un noteikumus, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu piesārņošanu no kuģiem, tām, iesniedzot augstākminēto vēstījumu, vienlaicīgi jāinformē par to organizācija. Šādi papildus likumi un noteikumi var skart noplūdi vai kuģošanas praksi, bet nedrīkst prasīt no ārvalstu kuģiem ievērot citus projektēšanas, konstrukciju, ekipāžas komplektēšanas vai iekārtu standarti, kā vispārpieņemtās starptautiskās normas un standarti; attiecībā uz ārvalstu kuģiem tie jāpiemēro, apritot 15 mēnešiem pēc minētā vēstījuma iesniegšanas organizācijai ar noteikumu, ka šī organizācija dos attiecībā uz to savu piekrišanu 12 mēnešu laikā pēc minētā vēstījuma iesniegšanas.

7. Šajā pantā minētajām starptautiskajām normām un standartiem vajadzētu ietvert, cita starpā, normas un standartus, kas attiecas uz nekavējošu piekrastes valstu, kuru piekraste vai ar to saistītās intereses var tikt skartas negadījumos, ieskaitot jūras avārijas, kas izraisa noplūdes vai noplūžu iespējas, informēšanu.

212. pants. Piesārņošana no atmosfēras vai caur to

1. Valstīm jāpieņem likumi un noteikumi, kuri ir piemērojami gaisa telpai, kas ir viņu suverenitātē, kuģiem, kas brauc ar to karogu un tajās reģistrētiem kuģiem vai gaisa kuģiem, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu jūras vides piesārņošanu no atmosfēras vai caur to, ņemot vērā starptautiskā kārtībā pieņemtās normas, standartus un rekomendējošo praksi, un procedūras, kā arī gaisa kuģošanas drošību.

2. Valstīm jāpieņem citi pasākumi, kuri var būt nepieciešami, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu šādu piesārņošanu.

3. Valstīm, pirmām kārtām, izmantojot kompetentas starptautiskās organizācijas vai diplomātiskās konferences starpniecību, jācenšas izveidot globālas un reģionālas normas, standartus un ieteicamo praksi, un procedūras, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu šādu piesārņošanu.

6. nodaļa. Izpildīšanas nodrošināšana

213. pants. Likumu un noteikumu, kas saistīti ar piesārņojumu no sauszemes avotiem, izpildīšana

Valstīm jānodrošina savu likumu un noteikumu, kuri pieņemti saskaņā ar 207.pantu, izpildīšana, un jāpieņem likumi, noteikumi un jāveic citi nepieciešamie pasākumi, lai iedzīvinātu piemērojamās starptautiskās normas un standartus, ko pieņēmušas kompetentas starptautiskās organizācijas vai diplomātiskā konference, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu jūras vides piesārņojumu no sauszemes avotiem.

214. pants. Likumu un noteikumu, kas saistīti ar piesārņojumu no darbībām jūras dibenā, izpildīšana

Valstīm jānodrošina savu likumu un noteikumu, kuri pieņemti saskaņā ar 208.pantu, izpildīšana un jāpieņem likumi un noteikumi un jāveic citi nepieciešamie pasākumi, lai piemērotu piemērojamās starptautiskās normas un standartus, ko pieņēmušas kompetentas starptautiskās organizācijas vai diplomātiskā konference, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu jūras vides piesārņojumu, kas rodas no (vai ir saistīts ar) darbībām jūras dibenā, kas ir to jurisdikcijā, un no mākslīgām salām, ierīcēm un celtnēm, kas ir to jurisdikcijā, saskaņā ar 60. un 80.pantu.

215. pants. Likumu un noteikumu izpildes nodrošināšana attiecībā uz piesārņojumu, kas saistīts ar darbībām Rajonā

Starptautiskās normas, noteikumus, procedūras, kas izveidoti saskaņā ar XI daļu, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu jūras vides piesārņojumu, kas ir saistīts ar darbību Rajonā, regulē minētā daļa.

216. pants. Likumu un noteikumu, kas saistīti ar atkritumu izgāšanu, izpildīšana

1. Likumu un noteikumu, kas ir pieņemti saskaņā ar šo Konvenciju, un piemērojamo starptautisko normu un standartu, ko ir pieņēmušas kompetentas starptautiskās organizācijas vai diplomātiskā konference, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu jūras vides piesārņojumu, izpildi regulē:

a) piekrastes valsts attiecībā uz atkritumu izgāšanu teritoriālajā jūrā vai ekskluzīvajā ekonomiskajā zonā, vai kontinentālajā šelfā;

b) karoga valsts attiecībā uz kuģiem, kas brauc ar tās karogu vai kuģiem un gaisa kuģiem, kas reģistrēti tajā;

c) jebkura valsts attiecībā uz atkritumu vai citu materiālu iekraušanu, kas tiek veikta tās teritorijā vai pie to piekrastes termināliem.

2. Nevienai valstij nav pienākums saskaņā ar šo pantu ierosināt tiesvedību, kad to jau saskaņā ar šo pantu ir sākusi cita valsts.

217. pants. Karoga valstu saistību izpildīšana

1. Valstīm jānodrošina kuģiem, kas kuģo ar to karogu vai reģistrēti tajās, piemērojamo starptautisko normu un standartu, ko izveidojusi kompetenta starptautiskā organizācija vai vispārēja diplomātiskā konference, un savu likumu un noteikumu, kas ir pieņemti saskaņā ar šo Konvenciju, lai novērstu, mazinātu un kontrolētu jūras vides piesārņojumu no kuģiem, izpilde, kā arī jāveic citi pasākumi to piemērošanai. Karoga valstīm jānodrošina šādu normu, standartu un noteikumu izpildīšana neatkarīgi no tā, kur noticis pārkāpums.

2. Valstīm, tajā skaitā, jāpieņem attiecīgi pasākumi ar mērķi, lai nodrošinātu, ka kuģiem, kas kuģo ar to karogu vai reģistrēti tajās, tiktu aizliegta kuģošana līdz tam laikam, kamēr tie nebūs kārtībā, lai izietu jūrā, ievērojot 1.punktā minētās prasības attiecībā uz kuģu projektēšanu, konstrukciju, iekārtu vai ekipāžas komplektēšanu.

3. Valstīm jānodrošina, lai kuģiem, kas kuģo ar to karogu vai reģistrēti tajās, uz borta būtu sertifikāti, kā to prasa 1.punktā minētās starptautiskās normas un standarti, un kas izdoti atbilstoši šīm normām un standartiem. Valstīm periodiski jānodrošina to kuģu apskate, lai pārbaudītu šādu sertifikātu atbilstību patiesajam stāvoklim uz kuģa. Šādi sertifikāti citām valstīm jāakceptē, kā dokumenti par stāvokli uz kuģa, un tie jāuzskata par dokumentiem, kam ir tāds pats spēks, kā sertifikātiem, ko tās pašas izsniedz, ja vien nav skaidra pamata uzskatīt, ka stāvoklis uz kuģa būtiski neatbilst šajos sertifikātos minētajiem datiem.

4. Ja kuģis izdara normu un standartu, ko ir pieņēmusi kompetenta starptautiskā organizācija vai vispārējā diplomātiskā konference, pārkāpumu, karogvalstij, neietekmējot 218., 220. un 228.pantu, jānodrošina nekavējoša izmeklēšana un, kad tas ir pieļaujams, jāierosina tiesvedību attiecībā uz iespējamo pārkāpumu, neatkarīgi no tā, kur izdarīts tāds pārkāpums vai, kur šāda pārkāpuma rezultātā ir noticis vai ir atklāts piesārņojums.

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